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THE 



PHILADELPHIA 



PHOTOGRAPHER. 



EDITED BY EDWARD L. WILSON". 



ATOLTTIMIIE VII. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

BENERMAN & WILSON, PUBLISHERS, 

S. W. COR. SEVENTH & CHERRY STREETS. 

18 70. 



Lit) 






A e , 







CAXTON PRESS. OF SHERMAN & CO., 
PHILADELPHIA. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC EMBELLISHMENTS. 



January. Photo-Relief Print. By Walter B. 
"Woodbury, London, England. 

February. "Blowing Bubbles. 7 ' Prize Pic- 
ture. By M. M. Griswold, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

March. Illustrative of Retouching the Nega- 
tive. By J. F. Ryder, Cleveland, Ohio. 

April. View in Central Park, New York. By 
H. J. Newton, New York. 

May. Cabinet Portrait. By Lcescher & 
Petsch, Berlin. 

June. "Rembrandt" Portrait. By William 
Kurtz, New York. 



July. "Shadow' 1 Portrait. By W. J. Baker, 

Buffalo, New York. 
August. Exhibition of the National Photo 

graphic Association. By T. T. Sweeney, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
September. Cabinet Portrait. ..By Adam Salo- 
mon, Paris, France. 
October. "Gems of German Life." By Lces 

cher & Petsch, Berlin. 
November. Cabinet Portrait. By Notman & 

Frazer, Toronto, Canada. 
December. " The Skating Carnival. " By Wil- 

'Ltam Notman, Montreal. 



ILLUSTRATIONS ON WOOD. 



The Holyoake Card Mount, ... 9 
The Prize Medals, . . . . .10 
Buehtel's Photographic Plate-Holder, . 15 
Hintson Cutting Out Stereograph Pictures, 16 
Bergner's Stereoscopic Print-Cutter, . . 19 
Coloring Magic Lantern Slides, . . .25 

Substitute for the Swing Back, ... 27 
Improved Photograph Washing-Tank, . 35 

Skylight 37 

The Camera, and How to Use it, . . 42 

Influence of Distance on Portraiture, 49, 50 

Kurtz's Filtering Apparatus, ... 57 
Portable Chemical-Room, . . 68 

Water-Tight Covering for Field Bath, . 70 
Knapp's Combined Camera- Adjuster and 

Copying-Stand, . . . . .73 
A Strong and Useful Tripod, ... 74 
New Atelier of Loescher & Petsch, Ber- 
lin, 89, 118, 119 

Retouching Frame, . . 92 

Rectifying the Nitrate Bath, ... 99 
A New Stereoscopic Camera, . . . 100 
Lewin's Dark-Tent, . . . . .111 

Hints for a New Dark-Tent, . . 114,115 
Burgess & Lenzi's Lightning Print-Cutting 

Table, 117 

Anderson's Background Frame. . . 129 

Effect of Distance and Wide Angle in Land- 
scape and Portrait Photography, 130, 131 
Cone for Solar Camera, .... 141 
Griswold's Adjustable Concave Reflector, . 146 
Kurtz's "Rembrandt Counter Reflector," . 150 



Glass Forceps, ...... 

Bookhout's Washing-Tank, 

Kurtz's Cone Backgrounds, . . 176 

Noss's Side Screen, .... 

Constructing the Roof of a Glass-House, 

Printing-Frame for Mezzotints or Aqua 

tints, ...... 

Upward and Downward Filtration, . 
Handkerchief Printing-Frame, . 
Ayres's Chart of Photographic Drapery, 
Inclining the Camera in Copying Statues, 
Whitney's Outside Blinds for dlass-Houses 
Useful Bark-Tents, .... 

Anderson's Still, .... 

Diagram — Slipping Film on Dry Plates, 
Save the Negatives, . 
Brooks's Improved Developer-Holder, 
Principle of the Stereoscope, 

Motes's Circular Background, . 

Retouching Solar Negatives, 

Brush for Blue-Frosting the Skylight, 

Equivalent Focus of a Lens, 

Photographic Still, .... 

Gradated Background, 

Blinds for Side-Light, 

Monogram Trade-Mark of the National 

Photographic Association, . 
Illustrating Moonlight Photography, 
The Sensible Camera-Stand, 
The Bulb Syringe, .... 
Sphynx, . . . 



PAGE 

154 
155 
177 

187 
191 

192 
199 
203 
216 
254 
297 
298 
306 
314 
318 
328 
346 
403 
353 
359 
364 
365 
395 
396 
398 

409 
411 
424 
428 
429 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Ancient Architecture of Southern India. . 428 
Announcement, Important, . . . 401 

Albert Process, The, . . . — i . 36 

Art Study in Photography 48 

Action of Lighting and Contrast, . . 84 

Ayres's Chart of Photographic Drapery, 216, 256 
Address to the National Photographic Asso- 
ciation by the Berlin Society, . . 258 
Address of the National Photographic Asso- 
ciation to the Berlin Society, . . 347 
Apprenticeship. I. B. Webster, . . 357 
Alburrienizing the Plate. Jex Bardwell, 358 
Acetic Acid, Impure. John C. Browne, . 378 
Acceleration of Exposures in the Camera, 

On the. M. Carey Lea, . . . 411 



Buchtel's Photographic Plate-Holder, . 15 

Burnt-in Photographs Prof. J. Towler. 

M.D., 

Bath, The Alkaline. P. Hawk, 
Berlin Process, .... 
Beethoven, Prang's Chromo of, . 
Bath, Rectifying the Nitrate. F 

cer, 

Bath, Permanganate of Potash in the Ni 

trate, .... ... 

Background Frame, Anderson's Patent, 
Background, Adam Salomon's. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson, ..... 390 

Berlin Process. Gr. Wharton Simpson, . 167 
Background, Kurtz's Cone, . . . 176 

Background, Motes's Circular, . . . 353 

Bath, Practical Method of Renovating an 

Old Silver. Prof. J. Towler, M.D., . 283 
Baths for Printing, On the Utilization of Old 

Negative. D Duncan, . . . 312 
Back Numbers Wanted, .... 349 
Background, One for all Gradations of Tints. 

0. Baratti, . ... 396 

Backing for Dry Plates. M. Carey Lea, . 427 

Bad Work, 404 

Backgrounds, Revolving. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 417 

Bulb Syringe, The. J. C. Browne, . . 427 



. 76 
84. 105, 190 
. 430 
W. Spen- 



121 
128 



Chloro-Bromide Process. M. Carey Lea, . 4 
Camera, The, and How to Use it. Geo. H. 

Fennemore, . . . . .41 

Chart of Photo Drapery, Ayres's, 216, 256, 407 
Chemical-Room, Portable. French & Saw- 
yer, ....... 68 

Combined Camera-Adjuster and Copying- 
Stand, Knapp's, ..... 73 



PAGE 

Copying Statuary in Varied Positions on 

One Plate. George W. White, . . 77 
Combination Negatives. G. Wharton Simp- 
son, 86 

Collodio-Bromide Process, On the Source of 
the Difficulties Presented by the. M. 

Carey Lea 134, 147 

Collodio-Bromide, Acidification of. M. 

Carey Lea, ..... 157 

Collodion, Accelerators in. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 165 

Collodion as a Varnish. E. K. Hough. . 193 
Collodio-Bromide Process. M. Carey Lea, 208, 

267, 312. 
Cleveland Exhibition, Some Remarks on the. 

Dr. H. Vogel, 259 

Carbon Eburneum Prints. G. Wharton 

Simpson, . . . . .266 

Copyright Law, The Photographic. . . 299 
Carbon Printing. G. Wharton Simpson, . 302 
Coating Plates. M. Carey Lea, . . 313 
Coating for Glass Plates, Preliminary. G. 

Wharton Simpson, .... 418 
Cracking of the Film and Remedies to Pre- 
vent it. Dr. H. Vogel, . . . 418 
Cotton, New Experiments on. Dr. H. 

Vogel, 419 

Cleveland Exhibition and the Good it Did, 425 

Cardboard, How Made 325 

Curious and Interesting Fact, . . . 347 

Chloride of Gold and Potassium, Double. 

G. Wharton Simpson, . . . 362 



Dry Process, Gordon's Gum Gallic. Prof. 

J. Towler. M.D., .... 7 
Dextrine as a Preservative against Splitting. 

Dr. H. Vogel, , 24 

Dark-Room, Green Glass in the. M. Carey 

Lea 33, 315 

Distance in Portraiture, On the Influence of. 

Dr. H. Vogel, 49 

Dry Plates. Keeping. G. Wharton Simp- 
son, 60 

Developer, Mixed Iron and Pyrogallic Acid. 

G. Wharton Simpson, . . .61 

Dark-Tent, Hints for a New. A. E. Le 

Merle 114 

Dark-Tent, Useful, 297 

Dry Plates, Development of. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 122 

Dr. Vogel 185, 274 

Dr. Vogel's Farewell to America, . . 322 

Dippers, Remarks on Silver. John M. 

Blake, 187 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Dark-Room, Yellow Glass in. Perambu- 
lator, 192 

Drapery, Ayres's Chart of Photographic, 216, 
256, 322, 407 

Decree, Copv of the (Shaw & Wilcox Co. 

Case) 256 

Dialogues, Photographic. Elbert Ander- 
son, . . 261, 285, 305, 354, 392, 405 

Dry Plates, Practical Value of. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson, ..... 266 

Dry Plates, Backing for. M. Carey Lea, 343 

Development. Alkaline. M. Carey Lea, . 289 

Development, Stopping. John M. Blake, 376 

Dry Plate Work, Prevention of Blistering, 

etc. M. Carey Lea, .... 314 

Developer-Holder, Brooks's Improved. W. 

R. Brooks, 328 

Development and Redevelopment, A Holder 

for. M. Carey Lea 377 

Dr. Vogel's Estimate of the Cleveland Exhi- 
bition 388 

Difficulties Overcome. Prop. J. Tow.er, . 414 



Exhibition, London Photographic Society. 21 
Editor's Table, 30, 63, 95, 142, 182, 222, 270, 

304, 334, 367, 399, 431. 
Enslaving a Sunbeam, . . . .40 

Exhibition of 1870, at Paris, ... 54 
Exhibition of 1870, at Paris. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 302 

Enlarging, Monckhoven's New Artificial 

Light for 59 

Enamel Photographs. Prof. J. Towler, 

M.D . . . 68, 102 

Explanation, An. Charles W. Hull, . 108 
Extracts from Our New Books, . . .120 

Eclipse, American Photographs of. G. 

Wharton Simpson, .... 125 
Effect of Distance and Wide Angle in Land- 
scape and Portrait Photography. Dr. 

H. Vogel 130 

Enlarging of Photographs with the Ordinary 

Camera. Prof. J. Towler, . ". 188 
.xecutive Committee National Photographic 

Association, .... 256, 273, 413 
Exhibitors. National Photographic Associa- 
tion, List of, 278 

Enlargements, Solar, 298 

Encaustic Paste, Another. G. Wharton 

Simpson, . 321 

Enlargements on Collodion Films. Prof. 

J. Towler 340 

Enlargements and Chromos, American, in 

Berlin. Dr. II. Vogel, . . . 371 
Exhibitions, Photographic, New York, St. 

Louis, Cincinnati, .... 3S2 

Eberneum Carbon Prints. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 266 



Ferrotypers' Association of Philadelphia,, 11, 54, 

78, I 10, 161, 214, 257, 293, 325, 387. 
Filtering Apparatus, Kurtz's. W. Kurtz, 57 
Filtering Collodion. M. Carev Lea, 
Foliage in Negatives, Improving.- G. Whar 

ton Simpson, .... 
Filtering Collodion and Viscous Solution 

G. Wharton Simpson, 
Formulae, California Working. A. J. Per 

kins, 195 

Fog Dispersing, The. Elbert Anderson, 203 



125 



I fill 



Film, Cracking of the, and Remedies to Pre- 
vent it. Dr. H. Vogel, . . . 418 

Film, Dissolving of the, during Varnishing, 

Dr. H. Vogel, 418 



Gum Gallic Dry Process, Gordon's Prof. 

J. Towler, M.D., .... 7 
German Correspondence. Dr. Hermann 

Vogel, 22, 48, 83, 129, 163, 253, 369, 418 
Group Pictures, On Failures in. Dr. H. 

Vogel, 129 

Genre Pictures. Dr. H. Vogel, . . 132 

Gathered Fragments. David Doncan, . 133 
Glass Forceps. John M. Blake. . 154 

Gun Cotton, New Discoveries Concerning. 

Dr. H. Vogel, 163 

Glass-House, Constructing the Roof of a. 

London Stone, ..... 191 
Glass-House, Whitney's Outside Blinds for. 

L. M. Whitney, 296 



Holyoake Card Mount, .... 9 
Holiday Number, . . . . . 186 
Handkerchief Printing-frame. Moore Bros. 203 



In a Fog. G. Wharton Simpson, . .211 
Inclining- the Camera, On the Effect of, etc. 

Dr."h. Vogel 253 

Intensifier, Bichloride of Mercury as .an. 

Jex Bardwell, . . . . . 310 
Intensity, Reducing. M. Carey Lea, . 342 
Important Announcement, . ''. . .401 



Keeping Silvered Albumen Paper. Dr. H. 
Vogel, 



83 



Lighting and Contrast, Action of. Dr. H. 

Vogel, 84 

Loeseher & Petsch's New Studio, . . 88, 117 
Lenses for Large Heads. Dr. H. Vogel, . 129 
Lichtdruck. G. Wharton Simpson, . . 264 
Letter from the Country. W. J. Baker, . 409 



Mosaics for 1870, . . . . 13, 62 

Mosaics for 1871, 408 

Magic Lantern Slides, Coloring, . . .24 

Mysteries of the New York Dark-Chambers, 55, 

71, 190. 
Monckhoven's New Artificial Light for En- 
larging. G. Wharton Simpson, . . 59 
Mounting Material, New. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 122 

Mounting without Cockling. G. Wharton 

Simpson, . *■ .212 

Magnesium Light. G. Wharton Simpson, 391 
Monogram Trade-Mark National Photogra- 
phic Association, The, .... 409 
Moulton's Solar Printing-Frame, . . 423 

Misplaced Confidence. D. B., . . . 423 



National Photographic Association, Annual 

Exhibition of, 1, 33, 48, 65, 66, 99, 1 13, 145, 
179, 185, 210, 225, 276. 

New Year, The, 1 



CONTENTS. 



vn 



New York Correspondence, 17, 51, 82, 158, 212, 
292. 

Notes In and Out of the Studio. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson, . . 20, 59, 85, 122, 
165, 210, 264, 301, 318, 359, 389, 416. 

Negative, How to Recover a Lost. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson, . . . . .22 

Negatives, Durability of the. Dr. H. Vogel, 23 

Negatives, The Varnishing of Under-ex- 
posed. Dr. H. Vogel, . . .24 

Novelty, A. David Duncan, . . .36 

Negatives, After-Intensification of. John 

C. Browne, ..... 72 

Negatives, Keeping. Dr. H. Vogel, . 83 

Negatives, Manipulation of Wet or Dry. 

M. Carey Lea, . . ... . 344 

Nationality of Photographic Discovery. G. 

Wharton Simpson, . . . .85 

National Photographic Association, Pro- 
ceedings of, . . . . . . 226 

National Photographic Association, Execu- 
tive Committee, . . . 256, 273, 413 

National Photographic Association, Address 

by German Photographic Society, . 258 

National Photographic Association, Address 

to German Photographic Society, . 347 

National Photographic Exhibition, some re- 
marks on, . . . . . . 259 

National Photographic Association, Mem- 
bers, List of, 291 

National Photographic Association. G. 

Wharton Simpson 301 

National Photographic Association, Third 

Annual Exhibition of, . . . 369, 424 

Nitrate, Dissolving the. M. Carey Lea, . 313 

Negatives, Save the, . . . . . 318 

Niepce De St. Victor, .... 274, 353 

Negativesfor Retouching, On the Production 

of Proper. William Bell, . . 372 

New Size in California, The. W. H. Ru- 

loeson, 407 

Negatives, Reproduction of. G. Wharton 
Simpson, 416 

Our Picture, 2, 58, 92, 139, 177, 216, 269, 276, 
333, 337, 399, 428. 

Old Times. E. L. Allen 46 

One Hundred Days in a Fog. Elbert An- 
derson, 106, 151, 162. 

Obernetter's Printing Process. Dr. H. Vo- 
gel, 419 

Prize Medals, The 9 

Patents, New, . . . . 10, 91, 109 

Photographic Society of Philadelphia, 11, 53, 77, 

110, 159, 257, 387, 421. 
Photographic Society of New England, 12, 81, 

112, 160, 214, 350. 
Photographic Society of St. Louis, . . 352 
Photographic Society of Northern Ohio, . 13 
Photographic Society of New York, German, 

111, 422 
Pictorial Effect in Photography, . . .14 

Plate-Holder, Buchtel's Photographic. H. 

P. Buchtel, 15 

Print-Cutter, Bergner's Stereoscopic, . . 19 

Portraiture, Idealism in. G. Wharton 
Simpson, ...... 21 

Paper, Silvered, that will keep. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson 22 

Photo-Relief Prints, The Expense of. G. 

Wharton Simpson, . . . .22 



Photo-Relief Prints and Photo-Collographs. 

G. Wharton Simpson, . . . 359 

Photographic World, The, 26, 62, 94, 141, 182, 
303, 332, 366. 

Prize for Solar Negatives, . . . 43, 65 

Photo-Mechanical Printing Process. G. 

Wharton Simpson 59 

Photo-Mechanical Printing Process, Rye's. 

G. Wharton Simpson, . . . 361 

Print-Cutting Table, Burgess <fc Lenzi's Pat- 
ent, 116 

Permanganate of Potash in the Nitrate 

Bath. J. Lee Knight, . . .121 

Photography in Colors. Dr. H. Vogel, . 163 

Photography from a Business Point of View. 

Daniel Bendann, .... 348 

Photographic Engraving Process. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson 166 

Photo- Crayons. Prize for, . . .168, 209 

Photo-Crayons, Toning and Coloring. G. 
Wharton Simpson, .... 301 

Printing-frame for Mezzotints or Aquatints. 

F. Clark .192 

Photography an Aid to Painting and Chro- 

mo-lithography, . . . . .193 
Prizes, Our Next, ,. . 209, 258, 274, 337 
Photo-Mechanical Printing Processes in Eu- 
rope. G. Wharton Simpson, . . 210 
Pinholes, Simple Remedy for. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson, 212 

Photographic Drapery, Ayres's Chart of, 216, 256. 

322 
Photo-Collographic Process, Obernetter's. 

G. Wharton Simpson, . . . 264 
Photo-Collographic Process, Practical De- 
tails of. G. Wharton Simpson, . . 360 

Platinum Toning. G. Wharton Simpson, 266, 

319. 
Pennsylvania Photographic Association, 292, 

349, 386, 420. 
Photo-Relief Printing Process. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson, 302. 

Photographic Subjects, On Various. M. 

Carey Lea, . . . .312, 342 

Postage on Photographs, .... 323 
Patent Office Drawings, .... 32.7 
Photo-Crayon Process, .... 352 

Photographic Society, Central Ohio, . 353 

Photography and War. Dr. H. Vog*el, . 369 
Photography and War. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 389 

Photographs of the Protuberances on the 

Sun, without an Eclipse, . . . 375 
Photography in Baltimore, . . . 386 

Portraits, Bi-Medallion. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 391 

Prizes, Award of the, . . . . . 395 

Photographers and War. Dr. H. Vogel. . 418. 
Premiums, The Fair, . . . . .422 

Prize Prints, The, .. ■ . . .425 



Retouching before Varnishing. Dr. H. 

Vogel, 24 

Retouched Pictures, To Separate from the 

Mounts. Dr. H. Vogel, . . .23 
Retouching Negatives. G. Wharton. Simp- 
son, 125 

Retouching Negatives. J. Grasshoff, . 329 
Retouching Negatives. Dr. H. Vogel, . 83 
Rectifying the Nitrate Bath. F. W. Spen- 
cer, 99 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Reproducing Negatives. G. Wharton Simp- 
son 123 

Retouching Negative's. W. J. Baker, . 126 
Retouching Negatives, The Limits of. Dr. 

H. Vogel, . .... 370 
Reflector, Griswold's Adjustable Concave, . 146 
Rembrandt Counter Reflector, Kurtz's Pat- 
ent, 150 

Retouching, Varnish for Facilitating. Gr. 

Wharton Simpson, .... 165 

Ross Lens, The 168 

Rembrandt Effects. "Old Fogy," . .288 
Rembrandt and Rembrandts. George B. 

Ayres, 379 

Relief Fund, 305 

Rembrandt Portraits. Gr. Wharton Simp- 
son, ... • . . . 362 
Retouching, On the Production of Proper 

Negatives for. William Bell, . . 372 
Retouching, Chemical. David Duncan, . 381 
"Rembrandts." W.J. Baker, . . 409 
Ross Lenses. W. J. Baker, . . . 410 
Revolving Backgrounds. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 416 

Retouching Varnishes. G. Wharton Simp- 
son, 418 



Splitting. Dextrine, as a Preventive of. 

Dr. H. Vogel, 24 

Stereograph Pictures, Hints on Cutting out. 

J. Carbutt, 15 

Stereoscope, A Familiar Explanation of the 

Phenomena Produced by the. Prof. 

Pepper, ...... 43 

Studio, Loescher & Petsch's New. Dr. H. 

Vogel 88, 117 

Salad 30, 330 

Sliding Box Patent, Who Infringed the, . 45 
Shaw and Wilcox Patent, . . 72, 97, 293 
Sarony's Photographic Crayons, . . 80 

Side-Light vs. Front-Light. G. Wharton 

Simpson 87 

Stereoscopic Camera, A New, . . .100 
Stereoscope, The. J. B. Lyman, A.M., M.D., 402 
Something about Words. George B. 

Ayres, 115 

Solar Negative Prize, .... 132,149 
Stereographs on Transparent, Tinted, etc., 

Paper. Prof. J. Towler, M.D., . 155 

Side Screen, Noss's 187 

Silver-Dippers. Remarks on. John M. 

Blake, ...... 187 

Shaw & Wilcox Company's Case vs. G. W. 

Lovejoy, ...... 196 

Shaw & Wilcox Company's Case vs. G. W. 

Lovejoy, copy of the decree, . . 256 

Standard Sizes of Photographic Prints. G. 

Wharton Simpson, .... 265 
Sitter Hath Trial as Well, The, Julie, . 171 
Standard Sizes. Charles G. Crane, . 285 

Sphynx, The, . . . 294, 363, 397, 429 
Sore Hands. T. W. Cowes, . . .310 
Solar Camera Printing. Prof. J. Towler, 

M.D , . ■ 315 

Sensitive Paper, Washed and Fumed. G. 

Wharton Simpson, . . . 318, 362 



PAGE 

Size, A New, 324 

Subscription Expired, .... 337 

Stereoscope, The. J. B. Lyman, A.M..M.D., 402 
Stereoscope, The, . . . . . 345 

Stops, Illuminated M. M. Griswold, . 358 
Solar Negatives. Retouching. C. A. Win- 

SOR, 358 

Silk in Photography, A New Mode of Em- 
ploying. \j. Spiller, F.C.S., . . 371 
Sensitized Paper, On Keeping from Discolor- 
ing. Jex Bardwell, .... 377 
Stains, Removing Silver. G. Wharton 

Simpson, 391 

Stains on Opal Glass. G. Wharton Simp- 
son, . 392 

Still, Simple way of Making. J. Edwards 

Smith, 395 

Sensible Camera-Stand, The, . . . 424 



Transparencies, Collodio - Chloride. G. 

Wharton Simpson, . . . .60 
Tripod, A Strong and Useful, . . 74 

"Tonica," Secret. The, . . . ■ . 74 
Tent, A Simple Outdoor. Dr. H. Vogel, 164 
The Sitter Hath Trial as Well, or, The Other 

Side. Julie, ..... 171 
Transplan tings. David Duncan, . .175 
Toning, Platinum. G. Wharton Simpson, 266 



Under the Skylight. Roland Vanweike, 
100, 206, 294, 373 



Voices from the Craft, . .29,90,140, 
Varnish, Protecting Films from the Solvent 

Action of. G. Wharton Simpson, 
Varnish, Grit, ..... 
Varnishes, The Quality of Different. Dr. H 

Vogel, 

Varnishes, Retouching. G. Wharton Simp 

son 



75, 



177 



291 



369 



418 



Woodbury Photo-Relief Printing Process, 2, 

137 
Wrinkles and Dodges, . 28, 93, 140, 218, 331 
Washing-Tank, Improved Photograph. J. 

Carbutt, . ..... 35 

Winter Photography, or, Printing by Devel- 
opment. Prof. J. Towler, M.D., . 38 
Water-Tight Covering for Field-Bath. A. 

F. Clough 70 

White Mountains in Winter, . . . 109 
White Hills when they are White, . . 169 
Weighing and Measuring. M.Carey Lea, 194, 

281 
Winter on a Mountain. A. F. Clough, 326, 217 
Woodbury Printing Process. G. Wharton 

Simpson, . . . . . 321 

War and Photographers. Dr. H. Vogel, . 418 
War, Effect of, On Photographic Industry. 

Dr. H. Vogel, 419 



Year-Book of Photography, The, 



309,394 



THE 



WtaMpMa $ififo$w$hth 



Vol. VII. 



JANUARY, 1870. 



No. 7 3. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S69, 
By BENEEMAN & WILSON, 
In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District o f Pennsylv 



The Annual Exhibition of the 
National Photographic Association. 

The Annual Exhibition of the National 
Photographic Association of the United 
States, will be held in Cleveland, Ohio, be- 
ginning the first Tuesday in June, A.D. 
1870. 

This early announcement is made to ena- 
ble exhibitors from foreign countries to 
make shipment of their specimens in good 
time, which should be not later than April 
1st to insure their arrival in season. Ship- 
ments may be made as late as the 20th of 
April, but there is a risk of their arriving 
too late. 

Full particulars will be given in the next 
issue of this Journal, for the information 
of foreign exhibitors and others. 

Will foreign Photographic Journals 
please copy this notice. 

Those desiring special information will 
please address the Permanent Secretary as 
follows: Edward L. Wilson, 

Permanent Secretary 
National Photographic Association, 
Philadelphia, Pa., IT. S. A. 



THE NEW YEAR. 

We heartily wish a Happy New Year for 
all of our readers. Since our last number 
was issued, and the words "Subscription 



Expired " were stamped upon the wrappers 
of the most of the copies, letters full of 
words of good cheer have been streaming in 
upon us daily, accompanied by substantial 
tokens of their earnestness from all direc- 
tions. This whole number, printed in fine 
type, would not begin to hold them. " My 
subscription never expires," writesone; "I 
have been saved so much needless expense 
by it that I cannot afford to do without it," 
says another ; " It has been my only teacher, 
and I constantly improve under its instruc- 
tions," is the voice of another; " I have 
been pecuniarily successful, and I owe at 
least one-half to the Philadelphia Photogra- 
pher," cheeringly writes another, and such 
are the letters from the mass of those who 
are now renewing their subscriptions. 

Now what shall we do in return for all 
this ? We do not think it a good plan 
always to reveal what you are going to do, 
but this much we promise : so long as it is 
in our hands, The Philadelphia Photogra- 
pher sJiall not go backwards. We know 
its shortcomings, and we will try to im- 
prove it all in our power. We have several 
fine pictures in hand and under way, as 
announced in our prospectus, which we 
think will be well worth $5 without any 
reading matter, but the latter shall also be 
kept up to the times, and you shall never 
be kept in the dark as to any new improve- 
ment, or fail to be warned if any attempt is 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



made to take advantage of and deceive 
you. 

We have effected new postal arrange- 
ments by which we think we can prevent 
the frequent loss of our numbers in the 
mail hereafter. Our subscription list will 
be arranged in States, and the numbers for 
each State and Territory tied up separately 
and thus mailed. In that way the Cali- 
fornia package, for instance, will go direct 
to San Francisco for distribution, instead 
of the numbers being jolted and rubbed 
against each other separately as heretofore, 
thus running the risk of being pillaged by 
route agents, or of having the wrappers torn 
off. This plan will insure certain and safe 
delivery we think. 

One subject more, and we have done. The 
large circulation our Journal has, necessa- 
rily brings an immense correspondence. 
Heretofore, many of our subscribers, when 
finding trouble in their manipulations, have 
naturally applied to us for the necessary in- 
formation. We are glad they do, for they 
should find everything in their Journal that 
they want to know. We have always 
answered such letters privately and cheer- 
fully, because, our issue being monthly, it 
is a long time for a man to wait to know 
how he may get rid of fog in his bath, spots 
in his paper, etc. Although we can and do 
employ help in our business department, 
this kind of work must be done by one 
right hand, and that our own. Although 
it has become very exacting and burden- 
some, we are still willing to answer all such 
letters by private note, whenever the parties 
cannot wait to be answered in our next issue. 
When they can wait, we shall, hereafter, 
for their good and for the good of others, 
answer all such communications in our edi- 
torial columns, and this shall be the rule. 
If you inclose a postage stamp we shall 
know you are in a hurry, and write you ; 
otherwise, you will be answered as stated. 
Now continue to ask whenever you need 
information, and you shall be attended to 
cheerfully. Correspondence to be answered 
in the magazine must reach us by the 18th 
of the month invariably, or it will be too 
late. 

Again, we wisli you all a Happy New 
Year. 



The Woodbury Photo-Relief Printing 
Process — Our Picture. 

We present our readers with a picture 
this month by a process which is almost 
entirely new to them, though not a new 
process. Nearly five years ago Mr. Walter 
Bentley Woodbury laid before the photo- 
graphic societies in London some exquisite 
little prints possessing unusual and remark- 
able relief and detail, which, he declared, 
were mechanical prints in permanent col- 
ors ; no silver, no hyposulphite, no gold, 
in fact, no deleterious chemical being in 
their composition. They were of card-size 
only, yet they excited the greatest conster- 
nation, for in them could be seen a great 
process for the future. Some little while 
after, the readers of the Photographic News 
were presented with a specimen print by 
Mr. Woodbury's process, and the details of 
the process given. The British Journal and 
Dr. Vogel's Photo. Mittheilungen have since 
presented their readers with cabinet-size 
specimens, and we have from time to time 
noticed the process and its progress, though 
not in much detail. 

It has been reserved for them, however, to 
receive now the most beautiful specimen 
by the process that has been printed in 
large quantities on paper, and we believe 
that they will agree with us that it rivals 
silver printing and gold toning to a won- 
drous degree. One could scarcely hope 
for more perfect prints from any negative, 
and yet the thousands needed for our pur- 
pose can be printed by one man in less than 
a week, with only one exposure of the nega- 
tive! Astounding as this may seem, we 
will try to make it plain by the details of 
the process as briefly as possible: A thin, 
dry sheet of bichromatized gelatine is ex- 
posed under the negative the same as in 
carbon or silver printing. The soluble 
parts are then washed away and the insol- 
uble parts remaining form a gelatine relief. 
When dry, this "relief" is placed upon a 
steel plate in a hydraulic press, a sheet of 
lead laid upon it, and the two brought to- 
gether by about four hundred tons' pres- 
sure. On removing the pressure a reverse 
of the "relief" will bo found impressed 
upon the lead-plate, and from it the prints 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



are made. From the same "relief," with 
care, as many as twenty metal plates may 
be produced, each one being capable of 
printing about one thousand impressions, 
so that, with only one exposure of the nega- 
tive, it is possible to print twenty thousand 
prints, all as perfect as the one now presented 
to you. 

We have before us one of the "reliefs," 
several of the metal plates, and a great 
number of the prints of sizes up to 11 x 14 
on paper and glass. In the metal intaglio 
or mould, the most intense parts of the 
photograph are represented by the deepest 
hollows and the half-tones by hollows pro- 
portionately less deep, i. e., the deeper the 
hollow the darker, and vice versd. The 
mould is laid flat in a press contrived by 
Mr. Woodbury for the process, and upon 
it is poured, while warm, a suflicient quan- 
tity of a semi-transparent mixture of color 
and gelatine. This mixture is poured in a 
little pool upon the centre of the mould, 
the paper is laid upon it, the press brought 
down, and the mixture oozes outwards in 
all directions, fills the hollows in the moulds, 
and attaches itself to the paper. In a few 
moments the proof is removed from the 
mould and immersed in an alum solution, 
which renders it insoluble even in boiling 
water, and we have the finished print! 
Can anything be more simple and beauti- 
ful? 

But the production of prints on paper is 
only one of the uses of the process. Prints 
on glass for transparencies, stereographs, 
and lantern-slides can be made with even 
greater ease. Any color may be used for 
the paper prints, or any shade, as the prints 
before us testify. They may be made on 
metal, china, wood, or almost any substance 
to which the mixture will adhere, of a mat 
or glazed surface. By another application 
bass reliefs in plaster are obtained, and, by 
still another, printing surfaces on copper 
for the regular printing press are secured. 
A negative may be weak, or it may be 
dense and harsh. Equally good prints can 
be obtained from them by a slight modifi- 
cation in making the relief. It is the 
most accommodating process we have ever 
seen. Even a broken negative can be 
printed from so that the resulting prints 



show no signs of the fractures. Is it not 
wonderful ? 

It is well known to all of our readers 
that albumen prints are more or less fugi- 
tive ; moreover, that to print in large 
quantities is almost impossible, unless many 
negatives be made, which adds much to the 
cost of production. Perhaps no one has ex- 
perienced the latter defect in the silver pro- 
cess more than we have, as we need several 
thousand prints each month, and know full 
well and to our cost, the difficulty of ob- 
taining them. These drawbacks to silver 
printing have led many for a number of 
years to experiment, with a view of obtain- 
ing some process by which •permanent prints 
could be made in large quantities cheaply 
and as good as silver prints. The result 
has been the perfection of several very use- 
ful photo-lithographic processes, only useful, 
however, in certain directions, and all of 
them, until within two or three years, with- 
out the possibility of obtaining half-tone. 
The various carbon processes were also the 
result of the experiments alluded to, most 
of the experimenters working pretty much 
in the same direction. The Osborne photo- 
lithographic and the Swan carbon, process, 
were the most perfect and practical of them 
all, and an example by each of them has 
been presented to our readers. 

Mr. Woodbury, however, stepped out of 
the usual track and worked in an entirely 
different direction from his confreres. With 
what success, our readers have proof of. 
After years of hard labor and diligent ex- 
periment, hindered by obstacles that it 
seemed almost impossible ever to over- 
come, Mr. Woodbury has mastered a pho- 
tographic printing process, which is itself 
master of all of its rivals, and the capabili- 
ties of which he does not yet foresee. It is 
undoubtedly the printing process of the fu- 
ture. At present it is only adapted (eco- 
nomically) to the production of large quan- 
tities, such as for the illustrations of maga- 
zines and books, for advertising and other 
commercial purposes, and for parties who 
have large lots of stereoscopic negatives in 
continual use. There is a wide field for it 
in those directions. 

The saving of the negative gives it an 
immense power. In a future issue we shall 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



give further information concerning this 
wonderful discovery, and we are promised 
that those who visit the great exhibition 
that is to be at Cleveland in next June shall 
see it worked in all its details. 

The negative from which these prints 
were made was made by Mr. Woodbury 
in Italy. Our pictures were printed by the 
"Woodbury Photo-Eelief Company, in Lon- 
don. 



THE CHLORO-BROMIDE PROCESS. 

BY M. CAREY LEA. 

I propose to give the above name to a 
new form of the collodio-bromide process, 
which I have just finished working out. . 

Some years ago I made and published 
some experiments upon development on 
chloride of silver on paper. The chloride 
paper was exposed under a negative, in 
some cases for a very short time; in others, 
until a visible image appeared. It was 
found that, in the latter case, where the ex- 
posure was continued till the whole image 
was visible, and then finished by develop- 
ment, a better result was got than when 
iodo-bromide of silver was used, and I recom- 
mended this mode of development for regu- 
lar use in development printing. But the 
most remarkable result was got where the 
exposure was very short. In an experi- 
ment in which a single magnesium spiral 
was burned in front of the negative, noth- 
ing at all was visible when the paper was 
removed from the frame. According to re- 
ceived ideas respecting the comparative in- 
sensibility of chloride of silver, development 
of this under-exposed invisible image ought 
to have produced a very harsh, black and 
white picture, instead of which a thin pic- 
ture, crowded with detail, was obtained. I 
remember mentioning that some extremely 
faint detail, which I had noticed in the nega- 
tive, with the thought in my mind that that 
portion would never show in any print, 
was distinctly visible in this development. 
At the same time, the image was so thin, 
flat, and destitute of vigor as to be wholly 
worthless as a positive, and was only of in- 
terest in connection with the curious prop- 
erties so unexpectedly disclosed. 

The publication of these experiments, 



showing such unthought of sensitiveness 
in chloride of silver, naturally led others to 
experiment in the direction of plates for the 
camera Nothing, however, of interest was 
elicited, nor was any step made towards the 
discovery of the function of chloride of sil- 
ver in connection with collodion negatives. 

This function I believe I have now suc- 
ceeded in making out. The true use of 
chloride of silver is to be found in connec- 
tion with bromide in the collodio-bromide 
process. And, if I do not deceive myself, 
it will be found that this application of 
chloride of silver will be equal in import- 
ance, and not dissimilar in character, to the 
introduction of bromide of silver into the 
regular wet process. 

For, although exellent work was done 
with the iodide of silver process, yet the 
introduction of bromide gave a great cer- 
tainty, ease, and freedom from fog. So, 
although capital work can be done with 
the collodio-bromide process, neverthess the 
introduction of chloride enables us with 
ease and certainty to get a bright, vigor- 
ous image, coming up with facility to any 
degree of intensity desired, supporting with 
great ease a re-development with nitrate of 
silver and acid pyro if desired, in conse- 
quence of inadvertent under-exposure and 
without any need of previous fixing. In- 
deed, the addition of even a very small 
quantity of chloride so effectually destroys 
all tendency to fog, that the use of a solu- 
ble bromide in the development becomes 
superfluous, even where the sensitive collo- 
dion has been prepared with a large relative 
excess of nitrate of silver. A liberal excess 
of nitrate of silver in the collodion tends to 
exalt the sensibility, but obliges great care 
to be taken in the development and the use 
of plenty of bromide of potassium. But, 
by the introduction of chloride, all this 
tendency to fog disappears at once, and the 
development goes forward as brightly and 
cleanly as can be desired. 

The proportion of chloride necessary is 
singularly small. A grain to the ounce 
of collodion seems to be quite sufficient in 
most cases. In some it may be raised to 
two grains, in others lowered to half a 
grain. It is wonderful to see how com- 
plete a change in the character of the plate 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GEAPHEE. 



the addition of so small a quantity as half a 
grain will make. The quantity to he added 
will always depend upon the character of 
the collodion in use and the result desired. 
The more chloride added, the greater will 
be the vigor of the resulting negative. 

The chloride which I have selected for use 
is the chloride of copper* Of course, others 
may he used, such as the alkaline chlorides, 
chloride of cadmium, of calcium, etc., etc. 
But the chloride of copper leaves nothing 
to be desired. It is easily obtained pure; 
it is very soluble in alcohol and works in 
all respects satisfactorily. So also, doubt- 
less, will other metallic chlorides and chlor- 
ide of lithium. Other alkaline chlorides 
than lithium I consider objectionable, be- 
cause of their sparing solubility in collo- 
dion. A great deal of mischief results 
from the use of sparingly soluble salts in 
collodion, and this has been especially the 
case with bromide of ammonium. I cannot 
stop now to enlarge on this, but shall simply 
remark that the transparent specks that 
have greatly annoyed some who have tried 
the collodio-bromide process, have resulted 
from this cause. More than two grains of 
bromide of ammonium cannot be usefully 
dissolved in any collodion as free from 
water as collodion should be. A larger 
quantity than this may, indeed, he got into 
solution by the use of hot alcohol. But, 
when the collodion is so fully charged, 
slight depressions of temperature will cause 
it to crystallize'out into invisible particles 
that remain suspended in the liquid, and 
cause insensitive specks in the negative. 

So reject all the alkaline chlorides which 
are still less soluble in alcohol than the bro- 
mides. Chloride of lithium is, of course, an 
exception, but it is scarce and expensive, and, 
as said before, chloride of copper leaves noth- 
ing to be desired. I use it in solution in al- 
cohol, 16 grains to the ounce, so that each 
half drachm contains one grain. It may, of 
course, be dissolved in the collodion together 
with the bromides, but at first, at least, the 
photographer will find it more convenient to 
keep it separate, and to add it at the time of 
sensitizing. In this way he can regulate the 
quantity acccording to the results obtained. 

* I obtain mine of Bullock & Crenshaw, Phila. 



The following are the formulae which I 
recommend for use : I have always pre- 
ferred to use a collodion richer in bromides 
than many others who use the collodio- 
bromide process. If found too thick, it is 
easy to thin it with ether to any desired 
thickness, but I have always found that it 
was best to apply the collodio-bromide as 
little thin as possible — a rich, creamy film 
always gives the softest pictures and with 
the most detail in the shadows. I there- 
fore make my collodion : 

Alcohol and Ether, equal parts, 1 ounce. 

Bromide of Cadmium, . . 10 grains. 

Bromide of Ammonium, . . 2 " 

Pyroxyline, . . . 6 " 

Everything will depend upon the equality 
of the pyroxyline, which must be intense 
and powdery. The best I have had has been 
supplied me by Mr. Pary of this city, 
though I have had very good intense " He- 
lion " from Mr. Cooper, of New York. A 
skinny collodion is very objectionable. This 
last quality is, of course, easily judged of by 
the common method of drawing the finger 
through the film just as it sets. The finger 
should plough straight through without 
tearing or making a jagged track. As to 
the intensity which is essential if gum is to 
be the preservative (and it is by far the 
best) I know no better way than to pro- 
cure several specimens, make them up, and 
set them aside for a month ; then give 
them an actual trial and adopt that which 
gives the best result, laying in a supply to 
last for a long time. 

As respects the keeping of collodion, my 
own experience has been, that it gains in 
sensitiveness for a long time by keeping. 
But some specimens blister worse after 
keeping for six or eight months than after 
one month. The trouble from blisters, 
however, when they occur, is more appar- 
ent than real. Gum, however, which gives 
the most sensitive plates of all preserva- 
tives that I have tried, tends to blisters. 
But if the plates are well washed, the blis- 
ters dry up without leaving stains ; good 
washing after fixing is, however, essential. 

Having then prepared a solution of chlor- 
ide of copper, 16 grains to the ounce of alco- 
hol, I add to each ounce of collodion half a 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



drachm of the chloride solution, and sensi- 
tize it with 20 grains of finely-powdered 
nitrate of silver. 

Now, as to the sensitizing, great differ- 
ences of opinion have been expressed as to 
the time for which the mixture should wait 
after the silver is added, in order that it 
may reach its most sensitive stage. In my 
own experience, I have never found the 
mixture in its best condition until fully 
forty-eight hours have expired after the 
addition of the silver, and I think that 
more persons have probably failed in con- 
sequence of using the mixture too soon, 
than from all other causes put together. A 
mixture after forty-eight hours will give 
plates that will be fully exposed with an 
amount of exposure which, had it been used 
at the end of twenty-four hours, would have 
given a half-exposed, chalky, black and 
white negative. 

Not only this, but I have long recognized 
and acted upon the fact that the mixture 
acts much better if it has been treated in 
the following way : suppose we want 4 
ounces of sensitive mixture, we take a little 
less than this, say 3 ounces, and sensitize 
it, shake it frequently, and, at the end of a 
day, add the remaining ounce, thus bring- 
ing the bromide into excess. This stands, 
with occasional shaking, for half a day. 
Then the silver corresponding to the last 
addition of collodion is added, well shaken 
up at intervals, and, at the end of half a 
day (making in all, the two days), it is in 
its best condition — although this proceeding 
is not absolutely necessary, and, although 
very good results are got by simply adding 
the quantity needful of nitrate of silver to 
the whole of the collodion intended to be 
used, yet, neverthtless, there is a decided 
advantage in proceeding as above. I have 
used this method with unimportant varia- 
tions for years, and have described in my 
Manual, and, I think, in your pages. 

After using what I want, I add, accord- 
ing to the custom usual with those who work 
the collodio-bromide process, some of the 
bromized collodion to the residue, by which 
admixture it keeps well and is again ready for 
use by adding nitrate of silver corresponding 
to the quantity of collodion last introduced 
into it. It is not well, however, to do this 



too often. But, after thus treating the 
residues for three or four times, 'it is better 
to use it all up and start afresh. To explain 
why, would require too much room at pres- 
ent. 

I next come to the preservative. I greatly 
prefer preservatives in which gum forms an 
essential portion. Nothing so far that I 
have experimented with (and I have tried 
a vast number of substances), has given the 
same sensitiveness as gum; at the same 
time, if not properly managed, there is a 
tendency to thinness of the image and to 
fogging. As the introduction of the chlor- 
ide is very favorable to the prevention of 
fogging, it is with gum that it will be found 
to be most useful. Together with gum, I 
use sugar and litmus. The sugar seems to, 
be chiefly useful for keeping the film in 
a porous condition. It dissolves out rap- 
idly when the plate is developed, and leaves 
the film in a spongy condition favorable to 
the rapid and equal penetration of the devel- 
oper. The litmus I at first tried for the pur- 
pose of darkening the film and diminishing 
its penetrability to light, but it proved to 
act most favorably upon the sensibility of 
the film and the vigor of the image. It 
may be used either blue, or it may be red- 
dened by acetic acid. If used blue it is best 
to lightly wash the plate first, because silver 
gives a precipitate with blue litmus. With 
litmus reddened by acetic acid, the tendency 
to precipitate is greatly diminished, and a 
previous washing becomes superfluous and 
even injurious. On the whole, I prefer the 
blue, or the gum and sugar may be used with- 
out the litmus. 1 give all three methods — 
the first involves a very little more trouble 
than the other two, but it gives a more sen- 
sitive plate, and I therefore use it myself 
and recommend it in preference. All, 
however, give good results. 

No. 1. 
Take a quarter of a pound of good dark lit- 
mus (the French is better than the German) 
cover it with boiling water and set in a 
warm place for some hours or a day. Pour 
oft" the liquid into a filter, add more water; 
after pouring this off, throw also (hegrounds 
upon the filter, and wash through with hot 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



water until the filtrate amounts to a quart. 
Add a little carbolic acid ($ drachm) and 
the liquid will keep indefinitely. I have 
used it six and eight months old. 
The bath is made by dissolving 



Best Gum Arabic, 
Loaf Sugar, 
Water, 



20 grains. 
12 " 
1 ounce. 



The litmus solution is added to this in 
the proportion of an ounce to each 4 ounces 
of the gum-water. 

After the plate is collodionized, allow it 
to get barely set and plunge it into a pan 
of water, where it may lie either a long or 
a short time, except that all greasiness must 
be gone. It is then plunged into the above 
bath, left there six, eight, or ten minutes 
(fifteen will do no harm), and is then dried. 

No. 2 

Differs from the above in this, only that 
a little acetic acid is added. I use what is 
called No. 8, corresponding, I believe, to 
Beaufry's acid, and put in 25 minims to 
each ounce of litmus solution, say a drachm 
to each 2^ ounces, or thereabouts. Into this 
the plate is plunged as soon as the col- 
lodion is set. It is left in till the greasy 
marks are completely gone, allowing rather 
a little more time than less, and is then 
ready to dry. 

No. 3 

Differs only from the foregoing in the en- 
tire omission of the litmus, and consequently 
of the acetic acid. Plates are immersed 
without previous washing, as in No. 2. 

Better take the little additional trouble 
required with the first of these, and so secure 
the best results. 

The development is effected by plunging 
the plate into a bath, which for 6 \ x 8J 
size, is made as follows : Water, 6 ounces, 
60-grain solution of pyrogallic acid £ 
drachm, 80-grain solution of carbonate of 
ammonia, ^ drachm. It is best to add a 
third only of the carbonate at first, and the 
rest after the detail is out. In my own ex- 
perience I find bromide of potassium unnec- 
essary, except there be indications of over- 
exposure by the too rapid flashing up of the 
image. Fix in very weak hyposulphite. 

It is likelv the advantages of the chloride 



will be found to vary with different speci- 
mens of collodion, and different preserva- 
tives. The great gain which I find in its 
use is that it admits of our raising the 
sensitiveness of the collodio-bromide mix- 
ture to the highest degree, by protecting 
us from the dangers which accompany that 
mode of operating. Some have feared these 
so much as to recommend using either just 
enough nitrate of silver to correspond with 
the bromides, or even to use less, and leave 
the bromides in excess. In this way a clean 
plate is secured indeed, even if the operation 
has not been very well managed, but at a 
great sacrifice of sensitiveness. Now the 
introduction of the chloride enables us to 
obtain perfect clearness, and at the same 
time retain the exalted sensitiveness which 
can only be obtained by having present a 
liberal excess of nitrate of silver. 

I propose to call the new process the 
Chloro- Bromide Process, in order to mark 
the characteristic features which distin- 
guish it from all the other forms in which 
Messrs. Sayce & Bolton's invaluable collo- 
dio-bromide has been worked. 

P. S. — Those who already use the collodio- 
bromide process, and have the collodion 
already salted, can apply the chloride to it 
by adding to each ounce, half a drachm of 
16-grain solution of chloride of copper in 
alcohol. This addition will necessitate an 
increase in the nitrate of silver, of 2£ grains 
beyond what the collodion needed before. 
It will be found that the introduction of 
chloride admits of the use of a larger ex- 
cess of silver, with consequent gain in sen- 
sitiveness, so that those who have hitherto 
worked with a very small excess of silver, 
can increase it. 



GORDON'S GUM-GALLIC DRY 
PROCESS 

BY PEOF. J. TOWLER, M.D. 

This process has met with much appro- 
bation from those who have tried it thor- 
oughly. It is capable of producing clean 
pictures, even after the plates have been 
kept for some time ; and the plates, too, 
preserve their sensitive character for a long 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



time. In many respects the gum-gallic 
dry plate is very similar to the dry tannin 
plate, and I scarcely can pronounce it supe- 
rior if the latter is prepared with the same 
amount of care. In making a trial of this 
process, I did not care to limit myself to 
the exact ?nodus operandi prescribed by the 
author of the different formulae, but kept 
closely to the text of the essential points, 
that is, the preserver so-called. 

I used my own collodion, consisting of 
the following ingredients : 



Alcohol, . 


5 ounces 


Ether, 


5 


Pyroxyline, 


60 grains. 


Iodide of Ammonium, 


.40 


Bromide of Cadmium, 


. 25 



Both the ether and alcohol I digest sepa- 
rately over caustic lime in powder for 
about twenty-four hours, and then distil, 
in order to get the two fluids properly con- 
centrated and free from acidity. 

The plates are first steeped in nitric acid 
for an hour or two, then thoroughly cleaned, 
and, whilst wet, are coated with dilute albu- 
men. I prefer this substratum to all others, 
and the plates are thus easily prepared. 

The silver bath contains about 50 grains 
of nitrate of silver to the ounce of pure 
rain-water ; and in this bath the plates, 
when coated with collodion, are kept the 
ordinary time of a wet plate ; that is, about 
three or four minutes. Thus, it will be 
perceived, that so far the plates are pre- 
pared as common wet plates ; to immerse 
the plates for ten or fifteen, as the author 
prescribes, would make the task of prepar- 
ing a few dozen plates quite tedious, unless 
two or three baths could be made available 
in the preparation. 

As soon as the film has attained the proper 
cream-color, the plate is allowed to drain, 
and is then placed (film side downwards), 
at the bottom of a wash-basin containing 
rain-water. Here it is left until another 
plate is ready to take its place, when it is 
removed to a similar position in a second 
wash-basin. After a third plate has been 
sensitized, the first plate is washed thor- 
oughly under the tap and then coated with 
the preserver. 



GORDON'S PRESERVATIVE. 

No. 1. 

Gum Arabic, . , .20 grains. 
Sugar Candy, . 5 " 

Water 2 drachms. 



No. 2. 



Gallic Acid, . 
Water, . 



3 grains. 
6 drachms. 



The gallic acid is dissolved by the aid of 
heat, and the solutions are mixed together 
and filtered through sponge immediately 
before required. 

Now it is this filtering through sponge 
(which is absolutely necessary every time 
that plates are to be coated), together with 
the consequent production of air-bubbles, 
and the difficulty of removing them from 
the film when once there, that renders this 
part of the process somewhat irksome, when 
compared with the application of the pre- 
servative in some of the other dry processes. 
Nevertheless, with proper care the plates are 
coated to your satisfaction. 

First pour over the plate (8 x 4) about a 
drachm of the mixed solutions, so as to cover \ 
the film completely, and then let the solution ^ 
flow off into the sink. About 2 drachms 
more of fresh solution are poured upon the 
plate ; and move the plate so as to keep the 
film continually covered with the fluid for 
a couple of minutes, and then rear it away 
in the drying-chamber to dry. The solu- 
tion that has been used in the second in- 
stance may serve to coat the next plate for 
the first time. It must be remarked here, 
however, that if the free nitrate of silver 
has not been thoroughly removed previ- 
ously by washing, the plates will be defect- 
ive, and the preservative must not be used 
at all a second time. 

Mr. Gordon backs his plates with the 
following solution : 

Burnt Sienna, ground in 

Water, . . .100 grains. 

Dextrine, . . . 30 " 

Glycerine, ... 2 minims. 

Carbolic Acid a trace, to prevent fer- 
mentation. 

I did not use this backing, because I did 
not think it necessary when the exposure is 
short. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



EXPOSURE. 

The author recommends you to give an 
exposure of twice or thrice that required by 
the wet process. I am always a little dis- 
trustful about short exposures, and conse- 
quently I exposed the gum-gallic plate five 
times as long as I would have exposed a 
wet plate under similar circumstances ; this 
exposure was about right, certainly not too 
much. 

Previous to developing the picture, the 
the plate is immersed in rain-water for a 
minute or so, in order to soften or remove 
the preservative film. I use the nitro-gela- 
tine developer, which brings out the picture 
properly. I presume any of the iron de- 
velopers may be used. Mr. Gordon uses 
the following : 

No. 1. 

Gelatine, ... 64 grains. 

Glacial Acetic Acid, . 2 ounces. 

Water, .... 14 ounces. 



No. 
Sulphate of Iron, . 
Water, . 



250 grains. 
10 ounces 



For present use mix 1 part of the gela- 
tine solution with 3 parts of the iron solu- 
tion. Take 2 or 3 drachms of the mixture 
for each plate, and add 2 drops of the 
bath solution ; shake the mixture and then 
pour it upon the plate. The picture soon 
begins to appear, and is intensified as much 
as you like by adding 2 drops more of the 
bath solution to the developer every now 
and then. It is better to wash the film be- 
fore the picture is thoroughly intensified, and 
then to pour upon it about a drachm of fresh 
developer containing 3 or 4 drops of the 
bath solution. 

The plates are fixed in hyposulphite of 
soda in the usual way. 

The process is certain, consequently relia- 
ble. 

THE HOLYOAKE CARD MOUNT. 

The attention of our readers was called 
to this very neat affair by Mr. G. Wharton 
Simpson in his Notes last spring, and soon 
after, they were advertised as being made 
and for sale in this country. By their use 
photographers may introduce a new and 
pretty style of picture, and also have a 




chance to raise their prices. The thing is 
simply this : 

The upper cut 
on the left is a 
Holyoake mount 
of reduced size, 
i. e., a mount 
with the usual 
border-line, in- 
side of which all 
but a small. oval 
in the centre is 
printed a deep 
black. Now 

mount a vignet- 
ted head on it, 
and the effect 
will be similar 
to the lower 
cut, i. e., the 
figure will be 
presented boldly 
on a pure white 
ground, oval in 
form, and a blu- 
ish-gray, neutral 
tint will sur- 
round it, pro- 
ducing a very 
neat and pretty 
effect, and caus- 
ing the tones of the print to acquire great 
richness and depth from contact with the 
gray ground. If deep red be used instead 
of black, the border will be pink instead of 
gray, which is equally pretty, and, as both 
colors are furnished, the photographer may 
vary the dozen to please the customer. In 
making vignette negatives for these cards, 
have a care not to make the figure too 
large, or else the drapery will overlap the 
line of the oval The white should show 
all around (he figure, a little at the bottom 
and more about the sides and top of the 
head. Thin albumen paper is best for the 
prints. They are well worthy of a trial. 



THE PRIZE MEDALS. 

Below we present engravings of the gold 
prize medals awarded, as announced in 
November, to the successful competitors for 




10 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



the prizes offered by us for genre, portrait, 
and landscape photography. 

The design is one of our own, for want of 
a better one. Had we thought of it in good 
time, we should have invited the ideas of 
our subscribers to assist us, but presuming 
the competitors were impatient to possess 
them, we hastened the matter. The en- 
gravings are fac similes, so near as can be, 
and of the size of the originals. The medals 
are made of finer gold than the United 
States gold coin, and cost much more to 
produce the dies alone, than the amount of 
premium offered ; but we propose to repeat 
our offer presently, and shall then need the 
dies again. 




The obverse design will, probably, be 
understood by many. It is intended to rep- 
resent Photography as the greatest of the 
arts. Imagine an enthusiastic lover of art 
and nature looking forth upon the beauties 
of the world. He burns with desire to se- 
cure more than a remembrance of what 
he sees, and attempts with pen and ink to 
describe it. Soon he becomes benumbed 
with his impotence, and casts the pen and 
portfolio aside; the palette and pencil are 
then called into service, and after making 
a great number of unsatisfying sketches, 
these, too, he casts aside, when Photog- 
raphy comes to his aid, and here stand 
its emblems, triumphant and high, above 
all its competitors, which, with broken 
laurels, lie upon the ground. ''The pen is 
mightier than the sword," but the camera 
obscura is mightier than pen or pencil. 

The reverse side is understandable by the 
possessors of the medals, and they are the 
most interested. The dies were sunk by a 
talented artist in the government service, 
who made his drawings from a modern 
little stereographic camera and tripod, 
made for our own use by the American 
Optical Company, whose apparatus it is al- 



ways a pleasure to work with, and recom- 
mend. He was constrained in his drawing 
somewhat, on account of the design having 
to be struck in metal, and it will not at first 
sight be considered as artistic as it should be. 

Our engraver has done the best he could, 
in getting so much in so small a space. The 
engravings are not half so beautiful as the 
medals, and we hope our earnest workers 
will all try and secure one of the medals 
when we make our next offer, which will 
probably be in our next issue. 

Owing to certain circumstances, Mr. Gris- 
wold's is the only one of the competing pic- 
tures that will appear as "Our Picture." 
It will accompany our February issue, and 
is being printed in the best style of the art. 

Full sets of the prize prints may now be 
had, or sets of the different classes, as an- 
nounced heretofore They are very in- 
structive when studied with the remarks of 
the judges, and some of them are very pretty. 



NEW PATENTS. 

Mr. Egbert Guy Fowx, Baltimore, Md., 
has secured a patent from whose specifica- 
tions we extract the following : 

The object of my invention relates to the 
production, by the use of two or more nega- 
tives, of a sharp, soft, and natural photo- 
graphic print, in lights and shadows, with 
all the sharpness obtained by the original 
process of printing, with or from a single 
negative. 

To enable others skilled in the art, to 
make and use my invention, I will proceed 
to describe its construction and operation. 

I produce two or more fac simile nega- 
tives of the same object, which negatives 
are placed in contact with each other, in 
such a manner as to bring the lights and 
shades of each negative directly opposite. 
They are then exposed, with the prepared 
paper for printing in contact with the nega- 
tive, to the sun's rays, and printed in the 
usual manner, which process is also appli- 
cable to solar prints. 

By this process, a photographic print is 
produced, which is superior to any other 
production, and is applicable to photogra- 
phy in all its branches. 

The lights and shadows are so softly toned 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



11 



and blended by this process, that they pro- 
duce the most pleasing natural and life-like 
effects Having thus described my inven- 
tion, what I claim, and desire to secure by 
letters patent is, 

The combination of too or more negatives, 
for the purpose of producing photographic 
prints, etc. 

We have received a number of very beau- 
tiful pictures made by Mr. Fowx's method. 
We have heretofore expressed our dislike for 
mezzotint effects, but these have none of 
the objections we made to those made by 
other processes. There is none of that 
inkiness of the blacks or fuzziness that was 
so objectionable. The effect is soft and 
beautiful, and none of the merits of the pic- 
ture are destroyed by the practice of the 
new method. 

The great hindrance to its use seemed to 
be the difficulty photographers would have 
in working it, for it is no easy matter to 
make two negatives precisely alike, or to 
get them exactly superimposed. Mr. Fowx, 
however, has associated with him Mr. G. 
O. Brown, who proposes soon to travel 
through the South to teach the method fully 
to all who wish it. He does not go armed 
with boastful claims that you are an " in- 
fringer " if you produce similar results 
by any other means. He proposes to show 
how it can be done by his method, which he 
believes to be the best and easily worked 
when understood. Mr. Brown has acted 
as our agent in Baltimore and Washington 
for a number of years, and is entirely trust- 
worthy. He will continue to solicit sub- 
scriptions for us, and claims that he will not 
apply to photographers as a process seller, 
but as a teacher of a process that he thinks 
will swell your revenue if you study it. We 
know very little of it, but Mr. Brown we 
have known personally for a number of years 
as an accomplished operator and worthy 
gentleman. 

FERROTYPERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the 
Ferrotypers' Association of Philadelphia, 
held at Mr. A. K. P. Trask's gallery, De- 



cember 7th, 1869, the first annual election 
of officers took place, to serve the following 
year. The nominees elected were Mr. A. 
K. P. Trask, President; Messrs. E. P. 
Warrington and C. Naylor, Vice-Presi- 
dents ; and D. Lathrop, Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

The Society is now thoroughly organ- 
ized, having adopted a constitution and by- 
laws, and meets regularly on the second 
Tuesday -of each month at the different 
members' galleries. 

Our object is to improve one another and 
look after the interests of the trade. 

D. Lathrop, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting was held 
on Wednesday evening, December 1st, 1 869 ; 
the Vice-President, Dr. Alexander Wil- 
cocks, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were 
read and approved. 

Messrs, Robert W. Learning and E. Moel- 
ling were duly elected members of the So- 
ciety. 

The competitors for the prizes then offered 
their prints and negatives, and the chairman 
appointed Messrs. Davids, Pepper, and Ed- 
ward L. Wilson to act as judges. 

On motion a recess was allowed to give 
the judges an opportunity of examining the 
pictures, after which they reported that 
they had awarded the prize for the best 
landscape to Mr. John Moran. The sub- 
ject was a view on Cresheim Creek near 
Philadelphia. The selection of view and 
careful chemical work was much admired. 

The judges reported that no pictures had 
been offered for the portrait prize. 

Mr. Moran used, in making the prize 
picture, one of Roettger's lenses of ten-inch 
focus, with smallest stop. 

Among the pictures exhibited were a fine 
variety of solar enlargements, from nega- 
tives by Messrs. Borda and Sturgis, en- 
larged by Mr. Albert Moore, embracing 
views in Pike County, Pa., and coast scenes 
near Nahant, Mass. 



12 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



Mr. Edward L. "Wilson showed to the 
Society a variety of the Holyoake mounting- 
cards ; also a new and varied assortment of 
German card pictures, made by Loescher 
& Petsch, of Berlin ; also several remarka- 
bly fine Kembrandt effects by Mr. W. Kurtz, 
of New York ; all of his pictures were excel- 
lent, but one of a lady, admirably posed 
and lighted, deserves especial mention. It 
is difficult to conceive that light, chemicals, 
and fine manipulation could unite in form- 
ing a more pleasing picture than it. 

Mr. Wilson offered for examination a 
complete set of the competing pictures for 
his prizes. They are very interesting, and 
will undoubtedly prove of value to the pro- 
fession as examples of the different styles of 
arrangement to be used and avoided, show- 
ing the faults and good qualities of each. 

The Secretary then exhibited one of Mr. 
Marcy's magic lanterns, to which he has 
given the name "Sciopticon" This is an 
improvement upon the original form adopt- 
ed by him, whereby the excessive heat near 
the lamp is entirely avoided. 

A large number of glass positives were 
shown ; among them a dozen slides of groups 
of curiosities, arranged so that each depart- 
ment had its separate illustration. There 
were represented specimens of sponges, cor- 
als, shells, minerals, pottery, ancient china, 
heathen idols, antique watches, jewelry, 
etc. This very interesting and valuable 
collection is in the possession of Mrs. 0. 
W. Pennock, of Delaware County, Pa. 

The members thought so favorably of 
Mr. Marcy's new lantern, that it was, upon 
motion of Mr. Davids, unanimously resolved 
to purchase one of the instruments for the 
use of the Society, to be placed under the 
control of the Room Committee. 

On motion, adjourned. 

John C. Browne, 

Recording Secretary. 

BOSTON PHOTOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY. 

The regular monthly meeting of this 
association was held at Black's studio, No. 
173 Washington Street, December 7th, 
1869. 

The President being absent, the meeting 



was called to order by the Vice-President, 
Mr. T. R. Burnham. 

The records of the last meeting were read 
and approved. 

Mr. Allen, in behalf of the Executive 
Committee, reported on the subject of com- 
pensation to Mr. Black for the use of his 
studio for the meetings of the Association. 

On motion of Mr. Low, it was resolved 
that the report of the committee be ac- 
cepted and adopted. 

Mr. Eoss nominated Mr. Charles Eur- 
neaux, and, on motion of Mr. Black, he was 
elected a member of this association. 

Mr. Low commented upon a remarkable 
photograph called " Kittiwakes," that was 
among the contributions of Messrs. Robin- 
son & Cherrill, England, to our National 
Photographic Exhibition. This picture has 
called forth much discussion and many sug- 
gestions in the English photographic jour- 
nals, as to how it was produced. He hoped 
that this Society would make an effort to 
obtain a copy of it for our album. 

It was therefore resolved that the Society 
procure, or try to procure, a copy for our 
album. 

On motion of Mr. Allen it was resolved 
that the Secretary be instructed to procure 
the picture. 

Remarks were made by the Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mr. Burnham, on the members enter- 
ing into a competition to produce the best 
photographs, and exhibit them at our next 
meeting. 

And on motion of Mr. Black it was re- 
solved that we each and all make a picture 
of card size (same style as the Berlin cards), 
to present at our next meeting for competi- 
tion. The one producing the best to have 
all of the pictures. 

It was resolved that the subject for dis- 
cussion at our next meeting be " Retouch- 
ing the Negative." 

Mr. C. A. Stevens, from Warren's rooms, 
Cambridge, exhibited a very light, portable, 
developing tent, which folds up into a small 
compass, and weighs but six pounds; also, 
a bath to go with it, which was a wooden 
box lined or coated inside and out with a 
mixture of coal-tar and gutta-percha. It 
seems nothing for a bath could be so simple 
and cheap and answer the purpose so well. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER 



13 



Mr. E. F. Gay, of Fall Kiver, Mass., ex- 
hibited some line cabinet pictures. 

Mr. E. L. Allen also exhibited beautiful 
cabinets and cards from retouched nega- 
tives. 

On motion, adjourned. 

Fred. C. Low, 

Recording Secretary. 

After our meeting adjourned, Mr. Black 
exhibited his new stereopticon. 

The first transparencies exhibited were 
by Mr. E. L. Allen, of Mt. Desert scenery, 
followed by Niagara views by Mr. John 
P. Soule. These were followed by White 
Mountain views by E. F. Smith. All were 
very fine. These were followed by about 
one hundred transparencies, taken from 
negatives by Mr. Black's assistants, Messrs. 
Dunmore and Critcherson, on the Bradford 
Expedition to the Arctic Kegions. They 
were very interesting, as all must know 
who have read Mr. Dunmore's excellent 
article, " The Camera among the Icebergs," 
in the December number of your Journal. 

I understand that it is the intention to 
exhibit these views to the public by the aid 
of stereopticons, simultaneously in the cities 
of Boston, New York, and Chicago. 

f! c. l. 



NORTHERN OHIO PHOTOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY. 

The Society met at A. Price's rooms, 319 
Superior Street, Cleveland, December 2d : 
President Ryder in the chair. 

The minutes of last meeting were read 
and adopted. 

The Committee on Closing Kooms on 
Sunday then made their report:: " They 
had presented the pledge to all the photog- 
raphers in the city but one, and all to whom 
the pledge had been presented had signed 
it except one." 

The following are the names of the pho- 
tographers who pledge themselves to close 
their rooms against customers on the Sab- 
bath day: J. H. Nason, R. L. Wells, J. F. 
Ryder, A. Price, W. C. North, F. Tyler, 
J. Dennison, W. Dennison, T. L. Parker, 
P. C. Nason, J. M. Green, S. Crobaugh, E. 



Decker, M. E. Beckwith, D. F. McLeod, 
R. E. Weeks, H. C. Strickland, T. T. 
Sweeny, F. D. Pratt, and N. E. A. Mc- 
Leod. 

After a brief discussion in regard to the 
photographer who refused to sign the 
pledge, it was finally determined that the 
Sunday law should be enforced against 
him if still persisted in opening and opera- 
ting his rooms on Sunday. 

On motion the report was then adopted 
and committee discharged. 

The Committee on the Schonemaker and 
Wing Suit was then called upon to report. 
Mr. R. L. Wells, of that committee, gave a 
short history of the points in controversy 
between Schonemaker and Wing. The 
committee thought that Schonemaker was 
deserving of financial aid in defeating 
another unjust claim. 

The report was adopted, and the Society 
donated $25 to Schonemaker. 

On motion, the President appointed the 
following Committee of Equalization, to 
equalize assessments when money is to be 
raised by taxing the Society : R. L. Wells, 
M. E. Beckwith, and J. C. Potter. 

The Society then proceeded to discuss 
prices of work. 

After remarks by several, on the propriety 
of making better work and getting better 
prices, the President appointed Messrs. 
Wells, Beckwith, and Decker as a com- 
mittee to make a list of prices, and report 
at our next meeting in January. 

The Society then adjourned, to meet at J. 
F. Ryder's rooms, 170 and 171 Superior 
Street, Cleveland, on the first Thursday 
evening in January, 1870. 

J. C. Potter, 

Secretary. 



MOSAICS FOR 1870. 

No book more useful will greet another 
year of photographic history, than the little 
annual " Mosaics" for 1870. 

It is a fitting clasp to bind up the volume 
of the past year. Its perusal has been both 
pleasant and profitable, and every friend to 
improvement and progress will hope that it 
may have an extended circulation. 



14 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



In glancing at a work of this kind, it is 
interesting to note how members of one and 
the same fraternity seize upon special topics, 
concentrate their study, make experiments, 
draw conclusions and form rules for profes- 
sional guidance, and — best and most com- 
mendable of all — record the same gratui- 
tously for the benefit of their fellows. 

Singularly too, there seems to be no topic 
in our work too insignificant for considera- 
tion. If the outside world be told that, with 
us, it is very important to discuss the sub- 
jects of "Paste," "Glass-cleaning," or 
"Dirt," &c, it would seem amusing; and 
yet the excellent contributions of Bloede, 
Baker, and Wilson prove the necessity of 
care in understanding even these apparent 
trifles. If then there is a potency in these 
"little drops of water and little grains of 
sand," how much more essential it is that 
the greater truths be pondered and under- 
stood ; and where in the photographic 
library can search be made for a book, em- 
bracing in such a degree, freshly-penned 
chapters upon almost every possible subject 
known to the art, and written by photogra- 
phers "known and approved of all men?" 

Five years ago I paid twenty dollars for 
not as much — and certainly not so good — 
formulae as that contained in the chapter 
entitled " The Whole Story," — of only one 
and a half pages ! Publishers of popular 
magazines would not pay much for such a 
" story," but it is nevertheless above price 
to every ambitious student of photography 
who seeks a " reliable method" of working 
from beginning to end. 

" Mosaics" being a compendium of the 
whole range of photographic knowledge, 
becomes an assistant, a text-book in every 
department. From beginning to end the 
student and professional both find subjects 
to their pleasing; and so completely have 
the publishers performed their duty, that 
they may safely say "we desire that our 
patrons should pass judgment without com- 
ment from us." 

I feel assured that next year's volume will 
supply the only deficiency of this, and that 
some one of our artist brethren will furnish 
a chapter on "how to paint photographs," 
since we are told so wellliow to make them. 
Geokoe B. Aykes. 



Pictorial Effect in Photography. 

We have endeavored frequently to per- 
suade our readers that it is quite as impor- 
tant to study pictorial effect and to try to 
attain it in their work, as it is to endeavor to 
make perfect negatives and prints, and many 
will remember our series of papers on "Art 
Principles Applicable to Photography," 
which appeared in these pages during 1868. 

Mr. H. P. Kobinson, who is probably the 
most accomplished art photographer in Eu- 
rope, and whose admirable composition pic- 
tures attracted so much attention at the 
National Exhibition in Boston last June, has 
recently put forth a work of infinite value 
on the subject which heads these remarks, 
covering the whole ground of composition 
and light and shade, together with a chapter 
on combination printing. Both portrait 
and landscape photography have their share 
of attention, and both are amply illustrated. 
The work contains a picture by the Wood- 
bury process ; one by Swan's carbon pro- 
cess ; another by the ordinary silver pro- 
cess ; several photolithographs of etchings 
by the author, numerous engravings of cele- 
brated paintings, and diagrams and wood- 
cuts in profusion. No one can study this 
excellent work without being better able to 
pose and compose his subjects, and to light 
them more artistically. The faculty of ar- 
tistic sight he maintains does not " come by 
nature " as many say, but that it is a culti- 
vated sense. Therefore there is encourage- 
ment for every one to study and practice 
the rules which guide one to more perfect 
results. Those who are unskilled compara- 
tively, hardly realize how much there is to 
learn that is of value to them. This book 
will open their eyes and enlighten them, if 
they can but see when their eyes are open. 
We have learned much from its perusal and 
shall often have to refer to it. Those who 
have Photographic Mosaics for this year will 
observe that on page 110 there are some ex- 
tracts from Mr. Kobinson 's book which are 
a type of the whole. It is useful, and we 
recommend it. Would that we were able to 
place it gratuitously in the hands of every 
one of our subscribers. Our publishers have, 
in order to enable those ambitious to im- 
prove their work, imported a supply which 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



15 



are now ready, and are advertised this month. 
The book contains 199 pages divided into 41 
chapters of matter of intense value to you 
all. It is plainly written, and is printed on 
fine toned paper. Aim high, and try to excel 
in all you undertake. The most pleasing 
and successful work always comes from those 
who exercise the greatest amount of artistic 
feeling in the treatment of their subject, be 
it a portrait or a landscape. 



Buchtel's Photographic Plate-Holder. 

There is so much waste in every photo- 
graphic studio, that wherever it can be done 
it is to the interest of the photographer to 
adopt every means to prevent it. The drip- 
pings from the plate-holder, as it is carried 
from the dark-closet to the camera, doubt- 
less waste enough to purchase a new box 
every year, in many studios. 

Another annoyance is the rotting of the 
tablets in the holder, thus causing them to 
be out of focus ; and still another, where 
one camera-box is used for various sizes, is 
the necessity of placing a small tablet with- 
in a large one to suit the size you wish to 
work. 




All these troubles and all this waste are 
said to be prevented by the invention by 
Mr. Joseph Buchtel, Portland, Oregon, of 
a new plate-holder, of which the above is a 
drawing. B B is the dark-slide; C the door 
of the holder ; two right and left pieces E 
E are arranged to move to or from each 
other on the ways D D (above and below). 
There are two pitcher-lipped glass or porce- 
lain vials F F, on the inside of whose lips are 
supports for the plate L L, which approach 
two other supporting points H H, in a dove- 
tail groove N N (one in either piece E E). 



All of these points are therefore adjustable, 
so that if it is desirable to change the holder 
after using a large plate, to accommodate a 
smaller one, L and L and H H are made to 
approach each other, as are also E and E, and 
vice versa. To effect the condition of focus 
the four supports L L H H, being supported 
by the pieces E E, are made to approach 
the lenses by springs J J J J, there being 
one at each end of either piece E E, work- 
ing against the back side of the ways D D. 

These same supports move from the lenses 
by screwing against the said ways any of 
the screws K K K K. At I I there are 
springs which press the pieces E E down- 
wards against the way D, to assist in keep- 
ing the pieces wherever they may be placed. 
The pitcher-lipped vials of course catch the 
drippings of the plates, and are firmly at- 
tached to springs C C. When the vials 
become filled they are raised up to the open- 
ing M M, taken out, emptied, and replaced. 

The supporting points alluded to serve as 
the corners of the holder. The under and 
rear ends of H H slope downward and 
toward the glass, so that a drop would come 
to the glass were one on either H or H. 
From the model before us, we should think 
the invention a very useful and practical 
one. Mr. Buchtel has patented his inven- 
tion, and Messrs. E & H. T. Anthony & 
Co., New York, are his agents. This holder 
can be made to suit any camera. 



Hints on Cutting out Stereograph 
Pictures. 

BY J. CAEBUTT. 

In looking over a collection of stereo- 
graphs I have, made by various photogra- 
phers, I notice, with a few exceptions, a 
great difference in the amount of subject 
contained in each half of the stereograph, 
and in the distance from a centre object in 
one half to the same object in the other half, 
ranging from three-eighths to an inch or 
more. Now this is a serious error, and very 
detrimental to the interests of the stereo- 
scopic trade. The stereographs I find to 
be the most accurately cut, are Wilson's, 
Scotch, and England's Swiss views, and 
the worst, are by French and German pho- 



16 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



tographers. A view now before me of Ant- 
werp Cathedral, with Bubens' statue in the 
foreground, has, when viewed in the stereo- 
scope, only two and one-sixteenth inches of 
subject, giving the appearance of a small 
carte-de-visite, yet each half is three inches 
wide. In contrast to this, another view, 
each half being three inches wide, gives 
when viewed in the stereoscope three and 
five-eighths inches of subject, requiring great 
strain on the eyes to see it stereoscopically. 
The error in the view of Antwerp Cathe- 
dral is caused in having seven-eighths and 
one-sixteenth of an inch more subject in- 
cluded on the right half when mounted, 
than in the left half, and had that additional 
amount of subject been on the right of the 
left half, it would have been impossible to 
have combined the two halves in the stereo- 
scope, because it would have made the cen- 
tres three and fifteen-sixteenths inches apart. 
That there should be some uniformity in the 
distance occupied from centre to centre of 
a stereograph, is a fact generally conceded, 
yet a difference of opinion exists as to what 
that distance should be. Some say two and 
a half inches, others two and three-quarters 
to three inches. I have found but few per- 
sons who could not with the Holmes' stereo- 
scope, combine without any fatigue to the 
eye, the stereograph images when the cen- 
tres did not exceed two and seven-eighths 
inches to three inches. That is the distance 
I find most common in the views by Wilson 
and England. When negatives are cut and 
the halves transposed before printing, the 
centres are fixed, and the distance cannot 
be changed in the trimming. But if the 
two halves are cut out from an uncut nega- 
tive, and care is not taken to include the 
same amount of subject in each half, then 
both the distance from centre to centre and 
amount of subject included can be changed, 
as will be explained by reference to the dia- 
gram annexed, which is a drawing exactly 
the size of my own negatives and the shape 
the prints are cut out. Let us suppose the 
diagram to be a stereoscopic print from an 
uncut negative, and from figure 7 to figure 
7 is three and three-eighths inches. You 
fold the print in the centre, and if you wish 
to trim with a glass, first trim off the top and 
bottom edge ; you lay a glass shape on it 



three inches square, with its top edge even 
with the top of the print, and its right edge 
three-sixteenths of an inch from the right 
edge of the folded print ; trim off right and 
left. On examination, and placing the 
halves together to be viewed stereoscopi- 
cally, you will find the centres of the view 
to be three inches apart, that figures 1 and 
13 are included, and that you have three 
inches of subject included in the view. Now 
if instead of placing the right edge of the 
glass shape three-sixteenths of an inch from 
the edge of the print, you place it three- 
eighths of an inch and trim off the right 
and left margin, you will find you have left 
out figure 1 in the right, and figure 13 in 
the left half, and when viewed in the stereo- 
scope you see three and three-sixteenths 
inches of subject, and from figure 7 to fig- 
ure 7 is that distance apart. Again, had the 
glass been placed close to the folded edge 
and the prints cut out, figure 1 of the left, 
and figure 13 of the right half, would have 
been left out, the centre or figure 7 would 
have been brought so much the closer to- 
gether, and the amount of subject included 
two and thirteen-sixteenths of an inch. To 
obtain an approximation to uniformity in 
mounting the views I publish, I first ar- 
range my lenses on the front of my camera, 
so that from centre to centre is three and 
three-eighths inches. If the central divi- 
sion of the camera does not leave a narrow 
perpendicular line of clear glass in the cen- 
tre of the negative, I make one by laying 
a square on the negative, after varnishing, 
and clean off, with a chisel-pointed brad 
awl, the varnish for an eighth of an inch in 
the centre;* on this line on the print the 
mounter lays an ivory paper-folder, folds 
the right over the left half, and makes a 
mark in pencil on the right half, to desig- 
nate that it is to form the left half when 
mounted. The print is then put in one of 
Bcrgner's stereo cutters, the folded edge 
resting against the piece of metal that forms 
the space to receive the print, and which is 

* The annexed design is made so as to repre- 
sent this centre line. Also the outer marginal 
line is the actual size of the plates Mr. Carbutt 
works — 5 x 8 inches, and the inside line the size 
of the print when trimmed for the cutting ma- 
chine. 

















lit \ 






ts5 \ 








* \ 






^. 1 










c^> 








N 








05 








<to 








^ / 






^ / : 






fe / 








K -^ 










*3 
















t« \ 








** \ 








tri \ 










Cb 










^J 








Co 










1 




: 




^ / 








& J 








r§ / 








Ks. ^/ 










^ 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



17 



three-sixteenths of an inch from the right 
edge of the cutter, the lever handle is press- 
ed down, which forces the centre up and 
cuts out both halves at once. 

It will he seen that there is a piece cut out 
of the centre of three-eighths of an inch in 
width, which answers to the amount the 
lenses are separated over three inches. I 
find this the most reliable plan of trimming 
stereographs, and recommend it as much 
superior to the plan of trimming with glass 
and knife. I formerly used a punch and 
rawhide block, but the punch would grow 
dull, and the rawhide wanted occasional 
planing. But the above plan I have used 
daily for nearly two years, and the cutter 
cuts as well now as when first tried. Some 
photographers take their views with the 
lenses four inches apart. In such a case, 
the distance from side guide to the edge of 
the cutter would have to be half an inch. 
Both halves would be found to contain to a 
fraction the same amount of subject. The 
size of my cutter is three inches wide, by 
three and one-eighth in the clear, and was 
obtained from the manufacturers, Wilson, 
Hood & Co., Philadelphia. 



NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. 

It is now some months since my letters 
have found a place in your paper ; not, 
however, from any loss of interest in our 
art, but from causes beyond my control. 
Since my last I have visited many, very 
many of the craft in a social way, when 
visiting their cities and towns upon busi- 
ness of my own, quite foreign to photogra- 
phy. I have visited nearly every State in 
the Union, and have seen some work that 
pleased me, but much, very much that was 
not even good. 

"Why it is that so much poor work is made 
is beyond any conjecture of mine, except it be 
that so-called artists are not artists at all, 
and have no desire to be. Beyond fear of 
contradiction, I assert that it costs no more 
to make a good photograph than a poor 
one ; indeed, if a good negative be made it 
costs far less to make a dozen prints than it 
would to make the same number from a 
streaky, dirty, stained negative ; over which 
prints much time is spent in endeavoring 



to make them passable, but never good. 
More study and more care must be given 
to the elements of our art by its followers, 
and less to the thousand and one suggested 
and useless formulas, new and old. 

The December meeting of the Photo- 
graphic Section of the American Institute 
was presided over by Prof. Charles A. Joy, 
Vice-President. At the previous meeting 
a resolution was proposed by the Section, 
in which it was declared that the award of 
premiums at the late Exhibition was wrong, 
and the same was ordered sent to the Board 
of Managers of the Exhibition. In accord- 
ance with the spirit of said resolution, the 
Board of Managers rescinded their former 
action, and awarded to Mr. William Kurtz, 
872 Broadway, N. Y., the only premium for 
photographic portraiture. Mr. Newton re- 
ported that he had continued his experiment 
upon the alkaline bath, and had found that 
results equally good were had with such a 
bath in half the time of exposure compara- 
tively to the acid bath. He exposed in a 
flat glass bottle tightly corked, crystals of 
nitrate of silver to the action of sunlight for 
two months; these, darkened to grayish- 
blue color, were subsequently dissolved in 
distilled water, and the bath so made was 
positively alkaline, and gave results he 
thought far better than couid be had from 
any acid bath. 

Prof. S. I). Tillman remarked that the 
discovery made by Mr. Newton was singu- 
lar, and likely to lead to important results. 
Assuming that the proof is positive that crys- 
tals of pure nitrate of silver, when exposed 
to direct sunlight for a given time, will be 
changed in appearance and in character 
also, since an aqueous solution of this neu- 
tral salt after such treatment has been 
shown to be decidedly alkaline, the manner 
of this change becomes a question of great 
interest, because it differs from any chemi- 
cal action before observed. He did not be- 
lieve the alkalinity of the compound was 
due to a single element, but was the result 
of the unusual combination of two ele- 
ments, resembling somewhat the action by 
which the volatile alkali ammonia is pro- 
duced by the union of three atoms of hydro- 
gen with one of nitrogen. The body under 
consideration contains nitrogen, which is a 



18 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



triad, its least saturating power being, tri- 
atomic, and, as seen in the case of ammonia, 
one atom of it is capable of holding three 
atoms of the monad element, hydrogen. 
The strongest reason for supposing that 
silver may play the same part as hydrogen, 
is that both are monatomic. Only nine 
other elements belong to this class of mon- 
ads, namely, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, 
and iodine among the electro negatives, 
and lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, 
and ccesium among the electro positive 
simple bodies. If we suppose that the 
presence of water is necessary to this 
change, we may represent the new combi- 
nation by following the example of Ber- 
zelius, who regarded even an aqueous solu- 
tion of ammonia as the oxide of ammonium. 
An atom of water and an atomoid nitrate 
of silver belong to the same type, and are 
expressed by 



}° 



and 



NO, 
Aa; 



}° 



in which the atomic weight of oxygen is 
doubled (16); and these same elements, after 
the change which produces alkaline charac- 
teristics, may be represented by the tetrad 
thus: 

NCU 

H to 

H [ Ua 

Ag J 

It may be observed' here, that a change 
in chemical structure does not necessarily 
involve a change in chemical functions, but 
the typical formula expresses more clearly 
the new part which it is now supposed may 
be played by silver, and which, if confirmed 
by further experiments, will become the 
starting-point in a new series of discoveries. 

Mr. Newton further remarked that an 
increase of alkalinity did not give increased 
sensitiveness. The bath should be faintly 
alkaline. 

Mr. Chapman stated that he had made 
many experiments with an alkaline bath, 
and was fully satisfied that it would not an- 
swer to use such in cases when plates had 
to be kept long after removal from the bath 
and before the exposure — such he was confi- 
dent would always fog. He stated that he 
had made baths alkaline by the use of cy- 
anide. 



Mr. Newton was of the opinion that if he 
had used ammonia or sunned his baths, such 
results would not have followed. He be- 
lieved that the fog in Mr. Chapman's case 
was owing to a deposit of salts from the 
cyanide upon the partly-dried plate. 

Mr. Kurtz exhibited the negatives from 
which he is now printing for your Journal, 
that all could satisfy themselves that they 
were not retouched in any degree ; also 
prints from same. I make bold to say that 
it excels any portrait ever published by you, 
or in any photographic journal the world 
over. Mr. Kurtz also exhibited and ex- 
plained a new and most ingenious as well 
as complete reflector arranged with wings 
on top, bottom, and sides, so that light can 
be thrown in any direction, and by its use 
any effect of same can be produced. The 
side wings or reflectors are concave, so 
that the light can be concentrated and not 
lost as now by diffusion, a capital idea ; all 
of which he most generously gives to his 
brother photographers, although, if pat- 
ented, it would, in my opinion, prove a 
profitable operation. Such men not only 
benefit the craft, but, by their improve- 
ments in our art, raise its standard and 
benefit the human family ; all honor is due 
him. 

Mr. Chapman pitched into you a little for 
the reason that, on page 103 of Mosaics, for 
1869, you publish a process of Mr. England 
for cleaning silver solution, he claiming that 
he was the first to suggest the same in the 
American Journal of Photography (Seeley), 
September 1st,. 1865, page 117, and that you 
had also published the same in vol. ii, 
Philadelphia Photographer, page 165, in the 
Summary, by M. Carey Lea. 

Mr. Bierstadt exhibited a fine series of 
pictures made by the process of J. Albert, 
of Munich, Bavaria, and which has within 
a month been patented in the United 
States. As you will, no doubt, publish 
specifications of the same, I will not here 
attempt a description. One of these pictures 
was 20 x 25, and was pronounced by all to 
be superb. 

Prof. Joy also exhibited a series of the 
same, recently received by him from Prof. 
Woehlcr, of Gottingen, which were also 
much admired. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



19 



Mr. Hull offered the following resolu- 
tion : 

Resolved, That this Section consider the words 
" plain photograph " in the classification of the 
American Institute for exhibitions to be : all 
photographs not retouched upon the positive 
print, except so far as may be required to re- 
move pin-holes, and such trifling defects as are 
common to negatives or prints. 

After discussion it was unanimously 
adopted. 

After much pleasant intercourse, but lit- 
tle other business of general interest, the 
Section adjourned to January, 1870, and 
leaving to posterity another year of photo- 
graphic history ; one in which much ad- 
vance has been made in the quality and 
artistic value of its products, even' though 
it has not been marked by any great dis- 
covery or wonderful improvement. 

"Wishing to all a year of progress,, profit, 
and good cheer, I am, as ever, 

0. W. H. 



BERGNER'S STEREOSCOPIC 
PRINT CUTTER. 

Me. Cakbutt's paper will excite a great 
deal of interest among those who produce 
stereographs in any quantity,, for it is touch- 
ing a matter which does not receive the 
careful attention it should. Those who are 
not directly in that line of trade, have 
scarcely an idea of the immense quantities 
of stereoscopic pictures that are sold. Those 
who have a nice, attractive series of nega- 
tives know that they are a continual source 
of revenue to them, and add much to the 
profits of the year. And the time is com- 
ing when the majority of photographers 
must produce more or less stereoscopic 
work. To do it well, then, should be their 
greatest aim, and, to produce in quantities 
to meet the competition that will exist, it 
is essential to adopt the most economical 
plan of working. The cutting out of the 
prints, before or after toning, occupies con- 
siderable time, but the old-fashioned ways 
of a knife and form, or punch and block, as 
Mr. Carbutt states, are no longer economi- 



cal. Noticing this, also, Mr. Theodore 
Bergner, an experienced amateur photog- 
rapher of this city, has perfected a little 
machine that has proven invaluable to all 
who use it, for the rapid trimming of 
prints. 

The cut below is a careful drawing of the 
one adapted to the stereoscopic size. The 
prints are folded over as instructed by Mr. 
Carbutt, laid upon the guide A, pushed 
through the opening in the side at B, over 
the die or punch D, until the edge of the 
print touches the pins C C, which stop its 
further progress and keep it in place. The 
handle E is now' quickly brought down by 
the hand, which action, in connection with 
the joint F and a spring-cam movement 
in the post G, causes the die or punch D to 
be forced upwards against the print and 
to cut it out, of proper shape. Thus, both 
ends of the stereo print are trimmed at 
once of the desired shape and size. The trim- 
mings are removed by placing the thumb 




■ggss^gi 







WimBM^ 



c/rosscc/P* wff T-/* ' 



at B, and drawing therm towards you r 
when the machine is again ready for use. 
It is a perfect little piece of mechanism, 
and works like a charm. The flange H is- 
furnished with screw-holes, by means of 
which the machine is fastened to the table 
or stand. We described the larger sizes 
some time ago. They are in daily use by 
many of our best artists, but are unknown 
to many more, and since Mr. Carbutt has 
revived the subject, we thought it would be 
well to describe this size again. Mr. Not- 
man, of Montreal, has six or seven of va- 
rious sizes, we are informed. Messrs. Wil- 
son, Hood & Co. are the manufacturers. 



20 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



NOTES IN AND OUT OF THE 
STUDIO. 

BY G. WHARTON SIMPSON, M.A., F.S.A. 
I. 

Preliminary — Fire in a Photographic Studio 
— Photographic Exhibition — Idealism in 
Portraiture — Hoiv to Recover a Lost Nega- 
tive. 

London, December 1st, 1869. 

As my " Notes " will reach your readers 
just when the echoes of the old year have 
ceased, will you permit me to carry out our 
old world custom of wishing my known and 
unknown friends in America a happy and 
prosperous new year? In my communica- 
tions with them through the press of the 
Philadelphia Photographer, during the next 
twelve months, I shall, whilst endeavoring 
still to make my notes from this side of the 
Atlantic practical, as heretofore, occasion- 
ally diversify my letters with items of gen- 
eral photographic intelligence, gossip, news, 
in short with anything which I think will 
interest photographers, and promote the 
interests of photography. I shall thus have 
an opportunity of keeping your readers 
"posted" on all matters of photographic 
progress, scientific, artistic, commercial, and 
social, in this part of the world. With such 
a comprehensive subject, and limited space, 
brevity must be my constant watchword. 
So no more preliminary observations. 

Fire in a Photographic Studio. — The studio 
of Mr. Valentine Blanchard, one of our most 
capable professional photographers on this 
side, has just been entirely destroyed by 
fire, and in it all his cameras, lenses, acces- 
sories, and in short all the plant of the 
studio, as well as the photographic equip- 
ments of three pupils who had been receiv- 
ing lessons. Mr. Blanchard is a manufac- 
turer of a collodion of high repute, as well 
as a portraitist and landscape photographer. 
In the dark-room attached to his studio, 
some twenty or thirty gallons of collodion, 
ether, and alcohol, were stored in glass bar- 
rels. From some change in the tempera- 
ture one of these barrels holding six gallons 
of collodion burst, and gas being burning 
in the same room, the fumes of ether 
eventually came into contact with the flame. 
An explosion followed, which blew Mr. 
Blanchard into the middle of the adjoining 



garden, where he found himself fortunately 
but slightly hurt, being a little cut by the 
shattered glass of one of the sashes, which 
he found on the top of him. The remain- 
ing barrels of collodion, etc., were speedily 
ignited, and these with a few pounds of 
gun-cotton, produced a succession of explo- 
sions, and a raging fire which destroyed 
the studio and its contents utterly in twenty 
minutes : a few ashes, some shrivelled brass 
tubes, and a little molten glass, being all 
that remained within the portions of brick 
wall forming the supports of the studio, 
which were left standing. 

Photographers do not generally keep such 
a large stock of collodion or ether on their 
premises as that just mentioned, and they 
know very well, as a rule, that the vapors 
so readily given off are dangerously inflam- 
mable; but it may not be amiss again to 
enforce the fact on the attention of all pho- 
tographers. A pound or less of collodion 
would be quite sufficient, if once ignited, to 
set on fire the premises where it was stored. 
It is a wise rule never to keep more than a 
few ounces for immediate use, in any apart- 
ment where the flame of a fire, gas, or a 
lamp, ever has access. In storing collodion 
the bottle should never be more than seven- 
eighths or even three-quarters full, to allow 
for expansion in case of any rise of tempera- 
ture, and the stoppers should be tied down. 
Good corks are better in many respects than 
stoppers, as the latter are sometimes blown 
out, and falling down again may break the 
bottle. Bottles containing any stock of col- 
lodion are better placed on the ground, or 
on shelves low down, than on high, as the 
vapor of ether being heavy falls, and when 
it is near the ground is comparatively harm- 
less, as a flame is not likely to be put down 
to it; but if a bottle on a high shelf were 
to burst or crack and leak, the vapor in 
falling would be most likely to come into 
contact with any light in the room and so 
get ignited. Lastly, if by chance a bottle 
containing any quantity of ether or collo- 
dion, get broken or overturns, even in the 
dark, under no circumstances should alight 
be brought into the room ; but all lights put 
out, and fires in adjoining apartments as 
speedily as possible, and then by throwing 
open windows and doors a draught should 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



21 



be secured to dissipate as quickly as possible 
vapors of the spilt spirits. 

Photographic Exhibition. — A very suc- 
cessful exhibition has just been held in con- 
nection with the London Photographic 
Society. By common consent amongst 
photographers and art connoisseurs, this 
has been pronounced the very best exhibi- 
tion of photographs ever seen in this coun- 
try, the especial distinction being the great 
advance in art excellence manifest in the 
mass of the pictures. It was kept open 
three weeks, and many thousands of the 
public, besides photographers, visited it, 
between one and two thousand of catalogues 
being sold to the public, besides those dis- 
tributed gratuitously to members of the 
society. Such exhibitions are valuable in 
every way. They show the public what 
progress is making in photography, and 
they stimulate that progress by affording 
photographers an opportunity of seeing 
what is done by others, and by creating 
friendly emulation amongst them. The 
London daily and weekly press has given 
some excellent notices of the pictures ex- 
hibited, although in some instances too 
much tinctured by the jealousy of the con- 
ventional art critic, who sees the rapid 
strides with which photography is advanc- 
ing to claim an unchallengeable niche in 
the temple of the Fine Arts. 

Idealism in Portraiture. — The writer of 
the article in the Times on the recent exhi- 
bition, Mr. Tom Taylor, recognized as an 
able and accomplished art critic, has felt it 
necessary, in face of the advance made by 
photography in the domain of pictorial art, 
to offer a vigorous protest against the use of 
photography for picture making. He says 
that he has before expressed his conviction 
that the true function of photography is to 
" record facts as they are, and not as ar- 
ranged for pictorial effect." He adds: "If, 
indeed, the theory of some of our painters 
were true — that the painter's work is simply 
to represent what he sees before him — then 
the photographer might claim to be put in 
the same rank as the painter, and above 
him. . . . But if, as we hold, the dis- 
tinctive function of the painter's art be not 
transcription, but new creation, the condi- 
tion of which is the subordination of the 



objects represented to certain mental states 
and acts of the artist, it is evident that 
photography is excluded, for the sun will 
paint what he sees as exactly as he can." 
I fancy from occasional opportunities of 
judging, that art critics, even in advanced 
America, are scarcely more just to photo- 
graphy. I always feel concerned to protest 
vehemently against errors so repressive of 
art effort on the part of the photographer. 
The paragraph I have selected from the 
Times critic is brief enough, but it is 
most comprehensive in its error, and because 
I fear that error is common in all commu- 
nities, perhaps you will allow me briefly to 
repeat here my ground of protest against 
it. I need not dwell on the error of nar- 
rowness in supposing all art to be of a cre- 
ative character, which excludes at once from 
the art category all imitative art. This 
scarcely needs discussion. Nor is it neces- 
sary to enlarge on the further error in re- 
garding photographs as the work of the 
sun in the sense indicated. They are the 
work of the photographer, and, within 
limits, as distinctly bear the impress of the 
producer's mind, and indicate his capacity 
and intention as truly, as do the results of 
other plastic arts ; indeed, all praise or blame 
of the photographer for the art qualities of 
his work would be meaningless if they were 
beyond his control, and simply the work of 
the sun. 

But the cardinal error is the assumption 
that it is not the function of the painter to 
paint what he sees, at least in all renderings 
of nature, whether in protraiture or land- 
scape. This is, of course, an old subject of 
controversy, embracing much wider con- 
siderations than belong merely to photogra- 
phy. It involves the question as to whether 
art should represent truth, or merely the 
painter's conception of truth, which, in any 
departure or modification, must, we submit, 
fall short of, rather than transcend, truth. 
I utterly protest against the notion, in por- 
traiture at any rate, that there should be 
any " subordination of the objects represen- 
ted" to the mental state of the artist. The 
notion of idealizing portraits is an old one. 
That the artist should invest his sitters with 
a grace or a nobleness not their own was at 
one time regarded as a matter of course. 



22 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



Dr. Johnson said, that it was one of the 
highest proofs of the genius of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, that he contrived to give noble- 
ness to the head of Goldsmith in his por- 
trait, whose genial soul and fine intellect 
were not habited in a very dignified or hand- 
somebody. If Reynolds gave to Goldsmith 
a nobility of countenance which nature had 
denied, but which the painter conceived was 
more characteristic of the inner man than 
the actual presentment, then we have in the 
portrait Reynolds's conception of what Gold- 
smith ought to have looked like, and not the 
actual portrait of the man. If he merely 
depicted him at his best, happily catching 
the expression which lit up the face when 
it was aglow with some unusually happy 
thought, then he did not give Goldsmith 
the noble look, but, with the true painter's 
skill, readily detected the noblest effect, and 
gave permanent form to a transient expres- 
sion. This is the prerogative of the painter, 
in many sittings, during many hours, to 
effect. It would be equally the prerogative 
of the skilful photographer, with a tithe of 
the time and opportunity, if either were 
afforded him ; for if the highest duty of the 
painter is to seize and to perpetuate the best 
actual expression presented to him, photog- 
raphy can do that more rapidly and effici- 
ently than the most skilled hand can be ex- 
pected to effect it. Photographs, it may be 
admitted, then, are rarely such noble por- 
traits as the skilled painter can produce, 
simply because the photographer rarely has 
such opportunities, in the few brief mo- 
ments often given up to sitting for a photo- 
graphic portrait, of seeing and securing the 
best phases of his sitter's countenance, as 
are afforded to the painter. 

" How to Recover a Lout Negative when you 
have a Print Thereof," is the title of a series 
of pictures exhibited by Mr. Rejlander in 
our exhibition, and the pictures admirably 
illustrate the lesson they are, intended to 
teach. The subject is one of his well-known 
genre pictures, with the title " Please give 
us a copper, sir !" The negative has been 
lost or broken, and the subject being still in 
demand, it was desirable to produce another 
negative. Every photographer knows that 
prints from a negative reproduced from an 
albumenized print the full size of the plate 



are generally immeasurably inferior to those 
produced from the original negative. The 
picture is flat, the definition is faulty, and 
the texture of the paper, being reproduced 
as perfectly as the image, produces great 
coarseness. 

Mr. Rejlander deals with the difficulty in 
this way : he first reproduces the original 
whole-plate print in reduced proportion, a 
card-size negative being obtained, and, by 
such reduction, the best definition is secured. 
Prom this small negative an enlargement 
on plain paper about fifteen by twelve is ob- 
tained ; and this enlarged print is very care- 
fully worked in monochrome — water color, 
chalk, or charcoal being employed, this 
latter being most suitable. This part of the 
work requires, of course, great skill and 
care. The points requiring especial atten- 
tion from the artist are to preserve round- 
ness and modelling, to avoid bold hatching 
or coarse manipulation of any kind, and to 
retain the likeness with scrupulous accu- 
racy. A bold, round, well-modelled pic- 
ture having been secured, with soft grada- 
tions closely resembling those of photogra- 
phy, a negative reduced to the original size 
is obtained from it. If the work be skil- 
fully done, it will yield prints equal to the 
original in every respect, and, if necessary, 
in some respects superior, as is shown in the 
series of prints in which Mr. Rejlander 
teaches the lesson. 



GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. 

Silvered Paper that will Keep — To Separate 
Retouched Pictures from the Mounts — 
Durability of the Negatives and Dextrine 
as a Preservative against Splitting — Re- 
touching before Varnishing — The Varnish- 
ing of Underexposed Negatives — The Ex- 
pense of Photo-Relief Prints — Loescher $• 
Petsch's New Studio. 

The old story of the egg of Columbus is 
often verified in photography. Intelligent 
and practical men will search for years the 
solution of a problem, much time, money, 
and labor are wasted, and, when we think 
that the discovery has been made, we only 
find that much is wanting yet. This has 
boon the case with all the experiments to pro- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



23 



cure a permanent silvered paper, which can 
be kept for an indefinite period, which will 
not turn yellow in the copying-frame, and 
still possess all the other qualities of an 
ordinary silvered albumen paper. The first 
attempts were made with a collodion paper. 
You remember Obernetter's, which gave 
beautiful results, but the film was very apt to 
peel off, and besides, the exposure was very 
great. Mr. Ost, in Vincennes, published the 
formula for the making of this paper, which 
I, at the time, communicated to you in -this 
correspondence. The process was compli- 
cated and expensive, and the result all in all, 
but unreliable. A few months ago Schaffner 
&Mohr produced a carbonate of silver paper. 
The paper was very deep, kept excellent, 
and became sensitive only by fumigation 
with ammonia, the pictures also as good 
as with albumen paper ; in short, the prob- 
lem was solved, but still a secret. 

I can give you now the secret. A pho- 
tographer by the name of Baden, in Altona, 
has found that he obtains a paper as good as 
the carbonate of silver paper, by taking 
common albumen paper, silvering it in the 
ordinary way, and, after washing it in three 
or four waters, he dries it. As soon as I 
heard of it I made the ti-ial. I took some 
albumen paper, silvered it, washed it in 
four changes of warter, and, after drying it 
in the dark, kept it for two weeks. The 
paper kept perfectly white ; the paper as 
well as the cushion of the copying-frame, 
were fumed for half an hour with ammonia, 
and I obtained in rather dark weather in 
the ordinary time, a print which, in regard 
to vigor and depth, was fully equal to a print 
on albumen paper. The fixing and toning 
proceeded in the ordinary manner. 

This solves the problem in the simplest 
manner. Every photographer can now 
make his own "permanent paper," and 
many an amateur who has abandoned the 
printing process on account of the trouble 
and the soiling of the fingers, cam purchase 
the silvered paper. The practical photog- 
rapher, whom unfavorable weather pre- 
vents from using up the paper prepared for 
a day's work, has a simple means at hand 
to save himself from loss, for the paper will 
keep for weeks. 

Another practical suggestion concerning 



our silver pictures on paper I will not 
omit here. Every dealer in mounted and 
retouched prints is aware that the prints, 
by frequent handling, become soiled, and, 
in consequence, the pictures have to be sold 
at a reduced rate. It becomes a matter of 
importance to find means to detach such 
retouched prints from their mounts in such 
a manner that the retouch shall not suffer 
by it. Mr. Grasshoff has accomplished this 
by covering the picture with diluted plain 
collodion, and then places it in hot water, 
to soak it off the mount. The collodion 
protects the reiouch, and is simply laid on 
with a broad brush. 

We have lately been treated again, in our 
society, with the old song about the split- 
ting of the varnished negative film. This 
has happened unusually frequent of late, 
and valuable negatives which cannot be 
replaced have been lost. The lively dis- 
cussion of this subject evidently proved 
that we are still, in a measure, ignorant of 
the causes of this evil. I, for my part, feel 
convinced that the excessively damp weather 
of the last three months is the main cause 
of it. The dampness of the atmosphere 
does not only operate after, but during var- 
nishing. The collodion film is porous like 
a sponge, and absorbs moisture in a high 
degree. A negative which has been varnished 
in damp weather is quite different from one 
which has been varnished in a dry atmos- 
phere. I noticed this fact in a remarkable 
manner during my last year's voyage in 
Egypt. At Aden, where the air is constantly 
saturated with moisture, we found it im- 
possible to get a clear varnish on our nega- 
tives. We tried different kinds of varnish, 
we exposed the negatives to a high temper- 
ature ; it was all of no avail. The varnish 
would become cloudy, while, on the other 
hand, in the Lybian Desert, the same var- 
nish would give a beautiful transparent 
film. I think this proves, beyond dispute, 
the evil influence of the atmospheric mois- 
ture during varnishing. 

The difference in the permanence of the 
Aden and the Desert negatives is remark- 
able. The Aden plates are very tender, 
and part of them covered with innumerable 
cracks ; while, of the eighteen negatives of 



24 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



the Desert, only six show some slight splits 
in the film. 

It has been frequently tried to protect 
the negative by a double film. It has been 
recommended, for instance, to cover the 
negative first with a solution of gum ara- 
bic and, to varnish it afterwards ; but my 
friend Petsch tells me that in this he has 
not succeeded. Still worse is a caoutchouc 
solution, as recommended by Mr. England ; 
it makes the plate still more sensitive. 

Others, again, have contended that the 
film will split on plate-glass only. This 
supposition is also erroneous. An experi- 
enced photographer here, a Mr. Schuler, 
calls attention to a process which he has 
employed successfully for the last three 
years ; he covers the plates after they have 
been varnished with a solution of dex- 
trine 1.8 ; and he stated particularly that 
since be has followed this plan he has never 
been troubled with splitting of thefilm ; while 
formerly he often was annoyed in this way. 
The primary film offers still another ad- 
vantage: it will take the lead-pencil re- 
touch, and this being afterwards covered by 
the varnish, makes the retouch as perma- 
nent as the negative itself. In how far 
dextrine is suitable for this purpose, re- 
mains still to be seen. I, for my part, have 
used for a retouch surface a gelatine or gum 
arabic film of the consistency of 1.25 ; such 
a layer will take a lead-pencil mark of a 
darkness that is unattainable on the var- 
nish. The plates, however, require several 
hours to become perfectly dry, and this is 
sometimes a serious drawback. 

Another circumstance I must mention 
here, which Mr. Linduer stated in our 
society. It sometimes happens, and par- 
ticularly with under-exposed pictures, that 
the collodion film will burst in drying; to 
avoid this, Mr. Linduer lets the plate be- 
come partially dry, and covers it cold with 
ordinary varnish ; the plate, of course, be- 
comes perfectly cloudy and milky ; he now 
lets it become perfectly dry and revarnishes 
it, when it will appear perfectly transparent. 

In one of my letters which I sent to you 
last summer, I made a lengthy report on 
the Woodbury relief printing process, by 
Goupil, in Turk. I find this statement re- 
printed in one of the English journals. In 



the articles I gave full credit to the excel- 
lence of the results, but observed that the 
mounting was as expensive as the printing. 
Mr. "Woodbury, the inventor, objects to 
this, and says the process is no more ex- 
pensive than ordinary lithographing. It 
may be possible that, in England, the 
mounting is cheaper than in Paris. My 
publisher had to pay M. Goupil one hun- 
dred and fifty francs per thousand cabinet 
size for mounting. 

You may have heard that Messrs. Loes- 
cher & Petsch have constructed a new 
studio with " all the modern improve- 
ments." They have occupied it for a 
week,. In my next letter you shall have a 
full description and drawing of the same. 
Yours, very truly, 

Dr. H. Vogel. 



Coloring Magic Lantern Slides. 

In answer to a request made in our last 
issue, an " old practitioner " has sent us his 
method, as follows: 

" Seeing a wish for instruction expressed 
in your magazine on the subject of coloring 
lantern slides, I offer you the following for 
the use of your subscribers. In the first 
place, the operator must have some little 
knowledge of the rules of the art of color- 
ing. Then all will go smooth as the mar- 
riage bells, if he procures the following 
necessaries. 1. A selection of oil tube 
colors, such as are used by artists in oil 
painting, avoiding the opaque colors and 
selecting the transparent, such as the lakes 
for red ; verdigris for green ; gamboge for 
yellow, and some of the dry aniline colors. 
But if be goes to a respectable artists' color 
dealer and explains that he wants transpa- 
rent colors only, it will save trouble in the 
selection. 2. Procure, a small bottle of 
mastic varnish, one of spirits of turpentine, 
and a dozen soft brushes. 3. A kind of 
frame to lay the slides on (see cut below), 
placed at an elevation of 45 degrees, and a 
flat board to stand on the table, covered 
with white paper. This will give a kind of 
desk to work on, and the paper a guide to 
the effect that you are producing. Such a 
little aparatus does capitally for touching 
up negatives as well. Now to work : var- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGR APHEE. 



25 



nish the transparencies with bleached 
shellac in alcohol. This is important 
for many reasons not necessary to give here. 
Take a white porcelain palette (a dinner- 
plate will do), put a little of each color on 
it, and a little mastic varnish in the middle 
with which you mix the colors; the tur- 
pentine is used to thin the mixtures with, or 
to wash out any part or the whole, if the 
effect produced is not agreeable, and you can 
recommence. I fancy I see you buying 
vermilion, the effect would be so fine, but 
you will find it black on the screen. The 
nearest approach I have got is with gam- 
boge and crimson lake, but that is very 
short of scarlet. You must be very careful 
of dust or dirt of any kind, keeping your 
colors scrupulously clean, as every particle 
of it will adhere to the object and colors. 
A judicious mixture of the primary colors 
will produce all the effects you can obtain. 
Sometimes we paint also on the glass side 
for clouds, etc. I have tried to avoid all 
unnecessary detail, but should you require 
more, I will endeavor to give it in your 
next. H. D. F." 

"We also extract the following, which 
gives further instruction, from the Illus- 
trated Photographic Almanac for 1869. 

" Now the great difficulty encountered in 
coloring slides for the lantern is in the shad- 
ing up. Putting the outlines in, to any one 
who can draw, is a very simple matter, put- 
ting on a flat wash of color is a compara- 
tively simple matter too ; but in the shading 
considerable experience, practice, and skill 
are requisite to success. Now in this case 
the outlines are provided, and the shading 
too, so that we have only to deal with a few 
flat washes of color. The implements re- 
quired are first a suitable desk. This, shown 




in the above diagram, Fig. 1, is a sloping 
frame, holding a sheet of glass, and sup- 
ported drawing-desk fashion. A sheet of 



white paper is placed flat on the table under 
the glass, on which place your photograph. 
Three or four small sable brushes, each a lit- 
tle larger than the other, should be procured, 
and what is called a dabber, that is, a camel- 
hair brush cut down in the way shown by Fig. 
2, the edges of which should afterwards be 
passed through a flame so as to remove any 
straggling hairs, etc. The pigments used 
are those called transparent, and should be 
as powerful as possible ; for yellow I prefer 
gamboge, gallstone, and Indian yellow ; for 
blue, Prussian blue and Indigo ; for red, 
madder and crimson lake ; for orange, a 
combination of the crimson lake and Indian 
yellow, or burnt sienna; for brown, the 
madderand Vandyke browns; and for black, 
Indian ink and lampblack. With these pig- 
ments a large variety of other colors may 
be compounded. 

"In laying on the colors you must do so 
very carefully, so as to preserve them very 
clear and flat, or even. If the wash wants 
some slight after-touching to improve it, 
when dry breathe on it sufficiently to moisten 
the color ; and as it is on a non-absorbent 
ground, you may, by carrying a flat camel- 
hair brush lightly over it, make it satisfac- 
tory. Always use as large a brush as pos- 
sible. To soften the edges of tints or render 
them more even, you may, having first 
breathed upon them, stipple them by hold- 
ing the cut-down brush perpendicular to the 
glass, and moving it lightly with a dabbing 
motion over the surface. Carefully clean 
the dabber after you have so used it. 

"When the colors are quite dry, carefully 
and lightly coat them with a thin coating 
of varnish, carrying it over the colored 
portions only with a flat varnish brush, and 
over this you may proceed to color with the 
same pigments, only using oil colors. This 
process gives greater richness of color and 
force of effect than can be obtained if you 
begin and finish with water-colors, although 
you can do so if you please. Obtain the 
colors in oil already mentioned as necessary 
for water-color painting, with the addition 
of Italian pink, raw sienna, burnt umber, 
and Chinese blue; you will also require a 
little pale drying-oil, some gold size, as a 
drier; some mastic varnish, spirits of tur- 
pentine, and copal varnish. 



26 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



"The mode of proceeding is the same as 
I have already described, with this excep- 
tion, viz., that instead of using a brush for 
your dabber, you use a pad made of a nice 
soft little bit of kid leather stuffed with 
wool." 

It will be understood that these instruc- 
tions do not color the slides for you. Good 
taste and a knowledge of laying on colors 
with a brush should be added. The former 
you must acquire by practice and exercise, 
and the latter, Mr. Ayres, in his capital 
work How to Paint Photographs, gives very 
plainly and fully. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC WORLD. 

Caricature photographs have been de- 
cided as libels in England recently. 

M. Lieber, the talented editor and pub- 
lisher of the Moniteur de la Photographie, 
is deceased. 

The late exhibition of the London Photo- 
graphic Society was a grand success in every 
way. 

" Who discovered the collodion pro- 
cess?" is the subject which the English aro 
now discussing. 

Albert's process has been patented in 
this country. He offers to teach it in Mu- 
nich for 200 thalers. 

Mr. Woodbury has sold his patents in 
Belgium, and further protection has been 
granted him by the Bavarian government. 

Mr. George Bestall lately exhibited at 
the exhibition in London, direct prints from 
plates 37 x 24 inches. 

Mr. S. Bourne has found by experience 
in the Himalayas, that dry plates render 
distance that is hazy much more satisfac- 
torily than wet. 

M. Blanquart Evrard has just issued 
a valuable work entitled Photography : Its 
Origins, Progresses, and Transformations. 
It is accompanied by a number of examples 
by various photographic processes. 

The Wothlytypc, which came into vogue 
five or six years ago, and for which per- 
manency was claimed, time has proven to 
be no less perishable than silver prints. 



•Mr. Boss has recently made a doublet of 
20-inch focus, and covering a field 24 x 30. 
The front lens alone covers a picture five 
feet square. He made one some time ago 
for the Belgium government, the lenses of 
which were 8^ inches in diameter and 40 
inches focus. 

At a late meeting of the S. London So- 
ciety, Mr. Samuel Fry read a very cheer- 
ing paper on " The Present and Future of 
Photography," in which he gave vent to 
the following noble sentiment: " Let us 
not cease to place before the world the best 
work we can possibly do ; let us carefully 
consider the points in the pictures of great 
masters which mainly conduce to the effect, 
and without slavish imitation, do likewise." 

Photographers often get caught in the 
rain, and should always be provided with 
water-proof covering for their tents and 
traps. Good Scottish tweed may be made 
absolutely impervious to rain. " How ?" In 
a bucket of soft water put half a pound 
of sugar of lead and half a pound of pow- 
dered alum; stir this at intervals until it 
becomes clear, then pour it off into another 
bucket; immerse the garment therein for 
twenty-four hours. Hang up to dry without 
wringing it. 

Mr. Bellieze, in Le Moniteur, pro- 
poses two modifications of the Taupenot pro- 
cess. First, he points out the advantages 
which present themselves for the preser- 
vation of the collodio-albumenized glasses 
by treating them with an infusion of tea 
(water, sugar, and alcohol), after the plates 
have been sensitized and washed. He 
gives the plates two successive coats of this 
infusion. Secondly, he recommends for 
these plates an alkaline developer. 

Mr. Dubart gives in the same journal 
Liesegang's formula for the cofl'ee dry pro- 
cess. The plates are prepared with the fol- 
lowing collodion : 

Alcohol (36°), . . . 30 grams. 

Iodide of ammonium, . • I " 

" " strontium, . .1 " 

" " cadmium, . . 2i " 

Bromide of endmium, . .1 " 

The coffee solution which is used on the 
prepared plates is composed of 30 grams 
burnt and ground coffee, and 15 grams 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



27 



white sugar, which are put in 300 grams of 
boiling water. 

The pyrogallic acid developer contains 2 
grams of this salt for each 100 grams of 
water, to which are added 6 grams of ni- 
trate of silver, and 6 of lemon-juice, dis- 
solved in 100 parts of water. 

Les Mondes publishes in full Professor 
Morton's report on the eclipse of August 7. 
We translate the introductory remarks of 
Abbe Moigno : 

"The following report is long and of a 
local and personal interest. Our principal 
aim is to give credit to the generous volun- 
teers of science of the American expedition, 
and to publish the glorious result brought 
about by their co-operation. This expedi- 
tion in itself is a great example of devotion 
to science. Prof. Morton, who organized 
it, and his peaceable companions in arms, 
can claim the recognition of the scientific 
world. This is the reason why we consid- 
ered it our duty to publish the report in 
full." 

The Bulletin Beige publishes the process 
of Mr. Charles Cros for reproducing photo- 
graphs in colors. The particulars of this 
process were published in the December 
number of the Philadelphia Photographer, 
by Mr. M. Carey Lea. The invention of 
Mr. Charles Cros is simultaneous and iden- 
tical with the one of M. Dueos du Hauron. 

From Herr Otto Buehler, Berlin, we have 
received his book entitled " Atelier und 
Apparat <les Photographen," a work of 
367 pages, giving an exhaustive descrip- 
tion of the optical, chemical, and technical 
apparatus from the present standpoint of 
the photographic profession. An atlas of 17 
folio plates, containing 496 lithograph 
drawings, accompanies the work. 

Mr. W. L. Noverre, in the News, rec- 
ommends the best pale glue as an excellent 
mountant. It should be dissolved by slow 
heat — never allowed to boil — and strained 
through flannel. 

The committee appointed by the Berlin 
Society for the Promotion of Photography, 
consisting of Messrs. Petsch and Schneion, 
make the following report on the "light 
prints of Ohm and Grossmaur. They ac- 
knowledge that the samples of portraits, in 



regard to sharpness, depth, and softness, 
excel anything that has heretofore been 
brought before the Society. Tbey are of 
the opinion that this process with some 
negatives will give better results than a 
print on albumen paper." — Mittheilungen. 

Mr. H. P. Robinson's " Gull " picture, 
a copy of which was on exhibition at Bos- 
ton, in June, has been exciting English 
photographers for months, and discussed at 
great length in the journals. Every way 
in the world has been guessed as to how it 
was done, and yet nobody knows — but Mr. 
Robinson. 

The ball and socket joint, so useful in 
many waj^s, has been applied to the camera- 
box to secure a substitute for the swing- 
back, by a correspondent of the British 
Journal. The flange of the lens is screwed 
on to a large sphere of wood, the front of 
which is cut flat to permit of this being 
done. A hole is cut through the sphere to 
admit the lens tube passing through it. 
A hole is now made in the front of the 
camera, rather smaller than the diameter 
of the ball or globe, which consequently 
cannot pass through it. A smaller piece of 
wood is made with a hole through it of the 
same size as that in the camera, and is placed 
outside of the sphere, which is thus kept in 
its place and works between these two 
planes as a ball would in a socket, thus : 




The outer piece of wood m is attached to 
the camera front by means of another piece 
to which the former is in turn attached by 
the hinge n. The lens and sphere on which 
it is mounted may be rotated in any direc- 
tion, and when once adjusted is prevented 
from slipping by the screw o. To prevent 
the admission of light, the edges of the 
holes must be lined with black velvet. The 
advantages of the swing-back have been 
made plain in our pages several times, and 



28 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



this is a very cheap and good substitute, as 
almost any mechanic can do the job. 

■In the old days of paper negatives, Sir 
David Brewster published an article show- 
ing forth the advantage of printing through 
two or three sheets of paper of uniform 
texture, to secure softness or a mezzotint 
effect. — Cor. III. Photo. 

To keep the solutions warm in winter, it 
is recommended in the Bi-itish Journal to 
place them in glass vessels, and then set 
them in a solution of sulphuric acid and 
water. "We doubt the expediency of such 
practice in the dark-room. 



WRINKLES AND DODGES. 

For retouching negatives I have used only 
lead pencil, giving the negative a touch by 
brushing it with emery powder and sal soda 
ground together very fine. Borax, or any 
dry alkali, I presume, would answer as well ; 
the alkali has a slightly solvent effect on the 
varnish, which with the grinding quality 
of the emery gives the best biting surface 
of anything I have tried. 

M. M. Griswold. 

I save my wastes on the hat principle 
suggested in your November number/but I 
use three hats instead of two. The first year 
I used one ; the second two, and the third 
three. Next year I shall use four, for I find 
the more old hats I use the more silver I 
save. A. J. Perkins. 

I tjse fine beeswax to protect my plate- 
holders from the action of the silver solu- 
tion. "Warm the holder and wax, and rub 
the latter in with a piece of wash-leather. 
Thus protected the solution will roll off the 
holder in drops. 

For mounting prints I use equal parts of 
bonnet glue and gum arabic dissolved in 
hot water enough to make it as thick as or- 
dinary mucilage. Strain through muslin. 
When cool it will be about right to use in 
warm weather. In cold weather it will 
need to be slightly warmed. A few drops 
of alcohol will keep it from changing. It 
dries quickly, and leaves the cards Hat and 
elastic. I also use beeswax fur coating my 
india-rubber bath. I use a swab to rub over 



the wax warm. Asphaltum varnish can 
also be used for the same purpose. 

I have been experimenting with a dia- 
phragm, with a cresce^-shaped opening, by 
which I shade the sky and the centre of the 
picture. "Would like to hear of other par- 
ties trying it, and how they like it. 

A. F. Clough. 

A Quick Way of Preparing a Solu- 
tion of Gold. — Put one gold dollar into 
a 16-ounce bottle, add about ^ ounce aqua 
regia (1 part nitric and 3 parts muriatic 
acid) set the bottle in a warm place out of 
doors to avoid the fumes of the acid ; when 
the gold is dissolved, have ready a saturated 
solution of bicarbonate of soda filtered, and 
add slowly until it turns green and curdy, 
then add a few drops of aqua regia until it 
turns clear and yellow ; filter into a clean 
16-ounce bottle, and fill up with water, this 
will give you about 2 grains of gold to the 
ounce, and every dollar's worth of this solu- 
tion will turn as many prints as two dollars 
worth bought in powder. My experience 
of six years; try it. H. H. "Wood. 

Aqua regia is an exceedingly dangerous 
mixture and should only be made in quan- 
tity needed for immediate use. It is poison 
to inhale it.— Ed. P. P. 

As I very often find in "Wrinkles and 
Dodges" a receipt which benefits me, I 
thought I would send the following, and if 
you think it will be of any benefit to the 
craft, you can use it as you think best : 

To make a paste to mount photographs: 
Take £ ounce best white glue, 1 ounce 
starch, jounce acetic acid, ^ ounce alcohol; 
soak the glue over night in cold water, then 
mix the starch in a little water and add the 
acid and alcohol. Add these to the glue, 
put in water to make one pint, and boil 
gently twenty minutes. Always use it a 
little warm. It will not curl the cards as 
much as starch paste, and will not injure 
the glass of the albumen. 

C. V. Stevens. 

Acetic acid is very objectionable and un- 
necessary, and should not be used. It 
will cause the prints to discolor in a very 
short time. — Ed. P. P. 

The addition of throe or four drops of 
pure carbolic acid to a pint of solution, will, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



29 



it is stated, arrest the tendency to form scum 
on the printing bath, will check discolora- 
tion, and retard the tendency of the paper 
to turn brown on keeping a little time after 
sensitizing. 

O'Neil's Formula tor Collodion. 

Ether, .... 6 ounces. 

Some Brains. 

Alcohol, . . . . 6 " 

Some more Brains. 

Cotton, . . . .72 grains. 

Some Iodide. 

A little more Brains. 

Some Bromides and a large quantity 
of Brains. 
After the above is all dissolved and set- 
tled, add enough brains to make good nega- 
tives. > 

The above formula was given to a novice 
yesterday by Mr. Hugh O'Neil, the cele- 
brated manipulator of the establishment of 
Fredericks & O'Neil, of New York. — One 
in a Fog. 

VOICES FROM THE CRAFT. 

The following is a copy of a circular 
which has been sent us by several of our 
subscribers, with the insinuation that it is 
one of those humbugs which our readers 
should be cautioned against. 

ONE MOKE STEP TAKEN IN THE 
SCIENCE OF PICTURE MAKING. 

EUREKA ! EUREKA ! 

My Brother Artist : I have discovered 
something new, just as sure as you and I are 
born ! I will tell you. It is a picture beautiful 
beyond description. My ideal of a beautiful pic- 
ture was never fully realized till now. They are 
case pictures, and can be made and put up almost 
as rapidly as common plate pictures in cases, and 
I sell them at just double the price. 

Everybody that sees them will have them. 

I will send you one of those pictures in a good 
case, such as I sell for $2.50, on the receipt by 
letter of $1.50. Then if you like the picture and 
wish to introduce them to your customers, write 
me and I will send you the process for a reasona- 
ble compensation. Any body can produce them 
that make a good ambrotype. 

Now if you want to see a nice new thing for 
the trifling sum of one dollar and fifty cents, 
then "pitch in." It is no humbug. I have 
been in the picture business for twenty years, 



and consequently am no novice in photographic 
chemistry. 

If you do not wish to invest, then please hand 
this circular to some brother artist in your town 
and oblige, Yours, JOHN SYPHERS, 
Tonica, 111. 

I will send the picture per express. 

Mr. Syphers was written for further in- 
formation by a party in this city who de- 
sired not to invest until it was obtained, and 
received for answer that the " Eureka" is 
"a picture taken on glass, clear, transpar- 
ent, and beautiful. A beautiful border 
around the picture with soft outline and 
sharp contrast. It pleases everybody. You 
will not begrudge your $1 50. The silver 
is crystallized after the picture is taken." 
This tempting reply induced our corres- 
pondent to send Mr. Syphers a post office 
order for $1.50 as an investment, but he is 
still minus the promised picture, and begins 
to fear he has been too ready to " pitch in." 
Let our readers take warning from his ex- 
ample. Further in our next. 

Geneva, Dec. 9th, 1869. 

Mr. Editor: For the good of the fra- 
ternity, I should like to suggest to those 
making negatives to be used in illustrating 
the Journal, that they give not only the 
formula by which they were made, but also, 
in the case of portraits, the weather in which 
they were taken, whether sunny or cloudy ; 
whether the glass composing the sky and 
side-light be clear, ground, frosted, or cur- 
tained ; the exact length of exposure; the 
size and make of lens used, also size of dia- 
phragm ; whether side-screens or reflectors 
were used, and if so, at what distance from 
the sitter ; whether the background used 
be woollen or painted, and how far back of 
sitter ; and whether the collodion used was 
thick or thin. It seems to me if such prac- 
tical details were given — which might easily 
be done in a very few words — every opera- 
tor would then be in a much better condi- 
tion to compare intelligently his own work 
with that made by others, and to profit 
thereby. I think if these suggestions were 
carried out, that this feature of the Journal 
would be, of itself, enough to commend it 
to every practical opperator in the country. 

"What say you, brother photographers? 
Respectfully, J. G. Vail. 



30 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GEAPHEE. 



SALAD. 

The holiday trade was pretty good. 

Dirty fingers are enemies to good work. 

You should always work your chemicals 
stronger in cold weather than in warm. 

Please read our advertisement of hooks. 
Now is the time to read and study up. 

The gold medal prize picture, hy Mr. 
Griswold, "Blowing Bubbles/' will grace 
our next issue. 

We shall begin a new series of articles 
on skylights and their construction in our 
next number. 

Mr. Byder's double picture, one from 
negative retouched and one from, negative 
untouched, will appear in our March num- 
ber. 

Please read our list of premiums, and 
help us place the Philadelphia Photographer 
in the hands of every photographer in the 
land. 

Maternal photographs are so fashiona- 
ble in Paris that the more enterprising pho- 
tographers there keep a baby as one of their 
accessories. So says the Court Journal. 

A woman cleaning a fish in France re- 
cently, declared she discovered a photo- 
graph of the fisherman in one of the eyes 
of the fish. Most too fish-eye a story to 
believe. 

"How to Paint Photographs,' 1 - second 
edition, three-fourths exhausted, and gives 
great satisfaction to all. You can make 
enough on the first picture you color to pay 
for it. 



Mosaics for 1870 sells wonderfully. Quite 
two thousand four hundred copies are sold 
at this writing, and the book is not thirty 
days out of press. 

The Treasurer of the National Photo- 
graphic Association has notified the mem- 
bers to pay their annual dues, due last 
June. Please give it attention and canvas 
for new members. 

An Oregon girl of the period entered a 
photograph establishment recently, and 
asked if they "had any sun pearls." She 
was answered in the affirmative, and shown 
some porcelain pictures which are called 
"sun pearls " out West. She blushed and 
replied: "Laws me! Do you call them 
sun pearls? Why them ain't what I 
wanted. I want some o' that stuff which 
city ladies put on their faces to make their 
skin slick." She was informed that such 
articles were usually found in a drug store, 
and went off considerably enlightened. 

By the aid of photography, the feeblest 
motions of the most delicately-poised ma- 
chinery are now recorded in the observa- 
tories of Europe. By the reflection of light 
upon an ivory scale, from a small mirror 
on what may be termed the armature of the 
instrument, all communications by the At- 
lantic and French cables are received. Each 
movement of this tiny glass causes the light 
reflected from it to pass to the right or left 
on the ivory scale, the motions being indic- 
ative of the letters, which the operator re- 
cords. Photography will soon be applied 
for that purpose too, most likely. 



Answers to Correspondents. — Wehave fre- 
quently signified our willingness to assist our 
readers whenever they find trouble in their ma- 
nijp ulutions, and as very many can testify, we 
have done this by private letter, on account of 
our issuing only once a month; we propose to 
repeat our offer for the new year, but as our cir- 
culation has grown so vastly and correspon- 
dence with it, that duty has become a severe 
tax upon our time, so we shall answer all such 
correspondence in this column hereafter, unless 
the case seems to require, or the parties of ne- 



cessity request an answer by mail. Of the latter, 
the fact of their sending astamp for reply shall be 
our guide. Questions to be answered herein, must 
invariably be in our hands by the 18th of the 
month. Wo hope you will ask us whatever you 
want to know, and we will answer cheerfully to 
the best of our ability. 



Mr. William Delius, Waterbury, Conn., has 
sent us some very interesting photolithographs 
by a process similar to Albert's, which compare 
very favorably with Albert's results. Mr. De- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



31 



lins is able to print in any color, on any kind of 
paper, and to make his transfer on glass or metal. 
With more experience in printing, Mr. Delius 
will prove a formidable rival to the Albert pro- 
cess in this country. Those interested would 
do well to address him. 

Ix Mr. II. J. Newton's article on the Tea pro- 
cess, in Mosaics for 1870, he is made to say "put 
7/ioregold," &c, instead of •' put some gold," &c. 
Please note the correction. 

We are indebted to Mr. Robert Oppenheim, 
Berlin, Prussia, for Herr Remele's excellent lit- 
tle Manual of Landscape Photography, and for 
a copy of Grasshof's Manual of Retouching and 
Coloring Photographs. Those who can read 
German will find them both very valuable 
works. 

"The Chemical Forces," Heat, Light, and 
Electricitv, with their applications to the ex- 
pansion, liquefaction, and vaporization of solids ; ; 
the steam engine ; photography: spectrum analy- 
sis ; electroplating, etc., etc. : an introduction to 
chemical physics, byT. Ruggles Pynchon, M.A., 
Scovill Professor of Chemistry and the Natural 
Sciences, Trinity College, Hartford. Published 
by 0. D. Case & Co., Hartford, Conn., 1870, one 
vol., pp. 534. Chemistry is so closely allied 
with subjects of which Prof. Pynchon so ably 
and clearly treats in his admirable work, that 
one must not hope for a thorough knowledge of 
it without first having a perfect understanding 
of the three great chemical forces, — such an un- 
derstanding as is here placed within our reach. 
The author has cleared up many obscure points in 
a clear and connected manner, which heretofore 
mystified the chemical student greatly, thus 
showing the necessity of beginning such study 
at the beginning, to be fully informed. His 
style is concise and plain, and no one could elu- 
cidate with more clearness than he does. We 
commend his work to such of our readers as 
desire to improve themselves in the direction 
therein treated upon. It contains 269 illustra- 
tions, a copious index, and a long list of ex- 
periments with directions for conducting them. 
The publishers have also done their part well. 
The illustrations and general get-up are fine. 

Those who anticipate visiting Cleveland dur- 
ing the June Exhibition meeting of the National 
Photographic Association, will be glad to know 
that we have already arranged for a free passage 
one way for them on the line of the Pennsylvania 
Central and Philadelphia and Erie Railways, 
and hope to do so on all roads in the United 
States. 



Our Publications. — It is a great pleasure to 
us and cheers us greatly on in our work, to re- 
ceive so many genuine good wishes and testimo- 
nials to the usefulness of our publications, as we 
are now daily made happy with. The following 
are a few : 

December 4. 

Mr. Editor : The Photographer for Decem- 
ber is at hand, and as usual, interesting. 

I see a notice of '' Subscription Expired '' — 
this is all right ; please renew it. You need not 
feel badly to give such notice. Every man has 
had his money's worth twice over. I only feel 
badly as it reminds rue of the flight of time, 
when I must go hence, where there is no more 
photographing to be done. 

I think with your prospectus for the New 
Tear, you need fear no falling off. The pictures 
alone will be worth more than the money. 

Wishing you every success, 

I am, yours truly, 

E. L. Allen. 

24 Temple Place, Boston, 

Barnesville, Ga., Dec. 9th, 1869. 
Eds. Philadelphia Photogiapher : 

Please find inclosed fifty cents for Mosaics, 
1870, and while I write, you will please accept 
my most heartfelt and sincere thanks for your 
invaluable journal, the last number of which has 
just reached me, containing a complete index to 
the whole volume ; it shall be bound, for I con- 
sider it worth more than tenfold what it has 
cost. One year ago I was doing but ordinary 
work: but now my work will compare favorably 
with any in the State. 

Respectfully and fraternally yours, 

J. W. Hurt, Photographer. 

I wonder why we see so many poor photo- 
graphs, after having everything so plainly pointed 
out as it is in Mosaics for 1870. 

E. Kilburn, 

Littleton, N. H. 

WiTffOUT exaggeration, the article on "Glass 
Cleaning" is worth four times the price of the 
book — Mosaics, 18-70. D. C. Hawkins, 

Sheboygan, Wis. 

Chicago, III., Nov 29th, 1869. 
Dear Sir : — It is my pleasure at this early 
date to possess a copy of your "Photographic 
Mosaics" for 1S70. I simply wish to say that 
I consider it by far the most valuable annual 
you have yet published, and a work that should 
be in the hands of every photographer, who has 
the least desire to aspire to do good work, not 
only photographically, but artistically ; in fact, 
even those old in the profession may receive new 



32 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



inspiration by a perusal of its pages. Especially 
may the articles by Kurtz, Baker, Notman, 
Kent, Robinson, the Editor, and others, be read 
with interest and profit, for they are sound, valu- 
able, and practical. 

Respectfully, yours, 

Jno. Carbdtt. 

I like "How to Paint Photographs" very 
much, and think it will do any photographer 
good. Fred. C. Low, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Dear Sir : 

I cannot tell when I have enjoyed myself 
better than in the perusal of Mr. Robinson's 
book, " Pictorial Effect in Photography.' 1 Read- 
able, reliable, and evidently written by one that 
has the good of our profession thoroughly at- 
heart. The articles upon posing, lighting, ac- 
cessories and backgrounds are worth singly the 
price of the book. The illustrations are superb. 
As to the Mosaics, I received it only this morn- 
ing. And although, I have been enabled to give 
it only a cursory glance, the few articles that 
I have read, convince me that it is fully up to, 
if not beyond the standard of former years. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Charles Stafford. 

Nothing can be more gratifying to us than to 
know that our books are useful. 



In our last issue, Messrs. Charles Cooper & Co., 
Chemists, 154 Chatham Street, New York, cau- 
tioned our readers against an impostor named 
G. W. Robinson, who represented himself as 
their agent, and collected wastes from photog- 
raphers in their name. Since then he has 
adopted as his alias the name of Radcliffe. A 
party in this city has also suffered by him, and 
has put his case in the hands of the detectives. 
" A word to the wise is sufficient.'' 



We have received some very elegant negatives 
from Messrs. Loescher & Petsch, Berlin, Prussia, 
which are being printed for a future issue of our 
journal. Also, negatives from M. Salomon. 

Prof. Morton recently delivered his admi- 
rable lectures on Light to crowded and delighted 
audiences, at the Peabody Institute, Baltimore. 
The extensive and beautiful photograph 
rooms o Mr. W. M. Knight, Buffalo, N. Y., were 
entirely destroyed by fire on the evening of De- 
cember 12th. 

Messrs. Wearn & IIix, Columbia, S. C, and 
Mr. D. J. Ryan, Savannah, Ga , have both re- 
ceived flattering awards for their work at exhi- 
bition" held in their cities recently. We rejoice 
with them. 



Mr. G. A. Denverritt, a photographic colorist, 
committed suicide by swallowing cyanide in so- 
lution at 140 Washington Street, Boston, Decern 
ber 9th. He died in ten minutes after swallow- 
ing the poison. 

Mr. Fred. C. Lowe, East Cambridge, Mass., 
is making a collection of photographs of the re- 
maining members of the 1st Maine Artillery 
Regiment, in which he served during the war — 
130 in all. 

Messrs. J. W. & J. S. Moulton, of Salem, 
Mass., have been appointed Mr. Proctor's agents 
for his night photograph apparatus, for the 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, Michigan, Missouri, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, and Kansas. 



Mr. Clough (Orford, N. II.), is one of our 
active subscribers, to whom we are indebted for 
many " Dodges and Wrinkles.'' He has sent us 
several interesting Stereographs of wood and 
mountain scenery, and among them one or two 
of Moosilauke Mountain. A mutual friend, 
signing himself " Amateur," has also favored us 
with the same view and the notice below. Thanks 
to them both : 

Perilous Ascent of Moosilauke Moun- 
tain. Prof. Huntington, the Assistant State 
Geologist, had a serious experience in getting 
to the summit of Moosilauke Mountain, in War- 
ren, where, in company with Mr. Amos F. 
Clough, a photographer, he proposes to spend the 
winter. The professor was two days in making 
the ascent, and froze both of his feet. The snow 
was four feet deep on a level, and some of the 
drifts were eighteen feet deep. There is a 
strongly built and comparatively comfortable 
house on the mountain top, and the two gentle- 
men are hoping to enjoy their bleak winter 
home. 



We have from Messrs. French & Sawyer, 
Keene, N. H., several photographs of their out- 
door developing tent, which we shall describe 
soon. AVe have also received several beautiful 
views from Mr. Vernon Royle, Paterson, N. J.; 
cards from retouched negatives of much excel- 
lence, from Mr. J. Inglis, Montreal j prints from 
Messrs. E. & M. Garrett, Wilmington, Del., E. E. 
Henry, Leavenworth, Kansas, W. L. Gill, Lan- 
caster, Pa. J. Lee Knight, Topeka, Kansas, of 
an amusing drawing called " Droughty Kansas,'' 
and from M. K. Marshall, Ciroleville, 0., a 
whole-size photograph of Mrs. Tabitha MeGath, 
who was born March 12th, A.D. 1761. She is 
right sprightly-looking yet. 




5RISWOL0, 



ll' . 



Ift 






JIUM3US, 0. 



jl(M i'Vyl/A', gBNJ^B" /JcICTUIlR. 



THE 



Piikdcljrliui |p0t0j)O|hn\ 



Vol. VII. 



FEBRUARY, 1870 



No. 74. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, 

By BENERMAN & WILSON, 

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of toe United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



SECOND ANNUAL EXHIBITION 

OF THE 

National Photographic Association of 
the United States. 

TO FOREIGN EXHIBITORS. 

The Second Annual Exhibition of the 
National Photographic Association of the 
United States, will be held in Cleveland, 
Ohio, beginning Tuesday, June 2d, 1870. 

Ample provision will be made for foreign 
exhibitors this year, and no charge will be 
made for space. 

Eifort is being made to secure the en- 
trance of foreign work free from duty. 
The freight, however, must be prepaid, 
unless in such cases where the pictures are 
not to be returned, then the Secretary or 
Executive Committee will undertake their 
sale and deduct the freight from the pro- 
ceeds. Foreign parcels should all be dis- 
tinctly marked as follows : 

National Photo. Exhibition, 
Care Edward L. Wilson, Secretary, 

Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A., 
D^* Via Boston Steamship Line. 
To insure their arrival in time, packages 
should not be sent later than April 15th. 
Please be particular to ship to Boston as 
directed. 

A cordial invitation is given to foreign 
artists to participate in this Exhibition, and 
every attention will be given them. 



Parties desiring space will please make 
their wants known as soon as possible. 

Eor further particulars, please address 
the Secretary. 
J. W. Black, J. Cremer, 

David Bexdann, J. F. Btder, 
W. C. North, 

Executive Committee. 
Edward L. Wilson, 

Secretary, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Our foreign exchanges would oblige us 
by copying the above. 



GREEN GLASS IN THE DARK- 
ROOM. 

BY M. CAREY LEA. 

Some little time since I saw a suggestion 
(I regret that I cannot now recall where), 
that green glass might take the place of yel- 
low in the dark-room. I did not, however, 
pay any attention to it, until another cir- 
cumstance seemed to indicate that such a 
substitution might be useful. In the color 
processes of Ducos du Hauron, and of Cros, 
camera exposures are made in succession 
through glass of different colors, purple, 
yellow, and green, and it was mentioned in 
the description that it was found that the 
time of exposure was longer when the green 
glass was interposed than with the yellow. 
This seemed to indicate that the non-actinic 



34 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



influence of green glass might be very use- 
ful in photographic operations. 

Therefore, I procured some green glass 
and gave it a trial. The result was that I 
at once and entirely discarded the yellow, 
and from that day (some months back) to 
this, I have used nothing else. 

I was not disposed to publish the matter, 
and advise others to try it, until my ex- 
perience should fully warrant me in doing 
so. But I have prepared and developed 
hundreds of plates, and, as I do not ever ex- 
pect to work in yellow light again, I feel 
that I shall do a service in recommending 
this mode of working. The difference in 
fatigue to the eyes is most important. Every 
one knows how trying to the eye is a red- 
dish-yellow light, and how soft a green one; 
and, if the latter be a sufficient protection to 
the plate, as it proves itself, there should be 
no hesitation in making the change. 

My trials have been made with artificial 
light, gas-light only, as I generally prefer 
to use it, even when working in the day- 
time. But I always allow myself plenty of 
light. I think, indeed, that the illumina- 
tion produced by any given flame is, per- 
haps, reduced more by the green glass than 
by the yellow. The difference, however, 
is not great, and it is easy to make the flame 
a little stronger. I use an Argand gas-burner 
turned fully on — give myself light enough 
to read writing, labels, etc., with entire fa- 
cility, and find that I can do so safely. 

Some care needs to be taken in the selec- 
tion of the glass, and neither the lightest 
nor the deepest commercial green glass is 
suitable, but an intermediate shade. It 
should not be a bluish-green, but a full, 
clear green. I attempted at one time to 
obtain green chimneys for gas burners, but 
those that I could meet were both too blue 
a green, and too transparent. 

This fact, that green glass affords ade- 
quate protection to sensitive films, has an 
additional interest to me from the fact that 
it confirms the position that I have always 
maintained, that the alleged sensibility of 
bromide of silver to the green rays had no 
practical value. I have always held that 
the advantages found in the use of a bro- 
mide lay in its greater sensitiveness to weak 
radiations of light. That, therefore, it was 



useful in rendering foliage, not from any 
useful amount of sensitiveness to the green 
color, but by reason of its being moreeasliy 
acted upon by the weak light sent back from 
the surfaces of the leaves, that is, weak re- 
flected white light. 

Now, my experience in the dark-room 
fully confirms this view. The plates that 
I have worked with, have been almost ex- 
clusive chloro-bromide and collodio-bro- 
mide dry plates; in the latter the film con- 
sisted entirely, and, in the former, almost 
entirely of bromide of silver. If, therefore, 
this substance had any sensitiveness to green 
light worth considering practically, my 
plates must have fogged ; whereas, I have 
had immunity from any such trouble. It 
would, perhaps, be difficult to imagine any 
stronger proof than that which is here af- 
forded. My plates have often lain soaking 
in clear water in an open porcelain pan., 
within three feet of a bright Argand burner 
turned fully on, with no protection except 
the green glass, and have remained so for 
ten or fifteen minutes together, without 
suffering in the least: a tolerably severe 
test. Of course, if too transparent, a piece 
of glass be used, the security cannot be ex- 
pected to be complete; but it is easy to find 
glass that will cut off the active rays, and 
yet let through an abundant illumination. 

As to the arrangement, of course, any 
means that are good- for supporting a yel- 
low-glass pane will answer for the green. 
The following is a convenient plan for 
either : 

Let a carpenter take a piece of wood 
about 12 inches by 6, and at the narrow 
ends fasten on two uprights 16 inches long. 
A thin strip is to be nailed on the front 
edge of each of the uprights; this keeps 
the glass which slides down immediately 
behind these strips, from falling forwards. 
A screw put in through each upright be- 
hind the glass keeps it from falling back. 
The upright not extending quite as far for- 
ward as the bottom, enables the glass to 
rest on the latter. 

The uprights may be rendered secure by 
a cross-piece at the top or across the back. 
But in the plan which I first used, the cross- 
piece was much in the way of the chimney. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



35 



I, therefore, substituted the following ar- 
rangement : 

Two square pieces of wood, with bevelled 
edges were glued and screwed in at the 
lower corners, one edge of each resting on 
the bottom and one on the upright. This 
gives considerable firmness, which is in- 
creased by nailing two other triangles 
against the outside lower corners. The up- 
rights are thus kept firmly in their places 
without any incumbrance to the upper part 
of the frame. And as the glass moves 
easily between the outside strips and the 
screws inside, it is not liable to be broken 
by an} r warping of the wood, and is easily 
removed when it needs cleaning. 

The size above described carries a pane 
12 inches wide and 16 high, which gives a 
satisfactory amount of light. The two up- 
rights shade the spaces to the right and 
left of the light, and the strips which con- 
fine the plate in front, prevent any stray 
beams from escaping between the glass and 
the supporting uprights. 

Before closing, J desire again to call at- 
tention to the importance of saving the eyes 
by working in an agreeable light. This is 
especially important in coating the plates. 
To watch the wave of collodion and man- 
age it easily, one must catch the reflection 
of the light on its surface; and, to do this, 
the light must be directl}' in front, and 
straight before the eyes. Any light in this 
position tends to fatigue the sight, and 
doubly so when the light is of a glaring 
yellowish shade. 

IMPROVED PHOTOGRAPH WASH- 
ING TANK. 

BY J. C A R B U T T. 

In the January No. of the Philadelphia 
Photographer for 1867, was given a draw- 
ing of a washing tank, by Mr. J. M. Young. 
To test its merits I had one made, and 
found one or two points about it I thought 
could be improved upon. In the tank de- 
scribed by Mr. Young, the feed-pipe lies 
on the bottom of the tank, and the water 
was drawn off by a syphon, which caused 
many of the prints to be destroyed by the 
suction of the syphon as they lie on the per- 
forated bottom. After trying several modi- 



fications, I adopted the plan as shown in 
*he accompanying drawing. A is the sup- 




ply-pipe and tap. This supply-pipe, A, 
runs around the whole tank near the top, 
and is perforated towards the inside, with 
small holes, through which the water gushes 
in all directions. The water, therefore, 
keeps up a constant motion — a sort of a 
mild whirlpool — among the prints, round 
and round, and yet without injury to them. 
B is the waste-pipe; C C, waste pipes from 
the overflows D, D ; E is a large tap to 
regulate the discharge of the waste; F, a 
wooden frame 24 inches high, supporting 
the tank. The tank is made of galvanized 
iron, of the shape shown in the diagram, and 
is 9 inches deep on the sides, 30 inches across 
the top, .and 86 inches across the bottom at 
the widest part. The perforated bottom is 
30 inches across, and soldered fast all 
around. The bottom of the tank slopes to 
the waste-pipe, leaving a space of 3 inches 
in the middle, from the perforated bottom 
to the mouth of the waste-pipe. The action 
of the tank is thus explained : Let in the 
water by means of the supply-pipe, A, un- 
til the water reaches the overflow, D; now 
put in the prints. The tap, A, should then 
be turned on only sufficient to keep the 
prints nicely in motion, then turn the tap E, 
to let the water run out a trifle slower than 
it enters at A. The prints are kept in con- 
stant motion, and the hypo, as fast as elimi- 
nated, is carried out at the bottom, the waste 
overflow being independent of the tap, E. 
I have always made it a point to see that 
my prints are fixed in fresh hypo and well 
washed. After more than two years' use 
of this tank, I prefer it to either the ordi- 
nary overflow or syphon tank. 

J udging from the very beautiful specimen 



36 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEK. 



of jmoto-reiief printing presented to your 
readers this month, in which neither silver, 
gold, nor hypo enters its composition, one 
cannot help feeling that the days of silver 
printing are numbered, but, as long as sil- 
ver prints are made, I think those produc- 
ing them cannot take too much pains to give 
them all the durability possible. 



THE ALBERT PROCESS. 

The Albert process, of which our readers 
have heard so much, has been patented in 
this country, and we make the following 
extracts from the specifications : 

"A piece of plate-glass is cleaned with 
alcohol, and flowed with a mixture of albu- 
men, gelatine, and bichromate of ammonia, 
and left horizontal to dry ; when dry, it is 
laid with its coated side on a dark surface, 
and exposed, for a short time, to the light 
from the side upon which there is no 
film. As chrome-gelatine becomes insoluble 
through the agency of light, this will pre- 
vent the moisture to which the plate is 
afterward subjected from penetrating to the 
glass, and consequently the film will remain 
firmly attached thereto ; and, in order that 
the second film may adhere to the first, it is 
necessary to expose it from the back, and to 
protect the face with a dark underlayer, 
which absorbs the penetrating rays as much 
as possible, so that it may retain its adhesive 
properties sufficiently to secure the second 
film on the surface of the first, and thus 
both become firmly united to the glass. 

" After this exposure, the plate is laid for 
a half hour in water, and then set aside to 
dry. These manipulations can be performed 
months in advance of using, if desired. 

" The second step of the process consists in 
again coating the plate with the proper sen- 
sitive film, composed of isinglass, gelatine, 
and chromateor bichromate of ammonium, 
and set aside to dry, as before. When dry, 
the plate is ready to receive the picture, and 
is placed in the pressure-frame on a nega- 
tive, and exposed «to the light, in the same 
manner as is done with an albumen print, 
except that the action of the light is watched 
from the back, and the plate removed at 
tin' proper moment. It is then washed in 
water, to remove all unchanged chromates, 



and to harden the film, is treated with 
chrome alum, chlorine water, or any other 
coagulating material, and set aside to dry. 
When dry, it is printed from, in the usual 
lithographic manner, upon a press adapted 
to that purpose. 

" The essential principle of the invention 
consists in subjecting the first film to the 
action of light, to render it insoluble next 
the surface of the glass, while its outer sur- 
face remains adhesive, so as to unite with 
the second film, and, if these conditions are 
observed, both the first and second films 
will permit the use of other materials, such 
as glue, gum, dextrine, or almost any ad- 
hesive or gelatinous subtance, as well as 
any of the salts of chromium with more or 
less success." 



A NOVELTY. 

BY DAVID DUNCAN. 

I have seen photographic productions, 
and good ones too, from nearly every clime 
under the sun, from Parisian delicacy to 
Chinese whitewash, but I must candidly 
confess that American photographs are the 
very best — speaking technically, the clean- 
est, the largest, the most brilliant. Though 
many pictures issued from small establish- 
ments are " chalky " and inartistic, it will 
not, in my opinion, long be so ; for, while 
Americans (photographers included), to 
use their own words, are a " practical peo- 
ple," they are as sentimental as others and 
decidedly artistic. Much photographic art, 
at present, is latent, but " wait a wee." It 
is well for all engaged in our profession to 
thoroughly comprehend and master its many 
details ; the patrons of the art have not yet 
chosen definitely and permanently the best 
style of picture ; its devotees have not yet 
decided upon the best process and simplest 
modus operandi. Novelties are constantly 
springing up, novelties worthy of attention. 
Many are "born to blush unseen," never- 
theless there remain some which command 
a "hearing ; " they must be PHOTOGRAPHED. 
It is to a novelty I would direct the atten- 
tion of my respected American brethren, 
which 1 trust will meet their expectations. 

In the Photographic. News, December 3d, 
1809, is an article by a gentleman under the 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHER. 



37 



nom de plume of " Ennel," on "glass-houses 
and lighting," which contains the descrip- 
tion of a gallery admirably adapted for this 
country. I will make an extract. He says : 

" I want a glass-house which shall be 
perfectly water-tight, warm in winter, cool 
in summer, in which neither morning nor 
evening sun shall annoy ; which shall have 
plenty of light, and that light most easily 
managed ; and which shall be easily venti^ 
lated, and on the glass of which dust shall 
not accumulate more than on common win- 
dows, nor be removable with greater diffi- 
culty. Here is the model. It shows, at a 
glance, what many diagrams would fail to 
do. 

"The whole may be solid masonry, wood, 
iron, or what not. The source of 
light is entirely from the front, and 
the top-front light and the side lights 
are amply supplied by reflection from 
the roof and sides sloping respective- 
ly upward and outward. The angle 
here adopted may not be the best — 
possibly 40° or 45° might be better, 
which must be proved by experi- 
ment — but this model is only to serve 
as an illustration of the idea. 

"The scale is half an inch to a 
foot, so that we have a space for 
the sitter, E E / , twelve feet wide ; 
E F, eight feet high ; G F, five feet 
deep. The floor, from this rectangular 
space (from the line G G') to the tunnel, 
measures twelve feet in length ; and trans- 
versely, at the north end, along the front 
of the tunnel, viz., from to the op- 
posite corner, like the parallel line A B, 
eighteen feet. The height of the walls at the 
north end, B O, is fourteen feet. The di- 
mensions of the tunnel are: K L, ten feet; 
I L, eight feet ; L P, eight feet ; so that an 
area of direct light, viz., above and on the 
sides of the tunnel, one hundred and eighty- 
eight square feet (or, after all deductions, 
say one hundred and eighty feet) remain 
available ; but this amount may be in- 
creased by reducing the dimensions of the 
tunnel in width and height, or by enlarg- 
ing the angles of the sloping planes, or 
both. The top window, A B U V, is to 
swing like a toilet-glass (for ventilation), 
and to be backed by a curtain nine feet 



wide, movable by two balancing-weights, 
as are also the two glass-doors or French 
windows, LMPN and T, to regulate the 
shading. 

" Now fancy a room with a window eight 
feet by ten, facing the north, and a model 
opposite it at the distance of thirteen or 
fourteen feet. The lighting is splendid. 
But now add the sloping walls and ceiling, 
wit'n their reflecting surfaces. Can you im- 
agine a softer light ? " 

It is unnecessary for me to occupy space 
in redescribing the form of studio recom- 
mended. I must leave it to my reader's 
judgment, experiences, and reflection. I 
do not see why the most excellent results 
should not be obtained in such a gallery. 




A F, 

French 



glass-house; A B U V, swing window ; L M P N and T, 

windows; HI IK, tunnel; S R, dark-room. 

How cool it would be in the height of sum- 
mer, compared with many of the "hot- 
houses " now in existence. The blinds, 
how easily and quickly arranged. Suppos- 
ing the top window, ABUT, to be facing 
the north, direct sunlight, the enemy of 
successful portraiture, could never enter; 
the light must, therefore, all the year 
round, be as uniform as it could be possi- 
ble to obtain. The originator further re- 
marks: 

"But oh, the front light! you will all 
cry. I know very well that the majority, 
if not all photographers, have set their faces 
against front light only, not in the proper, 
i. e., the literal sense. Why ? I know not 
the reason. Prima facie, I should say front 
light ought to be predominant, seeing that 
we have to copy the front of the model, 
or that portion which fronts the lens. I 
say predominant, for we want front, top. 



38 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



and side lights, also to help make up the 
modelling." 

It will be seen that Ennel does not recom- 
mend lighting the model by direct front 
light, but by front, top, and side light, ob- 
tainable (in the form of studio recom- 
mended) by the curtains. 

Every portraitist of experience knows 
very well that the best results are got in 
diffused light, not direct, and that is ob- 
tained from the front, top, and side lights, 
or the farthest corner through which the 
light is admitted, no matter whether the 
gallery has a flat, or span, or side sloping 
roof. Direct top light is wrong, likewise 
direct side light. In studios built with side- 
light only the best, or, rather, the most 
pleasing pictures are made by placing the 
model on one side of the background, the 
farthest from the source of light ; those 
with top-light only, by shading the sitter 
over the head. Before concluding, it would 
be well to quote some remarks of a writer 
signing himself " Moderator, " in a subse- 
quent number of the Photographic News. 
He says : " There is one of Ennel's argu- 
ments rather amusing : ' We take sitters 
from the front, therefore the front should 
be the PREDOMINANT LIGHT.' 1 
should put it thus : therefore we want 
the predominant light from the side. Peo- 
ple do not take a landscape or a building 
with the sun plump behind their camera." 

I say that depends upon circumstances ; it 
is convenient, and I speak from much ex- 
perience, at times to get the sun "plump 
behind the camera." Be it also remem- 
bered, that " Ennel " has not recommended 
sunlight nor direct front light, and a land- 
scape or a building is not a portrait. 

I trust this may be interesting. I believe 
the above mode of lighting to be the very 
thing for this country. Think for your- 
selves, ye votaries of the photographic art! 
The "Ennel" studio is novel, deserving 
popularity. 



If you can, let your dark-closet be roomy, 
and be sun: to have nothing in it not actu- 
ally needed there. No admittance for dirt 
or trash. 



Winter Photography, or Printing by 
Development. 

FOR BEGINNERS AND ALSO FOR PRACTICAL 

PHOTOGRAPHERS. 

BY PROP. J. TOWLER, M.D. 

Beginners have to learn, but older pho- 
tographers know, to their annoyance, that, 
in the dark and short days of winter, print- 
ing on paper is sometimes a very slow and 
tedious operation, and sometimes almost 
impossible. Now, I am going to teach you 
how to alleviate this annoyance and to give 
you a remedy for the evil. There is proba- 
bly nothing new in the process, if analyzed 
critically, for the different parts were all 
known, and it remained simply to put them 
together, to synthetize the elements and 
thus compound a practical process. 

It is better to begin with prints on plain 
paper. I use Marion's plain paper, which 
can be had of any of the stockdealers. You 
first ascertain which is the right side of the 
paper and which the wrong side, by the 
method I gave you some time ago in refer- 
ence to the albumenizing of the sheets. 
Mark the back of each sheet so as to know 
it after the sheet has been sensitized. 

salting solution for this process. 

Water, .... 8 ounces. 
Chloride of Ammonium, . 40 grains. 
Gelatine, . . . . 10 " 
Citric Acid, . . . 40 " 
Carbonate of Soda, . .40 " 

Filter the solution. 

Let the gelatine soak in 2 ounces of the 
water for a few hours, then heat the mixture 
until the gelatine dissolves, and add it to the 
rest. It is better not to pulverize the citric 
acid, otherwise the effervescence might be 
troublesome and cause a loss, of the ma- 
terials. 

Let the paper float (right side down- 
wards) on this salting solution for about 
two minutes, taking care to remove all bub- 
bles from the surface of the paper. Hang 
it up to dry spontaneously, and afterwards 
pack away in a portfolio. The paper has 
to be sensitized before you can print with 
it. I use the following silver solution for 
this purpose, essentially the same as rec- 
ommended by Dr. M. Carey Lea : 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



39 



SILVER SOLUTION. 

Distilled or Rain Water, . 8 ounces. 
Nitrate of Silver, . . 4 drachms. 
Tartaric Acid, . . .8 scruples. 

If there is a white deposit formed, filter 
the solution and add nitrate of silver to 
make up for the loss. (In my own labora- 
tory I reduce the white deposit into pure 
silver by means of zinc and dilute sulphuric 
acid, and afterwards reconvert the washed 
silver into the nitrate, which is added to the 
stock solution. This is the work of a few 
minutes only.) 

Float the salted paper in the usual way 
upon this bath for about two minutes, and 
then hang it up in the dark-room to dry. 
Paper so sensitized will keep for a long 
time. 

EXPOSURE. 

Place the paper over the negative in the 
usual way and expose for a minute (or two 
during dark weather), that is, until you 
perceive through the negative glass that 
there is a slight change of color. You may 
expose longer if you choose, but absolutely 
this is unnecessary. An impression has 
already been made on the paper, but, like 
the impression on sensitized collodion, it is 
latent, so to say, and it remains now to make 
the latent impression visible. This can be 
done in a very delightful manner, and va- 
rious tones can be obtained intermediate 
between red and black, and without the in- 
tervention of any gold ; notwithstanding 
all this, the pictures may be toned with 
gold, if you are not satisfied with the re- 
sults. 

Make the stock solutions as follows : 
No. 1. 

ACETATE OF LEAD. 
Acetate of Lead, . . 2 drachms. 
Water, . . .4 ounces. 

Acetic Acid, drop by drop, to clear the 
solution. 

No. 2. 

GALLIC ACID. 
Gallic Acid, . . .16 grains. 

Distilled or Rain Water, . 8 ounces. 

Apply heat to the mixture, and the acid 
soon dissolves. 

For present use we require two solutions, 
as follows : 



No. 1. 

FOR THE BATH (DR. M. CAREY LEA's). 

Water, .... 2 ounces. 
Acetate of Lead Solution, 24 minims. 
Gallic Acid Solution, . 2 drachms. 
Acetic Acid, sufficient to dissolve the 
white deposit. 

This is placed in a suitable dish, and the 
exposed. print is placed in it, taking care 
that it is completely covered and free from 
bubbles. 

No. 2. 

INTENSIFIER OR DEVELOPER. 

Gallic Acid Solution, . 4 drachms. 
Acetate of Lead Solution, 5 drops. 
Acetic Acid, about . 15 " 

or sufficient to dissolve the deposit. 

Take the print out of the dish as soon as 
it has been thoroughly soaked, and place it 
on a plate-glass, and, holding the glass over 
the stove (in the dark-room, of course), pour 
the intensifier or developer upon the print 
and off again, just as you would do if you 
were developing a negative. The picture 
will slowly increase in strength, and pass 
from light brick-red through gradual stages 
to an intense black. The heat of the fire 
in the stove is a great aid in this develop- 
ment. Hold the plate but a few inches 
above the stove (an iron plate heated by a 
lamp will do just as well). You will be 
surprised with what beauty the picture 
gradually advances. Do not be impatient. 
Whenever the picture satisfies you, you can 
stop the further development by washing 
the print ; after which it is fixed in hypo- 
sulphite of soda in the usual manner. 

This mode of development proceeds to the 
black tone. If you desire pictures which 
are afterwards to be toned in a gold solu- 
tion, we must keep more within the limits 
of the red tone. For this purpose we use 
the following developer : 

No. 3. 

DEVELOPER. 

Gallic Acid Solution, . 4 drachms. 
Silver Solution (from the 

bath), . ... 5 drops. 

Acetic Acid, . . . 5 " 

Develop with this as before, over the 
stove, until the picture is as intense as you 



40 



THE PHILADELPHIA P HOTOGE APHEE. 



want it, then wash well, tone, and fix as 
usual. But we can get the gold tone with- 
out the use of gold, as follows: 

No. 4. 

DEVELOPER. 

Gallic Acid Solution, . 4 drachms. 
Acetate of Lead " . 5 drops. 
Acetic Acid, . . sufficient, etc. 

Nitrate of Silver Solu- 
tion, . . .5 drops. 

Develop as before, and stop as soon as the 
print is a little darker than you want it. 
Wash and fix. 

Prints obtained in this way are not far 
inferior to those printed by the sun; the 
whites, too, are thoroughly preserved, ow- 
ing to the presence of the tartaric acid in 
the sensitizer. 

Finally, when the prints are dry, you can 
coat them with plain collodion, which gives 
them the appearance of albumen prints. 



"ENSLAVING A SUNBEAM." 

The Woodburyiype in our last number 
has elicited the greatest admiration and 
praise. It came like a great surprise upon 
many, as few had any idea that photo-me- 
chanical printing had been carried to any- 
thing like such perfection. 

We extract below, from a foreign con- 
temporary, a paper describing the establish- 
ment in England where the picture alluded 
to above was printed. 

In our next issue we will give a descrip- 
tion of a visit to Messrs. Goupil & Co's. es- 
tablishment in Paris, where the Woodbury 
process is also worked on an immense scale. 

In the following issue or soon after, we 
hope to describe the American Photographic 
Belief Printing Establishment, Mr. Wood- 
bury having sold his patent for this country 
to Mr. J. Carbutt, of Chicago, and others. 
The purchasers are arranging to work the 
process as speedily as possible, but as they 
are not yet prepared to answer any questions 
concerning it, desire that they should not 
)><■ questioned at present. Our readers shall 
have some of the first prints made. That 
much we are promised. The first print 
made in this country has been sent to us 



by Mr. Carbutt, and Ave pronounce it fully 
equal to the ones in our last issue, though 
the printer has as yet had but few lessons. 
We now proceed with the paper which is 
entitled 

"enslaving a sunbeam.'-' 

"Long ago we used to regard the term 
'trapping of sunbeams' in the light of a 
pleasant gleam of literary metaphor, and 
wonder what could be done with the ethereal 
captives, were it possible to place them in 
actual bondage. We have, however, lived 
long enough to not only see the gleaming, 
gladsome beam deftly caught, but compelled 
to engage himself in a useful calling into 
the bargain. As an engraver our captive 
beam stands unrivalled, and we have just 
had an opportunity of closely investigating 
the nature of his labors in the service of the 
Photographic Relief Printing Company 
(Limited), whose works are situated in 
Hereford Square, Brompton. Accompanied 
by Mr. Woodbury, the patentee of the new 
process, and, so to speak, the sunbeams' 
task-master, we were first shown the depart- 
ment in which the negative pictorial repre- 
sentations on glass are prepared and stored 
away. These are produced either by the 
action of the solar ray or in its absence the 
electric light ; so it will be seen that the sun- 
beam is not the only prisoner that is turned 
to useful account by the ingenuity of Mr. 
Woodbury. The negative impression on 
glass on being obtained is treated with fluid 
gelatine, in which a little bichromate of 
potash has been dissolved ; and it was ex- 
plained to us by Mr. Woodbury that such 
portions of the work as remained from ab- 
sence of tint unacted on by light were easily 
dissolved and carried by the action of warm 
water ; whilst all shading, however delicate, 
remained intact, just as the rocks, stones, 
shrubs, and plants, stand clearly and sharply 
defined when the winter's snow melts slowly 
away, and summer returns again. The un- 
even-surfaced sheet of solid gelatine thus 
procured is next laid on a plate of soft me- 
tallic alloy, and placed beneath the massive 
iron surfaces of a hydraulic press. A few 
noiseless strokes forward and back of a long 
steel handle, and a pressure of 150 tons is 
brought to bear on both gelatine and alloy, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



41 



when the former substance is found to have 
transferred in a marvellously truthful man- 
ner every line, shade tint, and effect, to the 
surface of the latter, which is now, in short, 
an intaglio impression of extraordinary ac- 
curacy of detail. This from the press is 
taken to the saw table, where a set of fine 
circular saws, driven by a powerful gas en- 
gine, cut away all superfluous metal from 
the ends and edges of the plate, and fit it 
for the use of the printers. We, following 
the fortunes of the newly-formed design, 
travel onward and enter the printing de- 
partment. Here we find a number of curi- 
ous, novel, and noteworthy contrivances for 
simplifying and economizing labor. Each 
printer has in his charge a large round table, 
in the centre of which an upright pivot 
stands. Eound this pivot the table revolves 
freely on the slightest touch. The entire 
circle of the table's surface is occupied by 
miniature printing presses. In one of these 
our metal sun-engraved plate is placed. A 
large glass decanter filled with colored fluid 
gelatine is taken from a hot-water stove, 
where it has been placed to keep warm, and 
a liberal supply of its contents is thrown 
broadcast and freely over its surface. A 
sheet of prepared paper is now taken from 
a pile of that material found ready at hand, 
and placed evenly on the surface of the fluid 
gelatine. The iron cover of the little press 
is now shut down ; a mere touch turns round 
the table; another press is charged with a 
plate, gelatine, and paper ; and so on until 
our own particular plate comes round to the 
printer again. The lever of the press is 
turned back, and the gelatine, now quite 
glue-like in substance, exposed to view. 
The edge of the paper is seized deftly by the 
printer, stripped away from the plate, and 
passed to a lad, whose business it is to re- 
move all superfluous gelatine from the edges 
of the picture with a knife, and lay it aside 
to be redissolved for use. 

" When dry, the printed designs are dip- 
ped in a solution of alum, which fixes the 
gelatine and fits them for mounting and sub- 
sequent sale. Each metal plate, prepared as 
we have described, can be used in the pro- 
duction of 500 pictures, whilst the original 
sheet of gelatine which we have seen under 
the hydraulic press can be, if required, sub- 



jected to the same operation twenty distinct 
times, thereby providing twenty metal 
counterpart impressions, each, as we have 
shown, capable of turning off 500 pictures. 
The printers, by the aid of their turn-tables, 
execute about 100 prints per hour. The pic- 
tures thus produced, we are informed, can 
be executed in any color, are not affected 
by damp, and do not fade on exposure to 
light and air. Mr. Woodbury's process, as 
will be seen, has an immensely wide field 
open to it. 

" He applies it to book illustrations, por- 
traits, architectural works, surgical and 
microscopical illustrations, scenery, cata- 
logues of manufactured articles, works of 
art,, mechanical matters, etc., prints on 
glass for ornamental purposes, magic-lan- 
tern slides, railway advertisements, slides 
for stereoscopes, and labels for manufactur- 
ers. There can be no doubt that Mr. 
Woodbury's discoveries will prove of the 
greatest value, and we have little doubt 
that, through his courtesy, admission to 
the works might be easily obtained by 
such of our readers as may be desirous of 
seeing what an excellent engraver may be 
made of a captured sunbeam." 



THE CAMERA, AND HOW TO 
USE IT. 

BY GEO. H. FENNEMORE. 

It would seem to many almost super- 
fluous to say anything about the camera 
and how to use it, and yet there are many 
who know but little of the general use to 
which the camera can be applied. I have 
reference more particularly to its uses in 
copying. I was particularly reminded of 
this the other day by being asked, "Why 
will not a camera that will make a whole 
size picture from life make one the same 
size from a card picture?" I found the 
question was asked seriously, and the party 
said he had often tried to reproduce an en- 
larged picture from a card or daguerreotj-pe, 
but never succeeded in getting anything 
more than one a little larger than the origi- 
nal. He had used a whole-size tube and 
box. I soon explained to him where his 
trouble was. This little circumstance led 



42 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGK APHEE. 



me to think that perhaps there were many 
others, whose knowledge of the practical 
uses of the camera were equally limited, and 
for their benefit I offer the few hints that 
follow. 




"When about to purchase a camera always 
bear in mind that the size, no matter what 
it is, will only reproduce a picture its origi- 
nal size. That is to say, a half size camera 
and half size tube will only reproduce a pic- 
ture its original size, no matter whether it 
be a card picture or a half size picture. If 
you wish to copy a whole size picture to its 
original size, you must have a whole size 
camera and lens — an 8 x 10 box and lens 
for an 8 x 10 picture, and so on for the dif- 
ferent sizes. This plan of working would 
require one to have a number of boxes and 
tubes, which would be both expensive and 
troublesome. There are two ways to obviate 
this, viz , either to have a long bellows 
camera (see Fig. 1) made on purpose for copy- 
ing or to have a simple contrivance called 
a cone (Fig. 2) made to fit on your ordinary 
portrait box. The camera represented in 
Figs. 1 and 2 is one of the 11 x 14 size of 
the American Optical Company's make, 
and is capable of being drawn out thirty- 
four inches. This box, with a double whole 
size lens attached, will only make an 11 x 14 
picture its original size. If, now, we take 
off the double whole size tube and replace it 
with a whole size tube it will make an 11 x 14 
copy from a whole-size original. Again, 
if we replace it with a half size tube, we can 
make an 1 1 x 14 cony from a half size pic- 
ture. If now we want to copy a card pic- 
ture to a 11 x 14 size, the camera will not 
he long enough and we must either have a 
longer box made specially, or use a cone as 
in Fig. 2. Fig. 1 is the camera with a half 
size lens attached and iscapablcof makingan 



11x14 copy from a half size picture ; an 8 x 10 
from a card picture or medium size ambro- 
type or daguerreotype, or the whole-size from 
a ith size. Fig. 2 is the same camera with the 
front taken out and the cone put in its place, 

Fig. 2. 




and the same tube on the end of the cone. 
The cone is 24 inches long, which with the 
box drawn out its full length, gives a focal 
length of 58 inches. This length will give 
an 11 x 14 picture from a ^th size or even 
smaller ambrotype. The same rule holds 
good with all cameras. If a whole size box 
is the largest you have, a quarter size tube 
will give you a whole size picture from a 
medium ambrotype or card picture, but if 
the picture to be copied is smaller than that, 
you will need a cone, which, however, need 
not be over 12 inches long. Before con- 
cluding this subject I cannot too highly 
recommend to those who have not tried it, 
the use of the swing-back camera. By its 
use we can get the whole picture very 
sharply defined, more particularly in por- 
traits and landscapes. The very excellent 
cameras of the American Optical Company 
are nearly all made with the swing back, 
but in my estimation, the manufacturers 
make one great mistake — i. e., they put the 
swivel above instead of below the centre of 
their boxes, losing sight seemingly of the 
fact that the image in the camera is in- 
verted, or in other words upside down. 
For instance, in making a head and bust of 
a person, the centre of the head will bo 
about an inch' and a half or two inches be- 
low the centre of the plate; if then the 
swivel was placed in that position, and you 
focus upon the head, no matter how much 
you swing the top backward or forward the 
head always remains sharp, because it is 
stationary at that point, but as the boxes 
are now made, we focus upon the head, and 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



43 



in bringing the rest of the body into focus 
we throw the head out. The consequence 
is, it takes two or three minutes to do what 
ought to be done in a couple of seconds. I 
hope the American Optical Company will 
consider these remarks, and make the much- 
needed alteration in their otherwise unri- 
valled cameras. At some future time, I 
will give the best methods of copying am- 
brotypes, daguerrotypes, etc. 



PRIZE FOR SOLAR NEGATIVES. 

The following special offer is made for 
solar negatives to be printed from for the 
coming National Exhibition in Cleveland. 

A Gold Medal, the same as those described 
in our last issue, will be given for the best 
portrait solar negative that is sent us by 
March 15th next. 

The competing negatives shall be sub- 
mitted to three competent judges who are 
not competitors, and who shall decide to 
whom the award is to be made. 

Negatives for this purpose should be well 
denned in the high lights, and weak by trans- 
mitted light. Same length of exposure 
should be given as for direct printing nega- 
tives, and fixed in cyanide. 

Generally speaking, a negative too weak 
for a good contact print will be preferred. 
If the subject be a bust picture for vignet- 
ting, the head should not be less than 1\ 
inches. Plates much preferred of size 6J x 
8| inches. If varnished, only alcoholic 
varnish should be used, so it may be re- 
moved easily if desirable. 

The judges will select the best five nega- 
tives and from them select the one entitled 
to the award. Those who make the five 
selected negatives will each receive a full 
sheet print from the prize negative, or their 
own, gratis. Others will be supplied with 
prints from all or any of the negatives, at a 
reduced price to be hereafter announced. 

Those who get their negatives ready 
earlier, will oblige us by sending them as 
early as possible. Parties may send more 
than one negative if they desire. Nega- 
tives with more than three figures will not 
be suffered to enter for competition. 

The object of this offer is to secure some 
first-rate work for thecominsr National Ex- 



hibition, next June, of the National Photo- 
graphic Association. All choice negatives 
will be printed for that purpose, whether 
the prize negative or not. 

The prints will be made by Mr. Albert 
Moore, the well-known solar printer of this 
city, and by him exhibited. It is in his 
name and at his request that the offer is 
made. 

We sincerely hope that it will receive the 
attention of our best artists — not so much 
for the prize as to enable those who visit 
the Exhibition to see and study fine solar 
work., 



Photographers wljo have fine solar 
negatives, but do not wish to enter them 
for competition, would confer a favor by 
loaning us the same for printing selections 
for the Exhibition. In such cases a print 
will be given to the parties whose negatives 
are used. 



A Familiar Explanation of the Pheno- 
mena Produced by the Stereoscope. 

"We are often asked, " What is a stereo- 
scopic picture?" " When is it stereoscopic?" 
and "Why cannot we make them with one 
lens just as well as two ?" For the benefit of 
the ignorant on that score, we make the fol- 
lowing extract from Prof. Pepper's excel- 
lent work, " Cyclopcedic Science Simplified :" 

The name "stereoscope" is derived from 
two Greek words, signifying to view solid 
things, and the instrument is so constructed 
that two flat pictures, taken under certain 
conditions, shall appear to form a single 
solid or projecting body. 

A picture of any object is formed on the 
retina of each eye ; but, although there may 
be but one object presented to the two eyes, 
the pictures formed on the two retinae are 
not precisely alike, because the object is not 
observed from the same point of view. 

If the right hand be held at right angles, 
to, and a few inches from the face, the back 
of the hand will be seen when viewed by 
the right eye only, and the palm of the 
hand when viewed by the left eye only ; 
hence, the images formed on the retinas of 
the two eyes must differ, the one including 
more of the right side and the other more 



44 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



of the left side of the same solid or project- 
ing object. Again, if we bend a card so as 
to represent a triangular roof, place it on 
the table with the gable end towards the 
eyes, and look at it, first with one eye and 
then with the other, quickly and alter- 
nately opening and closing one of the eyes, 
the card will appear to move from side to 
side, because it will be seen by each eye 
under a different angle of vision. If we 
look at the card with the left eye only, the 
whole of the left side of the card will be 
plainly seen, while the right side will be 
thrown into shadow. If we next look at 
the same card with the right eye only, the 
whole of the right side of the card will be 
distinctly visible, while the left side will be 
thrown into shadow ; and thus two images 
of the same object, with differences of out- 
line, light, and shade, will be formed — the 
one on the retina of the right eye, and the 
other on the retina of the left. These im- 
ages falling on corresponding parts of the 
retinas, convey to the mind the impression 
of a single object; * while experience having 
taught us, however unconscious the mind 
may be of the existence of two different 
images, that the effect observed is always 
produced bj r a body which really stands out 
or projects, the judgment naturally deter- 
mines the object to be a projecting body. 

It is experience, also, that teaches us to 
judge of distances by the different angles 
of vision under which an object is observed 
by the two eyes ; for the inclination of the 
optic axes, when so adjusted that the im- 
ages may fall on corresponding parts of the 
retince, and thus convey to the mind the 
impression of a single object, must be greater 
or less, according to the distance of the ob- 
ject from the eyes. 

Perfect vision cannot then be obtained 
without two eyes, as it is by the combined 
effect of the image produced on the retina 
of each eye, and the different angles under 



* That this is the correct theory of single 
vision with the two eyes is evident. For if, while 
looking nt a mii<^1o object with both eyes, we 
make a Blight pressure with t lie finger on one of 
the eyeballs, we shall immediately perceive two 
objects j but, on removing the pressure, only one 
will be ngiiin seon. 



which objects are observed, that a judg- 
ment is formed respecting their solidity and 
distances. 

A man restored to sight by couching can- 
not tell the form of a body without touch- 
ing it, until bis judgment has been matured 
by experience, although a perfect image may 
be formed on the retina of each eye. A 
man with only one eye cannot readily dis- 
tinguish the form of a body which he had 
never previously seen, but quickly and un- 
wittingly moves h's head from side to side, 
so that his one eye may alternately occupy 
the different positions of a right and a left 
eye ; and, if we approach a candle with one 
eye shut, and then attempt to snuff it, we 
shall experience more difficulty than we 
might have expected, because the usual 
mode of determining the correct distance 
is wanting. 

In order then, to deceive the judgment, 
so tha*t flat surfaces may represent solid or 
projecting figures, we must cause the differ- 
ent images of a body, as observed by the 
two eyes, to be depicted on the respective 
retinae, and yet to appear to have emanated 
from one and the same object. Two pic- 
tures are therefore taken from the really 
projecting or solid body, the one as ob- 
served by the right eye only, and the other 
as seen by the left. These pictures are 
then placed in the box of the stereoscope, 
which is furnished with two eye-pieces, con- 
taining lenses so constructed that the rays 
proceeding from the respective pictures to 
the corresponding eye-pieces shall be re- 
fracted or bent outwards, at such an angle 
as each set of rays would have formed, had 
they proceeded from a single picture in the 
centre of the box to the respective eyes, 
without the intervention of the lenses ; and 
as it is an axiom in optics that the mind 
always refers the situation of an object to 
the direction from which the rays appear 
to have proceeded when they enter the eyes, 
both pictures will appear to have emanated 
from one central object; but as one picture 
represents the real or projecting object as 
seen by the right eye, and the other as ob- 
served by the left, though appearing by re- 
fraction to have proceeded from one and 
the same object, the effects conveyed to the 
mind, and the judgment formed thereon, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



45 



will be precisely the same as if the images 
were both derived from one solid or project- 
ing body, instead of from two pictures, be- 
cause all the usual conditions are fulfilled ; 
and consequently the two pictures will ap- 
pear to be converted into one solid body. 

The necessary pictures for producing 
these effects, excepting those of geometrical 
figures, which may be laid down by certain 
rules cannot, however, be drawn by the 
hands of man ; for, as Prof. Wheatstone 
has observed, "it is evidently impossible 
for the most accurate and accomplished art- 
ist to delineate, by the sole aid of his eye, 
the two projections necessary to form the 
stereoscopic relief of objects as they exist in 
nature, with their delicate differences of 
outline, light, and shade. But what the 
hand of the artist was unable to accom- 
plish, the chemical action of light, directed 
by the camera, has enabled us to effect. 

Daguerreotype portraits and Talbotype 
pictures are therefore taken, usually by two 
cameras placed towards the object, with a 
difference of angle equal to the difference of 
the angle of vision of the two eyes, which 
is about 18° when the object is eight inches 
from the eyes ; hence, if these be carefully 
examined and compared with the original 
projecting objects, they will be found to be 
faithful representations of the object as 
seen by each eye respectively. 



WHO INFRINGE THE " SLIDING 
BOX PATENT?" 

We are frequently asked this question, 
and it is a very difficult one to answer. As 
the matter now stands, Mr. Simon Wing, 
of Boston, and others associated with him, 
we believe, have secured the renewal or 
extension of a patent for a certain kind of 
box used mainly for making ferrotypes. 
The principal feature of this box is, that 
one can, by moving the plate over the field 
of the lens or lenses, or by moving the lens 
or lenses over the plate, multiply pictures 
in greater or less numbers on one plate. 
Such a box is very useful to parties who 
make that kind of picture, and Mr. Wing 
furnishes a very excellent box for the pur- 
pose. Many more of his boxes could have 



been sold by him, and the profits thereon 
safely in his coffers, were it not that he 
raised the claim that all who make more 
than one picture on a plate by sliding the 
holder so as to bring the plate into different 
positions over the field of the lens, infringe 
liis patent, and must stop. This absurd claim 
raised the ire of those who had used such 
means of multiplying pictures on one plate 
long before his patent was applied for, and 
every method has been used by the trade to 
avoid and evade his patent in every possible 
way. 

The result was a wrangle here and there, 
and finally lawsuits. Mr. M. B. Ormsbee, 
being associated with Mr. Wing, the patent 
became familiarly known as the " Wing- 
Ormsbee " patent, and also as "the sliding- 
box patent." 

The last person sued by the patentees 
was Mr. C. C. Schoonmaker, Troy, N. Y., 
whose' statement will be found in our last 
December issue. Mr. Schoonmaker fought 
bravely and alone, and produced such over- 
whelming proof that the patentee's claims 
were invalid, that the case was decided 
against them, and Mr. Schoonmaker was 
victorious.* The patentees appealed, how- 
ever, and the case was carried up to the 
Supreme Court, where it will be argued 
some time next month we understand. 
There is every hope that Mr. Schoonmaker 
will again have the decision in his favor. 
And, although appeal after appeal has been 
made to the fraternity to contribute of their 
means to help him, we are ashamed to hear 
from him that but a few have responded. He 
is out of the photograph business, and is pun 
suing this contest as a matter of principle^ 
and he is not to be bought off, though the 
parties are ready to do it, we are told. 

Who, then infringes the patent ? We 
answer, as the case now stands, no one in- 
fringes it, because the patentees have not 
substantiated their claims. Who infringes 
the patent if their claims are substantiated 
in the Supreme Court ? We answer, all 
who use one or more lenses to make pic- 
tures by moving the lens over the plate, or 
who slide or move the holder over the field 

# See decision of the court, Juige Nelson, in 
our last volume, page 294. 



46 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



of the lens — those who use one lens to make 
two pictures on a plate — two lenses to make 
four or more pictures on a plate — four lenses 
to make more than four pictures on a plate, 
etc., etc. 

"Who ought justly to suffer unjust claims 
upon them ? Every one willing to sit quietly 
and see another man struggling for them, 
without offering to help him. 

We really believe that if Messrs. Wing 
& Co. had pushed the sale of their boxes, 
and dwelt upon their merits without adding 
the absurd claim we mention, they would 
have been wealthy to-day, and without 
lawsuits to worry them. 



OLD TIMES. 

At the November meeting of the Boston 
Photographic Association, our friend, Mr. E. 
L. Allen, read a little sketch of his past 
experiences, which tells a story so interest- 
ing to all that we must multiply it. There 
are very few arts or proifessions which have 
been carried to such perfection as ours has, 
whose pioneers are still living in numbers. 
Photography is young but great. Every 
day nearly, we meet some one who, with 
unmistakable pride, will swell up his breast, 
hit it a thump, aaid say: u I made Daguer- 
reotypes twenty years ago. ' ' We appreciate 
the feeling, and it is not wrong to indulge 
it. You who can say so have much to be 
proud of. You have been identified with 
the greatest and most useful of the arts 
since its birth. You have seen the infant's 
struggles for life ; fought with it during its 
childhood, but oh 1 who can expect to live 
to see it in its manhood? None of us, we 
expect. Think of a first-class operator 
working for $4 per week now? 

But Mr. Allen must be heard: 

Mr. PrksiDENT: My only excuse for 
corning before you in this way to-night, is 
an earnest desire to see these meetings flour- 
ish, and not because I think I can tell you 
anything very interesting. 

But unless we make some individual ef- 
fort, as we were told last month, we may 
expect to see our meetings dwindle away, 
and the Society itself become of none effect. 
And if this ever happens, it will be our own 



fault, for I know we have here good mate- 
rial, we are well officered, our meetings are 
dignified and well conducted. We have 
among us some good photographers, men of 
experience, who. if they will put a shoulder 
to the wheel, will make these meetings so 
interesting, that to miss one will be " worse 
than having a tooth pulled," as the young 
ladies say to us when they come to be pho- 
tographed. 

I told you last month I had read a report 
of the previous meeting in the English 
journals, then at hand. That was a mis- 
take. It was the June meeting. However 
the fact stands. We were reported, and to 
the extent of a column, which I thought 
gave us a prominence that we must work to 
maintain. It will never do to fail, with 
our English cousins looking at us. 

We were not all born orators nor yet 
good photographers, but we can all learn 
something, and I am sure these meetings 
will be the best aid we ever had, if we only 
use them. 1 know that to-da} r we are mak- 
ing better pictures in Boston than we were 
a year ago. And I attribute the fact to the 
influence of this and the National Associa- 
tion. I feel it, and I doubt not others of 
you do. At the same time you must re- 
member we are hardly yet started. 

And here I wish to qualify a remark 
made at last meeting, when I called the 
photographic part of the late Mechanics' 
Exhibition abominable. That was rather 
harsh and unfair, as one of the principal 
contributors was not here. 

But I am not going to take back what 1 
then said, only qualify it. It is not too 
much to say that some of the productions 
(I can't call them pictures), there exhibited 
were abominable. And at the same time 
there were some good things there, among 
which I must mention a 7 x 9 of Edward 
Everett Hale and his little boy, made in im- 
itation of the engraving where a father is 
teaching his son to plough, and which 
pleased me more than anything else I saw, 
from its close resemblance to the engraving. 
Of course I except the foreign products. 

But taken altogether, the Exhibition was 
far short of what it ought to have been for 
Boston. I will venture the assertion 
the next one will see a very different dis- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



47 



play ; especially if business remains as it 
has been the last few weeks, as there will 
then be nothing to prevent us devoting our 
whole energies to that object. 

Something has been said of biographical 
sketches being introduced. They would no 
doubt be very interesting, but should be 
used as a sort of dessert after the substan- 
tial have been disposed of, else those who 
are watching us from over the water, may 
think we are not so deep in chemistry as we 
ought to be, or not so well posted in pho- 
tography. 

I am proud to say I have been in the 
ranks of picture makers in the most palmy 
days of the business, when our friends 
Messrs. Southworth & Hawes were mak- 
ing the most beautiful daguerreotypes ever 
produced in the world. When the firm of 
Ormsbee & Silsbee were on the corner of 
Bromfield and "Washington Streets, . and 
with whom I commenced my career, at a 
salary of $4 per week, after paying $50 to 
learn the business, which occupied four 
weeks. 

At the end of a year my wages were 
doubled. This was considered a pretty good 
thing, and immediately led to a matrimo- 
nial engagement, which still continues, but 
not on $8 per week. 

At this time nothing was known of pho- 
tographs on this side the ocean. We got 
our living altogether by the peerless daguer- 
reotype. Soon the crystalotype began to 
be talked of, and Messrs. Whipple & Black 
were its pioneers in the New World. Our 
friend Ormsbee, who at that early day pos- 
sessed some of the spirit of later times, and 
was bound not to be left behind, sent the 
late A. A. Turner to Messrs. Whipple & 
Black to learn the new process. This oc- 
cupied but a short time, when one of Orms- 
bee's handsome rooms was dismantled and 
fitted for a work-room. 

Mr. Turner, at the commencement, was 
obliged to make daily visits to Messrs. 
Whipple & Black's to procure his chemi- 
cals, as the formulae were not to be passed 
till Mr. T. had signed a contract to work a 
certain time at a certain rate of wages to 
pay his tuition. But the hero of a hundred 
swindles proved too smart for poor Orms- 
bee. Somehow he discovered the secret, 



and had him completely in his power. The 
contract papers were all made out, and were 
to be signed by Mr. T.'s father as bonds- 
man, who lived at Bath, Me., and were 
carried there for that purpose by his hope- 
ful son, but they never came back. 

Ormsbee had been at the expense of fit- 
ting up, and was obliged to make the best 
of a bad bargain. Turner soon produced 
some of the best pictures that had been 
made, but would be on a strike "every few 
weeks till his salary reached $36 per week. 
This was too much for those times, and soon 
burst the establishment. 

Turner went to New York, and in the 
course of a year or two the collodion pro- 
cess came up. This he soon became master 
of, and aspired to a trip to Paris. In order 
to raise funds for this, he offered to teach a 
few pupils at the low charge of $50 each. 
I was one of the number, and for this pur- 
pose went to New York and came back 
within a week fully posted. It displeased 
Ormsbee very much that I went to New 
York instead of going to Messrs. Whipple 
& Black's (who had of course kept pace 
with the times, and could teach as much as 
anybody knew), and learn on his account, 
but I knew whatthat meant, and preferred 
to be on my own hook. On my return 
from New York, he took me back at a sal- 
ary of $18 per week. I had worked for 
him up to the time of going at $10. The 
burst establishment had been repaired as 
well as possible after Turner left. 

This was a big jump, from $10 to $18, 
and I have a faint recollection of conscien- 
tious scruples at the time. In fact, when I 
look back, I wonder how I had the impu- 
dence to impose so much upon anybody. I 
really knew nothing. 

To commence I made a silver bath. My 
kind friend to whom I had given the $50, 
had generously furnished me with a bottle 
of collodion to bring back, so I was saved 
the trouble of making this, and it was a 
trouble in those days, as we had to make 
our own cotton, which generally came out 
good once in about ten trials. 

In my bath I put, as near as I can recol- 
lect, about one ounce of nitric acid, having 
forgotten to note down the exact quantity 
required. This, I need hardly tell you, did 



48 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



not work to my entire satisfaction, and as 
I supposed it lacked acid, added a couple of 
ounces more. This 1 found did not improve 
matters, and I was in a terrible fix, expect- 
ing to lose m} T situation, when my good 
friend Turner came along on a farewell 
visit to Boston before he crossed the ocean. 
"When I heard he was in town I made haste 
to see him, and find out what the trouble 
was. He soon set me right, and I have not 
been so ba'dlv stuck since. 



THE EXHIBITION. 

Begin now to get ready for it. Think 
over what you want to do, and begin the 
work at once. Do not leave it until the last 
of May and then send pictures that you will 
be ashamed to own when you go to Cleve- 
land and compare your work with that of 
others. 

There are several who are already at work 
and some pictures are actually made. Fol- 
low the example of such. Our local Secre- 
tary, Mr. Kyder, has secured a building that 
will accommodate an immense collection. 
Let it be filled. Mr. Byder also hopes to 
arrange with the express companies to have 
all freight delivered one wa}* free of charge. 

We have already arranged with the Penn- 
sylvania Central and Philadelphia and Erie 
Bailway Companies for a considerable re- 
duction in fare, and in good time will give 
full instructions to our readers as to routes, 
fares, etc. 

Look forward to the event and begin to 
prepare now to go. It will he a grand affair 
— much to be learned — much to be seen — 
to be proud of and enjoy. It will far exceed 
our Boston exhibition, which was only our 
maiden effort. Be sure to go. 

And now one word to a special class, and 
not a few either, of our readers. 

This exhibition is to be held in the West. 

Therefore, as was resolved by the noble 
Western men who visited the Boston exhibi- 
tion, let the West join hands and help Cleve- 
land. 

Let St. Louis, Chicago, Louisville, Cin- 
cinnati, Pittsburg, Detroit, Buffalo, Colum- 
bia, Ban Francisco, ami all our Western 
cities, help to make this a grand affair. Ap- 



point your committees now to confer with 
the local Secretary and begin now, for the 
time will soon be here. Begin now. Fuller 
particulars in our next. 



GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. 

Art Study in Photography — On the Influence 
of Distance in Portraiture. 

A new year has begun ; it is the fourth 
since I began to write for your excellent 
Journal. 

It has been my lot to chronicle many 
interesting inventions, but of much more 
importance has been the steady progress of 
our art. This progress takes place slowly, 
quietly, but irresistibly, apparently imper- 
ceptibly, but it becomes quite evident when 
we compare the pictures of to-day with 
those of five years ago. About that time 
wo commenced to pay more attention to 
art culture, although there were plenty of 
persons then who had not the slightest con- 
ception of the importance of this study for 
landscape and portrait photography, and 
who only, through the glorious successes of 
Loescher & Petsch, and Milster, in Berlin, 
Keutlinger and Adam Salomon, in Paris, 
Notman, in Montreal, and Kurtz, in New 
York, have been convinced of their error. 
Now we are so full}' convinced of the im- 
portance of studying art in photography, 
that our photographic books and periodicals 
teem with articles on this interesting sub- 
ject. My attention has been especially 
called thereto on receiving two books from 
the United States, the one called " Photo- 
graphic Mosaics," and the other, "How to 
Paint Photographs," by Ayres. In the 
former, six articles by well-known writers, 
Notman, Kurtz, Kent, and Bobinson, arc 
devoted to the artistic part of our art, with- 
out counting numerous and valuable short 
notices interspersed in the work, on light- 
ing, posing, drapery, etc., etc. Such no- 
tices are of more importance than formulae 
for new toning baths, or collodion pre- 
scriptions. The technical part of our art 
has, at the present day, been brought to so 
perfect a state, that every, even moderately 
skilful, manipulator can make a good plate 
or a good print after serving a short ap- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHER. 



49 




prenticeship. The art studies require much 
more time and labor, and it is my opinion 
that for such the necessary literary works 
are still wanting. The circumstance that 
the interesting little work, " How to Paint 
Photographs,'" has already reached a sec- 
ond edition, is sufficient proof for taking 
this view. I have read the book with much 
pleasure. It becomes evident at once, that 
it has been written by a practical man for 
practical men, and this places it much 
above those careless literary productions 
that are hurriedly made up at the desk 
of some theoretical writer, and with which 
the photographic world used to be flooded. 

There was a time when retouching the 
negative was in bad 
repute, and when 
it was preferred 
to produce pictures 
that had not been 
retouched. To-day 
there is hardly an 
intelligent photog- 
rapher who will not admit that retouching 
enhances the artistic value of a picture, 
and serves not only to remove spots from 
the negative. There must be thousands of 
photographers in the United States, par- 
ticularly in the smaller towns and villages, 
who cannot afford to keep a painter or re- 
toucher, and who have to put the finishing 
strokes to their pictures themselves; for 
these the book of Mr. Ayres must be an in- 
valuable guide. 

I have lately occupied my time with a 
series of experiments not uninteresting for 
portrait photography. Two cards were pre- 
sented to me, representing large heads of la- 
dies. Both represented the same person, 
and both were taken by the same artist on 
the same day. The position of both was 
full face, and still there is a decided differ- 
ence in the two. In one the face appeared 
broad and thick, while in the other it was 
narrow and small. The most opposite views 
were expressed to explain this phenomenon. 
After a little consideration, I found the 
solution of the problem, which 1 will give 
with a few lines. Suppose A B C D be a 
four-cornered bod3 7 , for instance a pillar 
with inclined sides. "When we look at this 
from two different standpoints, and P, 



which, although they are both on the same 
side and in the same direction, still the 
view will be quite different. lies exactly 
in the direction of the side surfaces ; these 
seem so much foreshortened that they ap- 
pear no longer as surfaces. 

It is quite different with the double dis- 
tance, P ; here the side surfaces become 
plainly visible. The picture in the camera 
will show similar appearances. 

"When I photograph the pillar from O, I 
will see nothing of the sides of the pictures 
even if I overlook the whole structure, but, 
when I take a picture from P, I will get the 
sides, and, in consequence, the picture will, 
with the same height, appear wider. 



0' 



If we now suppose that A B C D is a 
human head seen from above, the sides are 
here the cheeks. If we make two pictures 
from and P, we will get similar results. 
From the nearer point the cheeks are not 
visible, the figure appears smaller ; from the 
distant point the cheeks will appear, and 
the figure will appear broader. 

This conclusion is certainly comprehen- 
sive, but it conflicts with the general expe- 
rience, that by taking a picture at a short 
distance, for instance with globe lenses, the 
nearer objects will very often appear ex- 
aggerated. At first I could not understand 
this apparent contradiction until an experi- 
ment enlightened me. 

I took two pictures of a bust of Apollo, 
both from exactly the same side and of 
the same dimensions, but the one a dis- 
tance of 47 inches and the other from 112 
inches. The difference between the two 
pictures is quite apparent. I inclose you 
two photographs. I send wood-cuts made 
in which the outlines are exactly main- 
tained. The first I shall call I, and the 
second II. 

Although notnear so striking as the origi- 
nal photograph, still the difference is suf- 
ficiently evident to strike the observer. 



50 THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 




The whole figure appears in I smaller, 
the chest almost weak, while in II the fig- 
ure is robust and strong. The distance 
from the breast-point to the eyes is in both 
exactly alike, but the width of the breast 
is in I 56 millimetres, and in II 59 milli- 
metres. Another remarkable difference : 
the stroke of the hair is in II horizontal, 
but in I it inclines backward (see lines a a). 

The rings of the base of the statuette ap- 
pear in I strongly curved, while at II they 
are very flat ellipses. In I we scarcely see 
the side surface of the arm, A, while in II 
it becomes quite plain. 

In II the head is more between the 
shoulders (observe the angle of the neck at 
W), the whole figure seems to stretch the 
neck more in I. 

I have made, besides these two, two other 
pictures, at. a distance of GO and 86 inches 
respectively, and if wo place now the four 
pictures side by side, all of which have been 
made with lenses free from distortion, we 
will see that, with the increasing distance, 
the figure becomes larger, stouter, that the 
hair inclines more backwards, the head 



seems to incline more forward, the base be- 
comes flatter, the chest widens, and the 
stumps of the arms become more and more 
visible. 

Many superficial observers will say that 
these are trifles, that it does not make much 
difference if Apollo appears a little stouter 
or not ; and, so far as Apollo is concerned, 
they are right, but the case becomes quite 
different when we apply this rule to portrait- 
ure. Everybody has remarkably keen eyes. 
Every line is here criticised. 

What distance, then, shall the photog- 
rapher select in order to get a correct pic- 
ture ? That depends entirely on the object 
to be represented. 

Painters generally remove twice as far 
from the person as the height of the same, 
or, for an ordinary-sized person of 5 feet in 
height, he stands at a distance of about 10 
feet. For a half-length picture 5 feet would 
be about the proper distance, but we can 
use this rule only partially as a guide. 

The painter has liberty to choose the 
proper position; ho paints with both his eyes 
open, and can change the distance at will. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



51 



The case is quite different with the one- 
eyed camera, which, when once set, has to 
work according to mathematical laws. A 
thinking artist will take advantage of the 
differences produced by different distances, 
he will not make a stout person still stouter 
by placing the camera far off, nor a thin 
one still thinner by placing it in too close 
proximity to the instrument. 

Particular attention should be paid to this 
in taking busts or large heads, whioh are 
now so much in request, and, in fact, with 
all objects in which the width is considera- 
ble in proportion to the height. With 
full-length standing figures, where the 
width is inconsiderable in proportion to the 
length, these errors are not near so annoy- 
ing. 

Hence, I would recommend for a large 
establishment several lenses of different focal 
lengths. 

Another circumstance I must not omit 
mentioning here: the above stated differences 
take place not only with different but also 
with the same objective. I took the pictures 
of the Apollo with a Dallmeyer lens, at 5 
and 10 feet distances, the latter of course 
only half the size of the former, but when 
I magnified the second picture to the size 
of the first, all the differences became quite 
apparent. 

When we have to make a negative from 
which a life-size picture is to be made, we 
have to pay close attention to distance, even 
more so than with smaller pictures. 

Suppose the life-size picture is to be 5 feet, 
we would have to look at it at a distance of 
]0 feet to get a good view of it, and, conse- 
quently, we should place the camera 10 feet 
from the person when we make the nega- 
tive from which the enlargement is to be 
produced ; otherwise, the person will appear 
too slender. 

I shall add a few words more on this sub- 
ject in my next. 

Yours, truly, 

Dr. H. Vogel. 



If you meet failure after success, you 
may be assured that it is because you have 
done differently from what you should, and 
that the chemicals are not invariably at fault. 



NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE; 

Thk Photographic section of the Ameri- 
can Institute held its January meeting on 
the evening of the 4th, Prof. Tillman pre- 
siding. 

The general debate was of a desultory 
character and by no means connected or 
easy to make a report of. 

Mr. Mason exhibited a print on plain 
paper made in 1854, and toned in the old 
gold and hypo bath. With the exception 
of a spot here and there the print seemed 
quite as fresh-looking as a new one. It was 
made by Mr. Hugh O'Neil. Mr. Mason as- 
serted that he had some prints on plain 
paper which he made about ten years ago 
that were entirely unchanged, except where 
some bichloride of mercury and iodine had 
been spilled upon them. 

This seems to prove that photographs will 
last if not subjected to atmospheric changes. 
We all know that plain paper prints re- 
main, as a rule, unchanged much longer 
than those on albumen paper. 

Mr. Weeks related some curious experi- 
ments with a silvered glass mirror. He had 
adjusted it in front of his camera box so 
that the reflection struck the lens at an 
angle of about 45 degrees. He then photo- 
graphed an image reflected by this contri- 
vance in less time than he could get the 
same effect from the subject direct. 

Dr. Vander Weyde called attention to 
the report from Europe that fluorine has 
been successfully used in photography. 

Professor Tillman remarked that this 
statement brought up a very interesting 
question touching the part played by the 
halogens in actinic action. Some time since, 
before this Society, he had endeavored to 
show, from theoretical considerations alone, 
why bromine, when used with certain iodine 
compounds, should increase the chemical 
action of light. Similar considerations had 
led him to conclude that the salts of fluorine 
would not be beneficial in producing like 
results. In addition to those considera- 
tions, it may be stated that fluorine exceeds 
even oxygen in its affinities, and is, there- 
fore, to be regarded as the most powerful of 
the electro-negative elements. Indeed, it 
is still doubtful whether fluorine has yet 
been obtained in a separate state. M. Pratt, 



52 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



of France, and others, who claim to have 
isolated fluorine, describe it as a colorless 
gas, and there is good reason for believing 
that this, like the gaseous elements of less 
atomic weight, namely, hydrogen, nitrogen, 
and oxygen, is devoid of color. The atomic 
weight of fluorine is 19 ; taking the remain- 
ing halogens in the order of their atomic 
weights, we find that chlorine (35V5) is a 
yellowish gas ; bromide (80) is a liquid yield- 
ing deep red fumes ; and iodine (127) is a 
solid, which, when subjected to heat, be- 
comes a violet-colored vapor. From these 
facts we may infer that the forces which fix 
their atomic density prevent these elements 
from being equally affected by all the un- 
dulations producing white light. In the 
case of chlorine the rate of its molecular 
motions corresponds with that of undula- 
tions which produce a certain yellowish tint 
in the solar spectrum. Iodine, the element 
of greatest density, has a rate of molecular 
motion corresponding with that of the most 
rapid undulations which show their effects 
in the visible spectrum. On the other hand, 
bromine, which, in point of density, stands 
intermediate between chlorine and iodine, 
has a rate of molecular motion correspond- 
ing with the slowest undulations which pro- 
duce the impression of red. It is evident, 
therefore, that the rate of molecular motion 
does not depend alone on density ; and we 
are confirmed in this opinion on finding 
that either of the colorless gases, when in- 
creased in density by subjection to pressure, 
do not undergo any changes of color. Yet 
the fact remains, that the two electro-nega- 
tive elements, either of whose atomic weight 
exceeds that of any other metalloids, v and of 
a majority of the metals, are the most effec- 
tive agents, next to silver, in the hands of 
the photographer. Another singular coin- 
cidence may be mentioned here : the atomic 
weight of silver (108) added to that of fluo- 
rine is exactly equal to that of iodine. There 
are many chlorine compounds which are in- 
fluenced by light; the most sensitive of these 
are combinations derived from organic com- 
pounds. Here is a field, yet unexplored by 
the photographic chemist, which may here- 
after yield abundant fruit. 

Dr. Vander Weyde said the statement 
read by Professor Tillman regarding the 



haloid compounds was exceedingly inter- 
esting. With regard to fluorine he should 
have said that body was used for photo- 
graphic purposes in combination with oxy- 
gen ; these two being combined with electro- 
positive elements. 

Mr. Edward Bierstadt presented the speci- 
fications of Albert's photo-litho process, 
which were read by the secretary. He 
stated that he was experimenting with the 
process and hoped soon to testify to its prac- 
tical value. The fact that the image is re- 
versed by this process was raised as an ob- 
jection to it, and several methods suggested 
for overcoming that objection which are not 
very practical or new. 

Dr. Vander Weyde stated, in regard to 
the subject of illumination in subterraneous 
caves, that parallel rays coming from one 
locality, as in the case with a reflecting 
mirror or magnesium or hydro oxygen light, 
cause a too strong illumination of prominent 
parts, and too black shadows, with no mid- 
dle tints ; that to obtain these, reflecting sur- 
faces or smaller sunlights are required ; that 
such an illumination with parallel rays 
coming from a single locality from a dis- 
tance is only adapted for printing where the 
negative has to be reversed, so that the col- 
lodion film is at some distance from the 
paper. For this purpose M. Carey Lea pro- 
posed some time ago in the Philadelphia Pho- 
tographer to print in such cases at the end 
of a room, and illuminate from the window 
by means of sunlight reflected by a mirror. 
Dr. Vander Weyde used for this purpose a 
narrow elongated box, not much wider than 
the negative, with blackened sides, at the 
bottom of which the printing was done, and 
the open top of which was turned to the 
light; as all sidelight was excluded here, 
and cloudlight fell on the paper, he ob- 
tained rapidly sharp prints from inverted 
negatives, even if the glass was very thick. 
There are, however, cases in which the op- 
posite conditions are required, namely, as 
much sidelight as can be got in all possiblo 
directions; such is the case when copying an 
engraving or drawing made on very rough 
paper. If then we have light in one direc- 
tion only, every unevenness of the paper 
shows its light and shadow, which the 
camera of course copies as well as it copies 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER 



53 



the picture itself. Now it is found that in 
such a case the best remedy is to make the 
negative with as full an illumination of the 
original as possible so that the light falls 
from all sides at the same time; for in- 
stance, exposing it on the roof. With such 
a precaution great roughening of the paper 
■will often not show itself at all in the nega- 
tive. 

The new year with its ever attending pres- 
ents has not forgotton our craft, for with it 
comes the ever welcome Mosaics ; a book to 
every photographer of more value than all 
the process peddlers of a lifetime; it tells 
many things, old and new, which all should 
know and keep constantly in mind. Fit com- 
panion to it is that " gem of first water," 
How to Paint Photographs, second edition. 
If with these and the Philadelphia Photog- 
rapher' progress is not made, the fault is not 
yours or those who write, but with those for 
whom such are intended. 

Those who have not seen the new work 
by Mr. H. P. Robinson on "Pictorial Effect 
in Photography and Combination Printing," 
should lose no time in obtaining the same. 
It will inform them of much in the art de- 
partment of photography ; and tell why cur- 
tains, chairs, vases, and gas fixtures should 
not be scattered at random over the picture ; 
also how such should be, if proper balance 
and harmonious effect is to result. It is a 
work valuable as well to the landscape artist, 
and should meet with a liberal circulation. 

Mr. Mason asserted the necessity of some 
artificial light for solar printing. The sub- 
ject was discussed at length, but the mem- 
bers seemed to have forgotten Dr. Monck- 
hoven's new discovery altogether. 

Mr. H. T. Anthony gave an amusing ac- 
count of a sitting he endured once of thirty 
minutes, in order to secure a picture. The 
calcium light was used. Yours, &c. 

C. W. H. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting was held 
Wednesday evening, January 5th, 1870, 
the Vice-President, Dr. Alexander Wil- 
cocks, in the chair. 



The minutes of the last meeting were 
read and approved. 

A committee, consisting of Messrs. Cor- 
lies, Davids, and Wallace, was appointed 
to procure a suitable certificate to be pre- 
sented to Mr. John Moran, to whom the 
last prize picture was awarded. 

A proposition was made by Mr. Davids, 
asking if the Society would accept of two 
silver medals, and award them for the best 
specimens of portrait and landscape pho- 
tography made by any of its members dur- 
ing 1870. 

It was, on motion, ordered, that the So- 
ciety accept the donation of medals offered, 
and fixed the meeting in December as the 
time at which prints and negatives should 
be presented for competition. 

The Secretary exhibited an apparatus de- 
signed by Mr. L. J. Marcy for making glass 
positives for the magic lantern at night, by 
the use of a coal-oil lamp arranged some- 
what upon the same principle as his magic- 
lantern lamp (except that one wick is used, 
and no reflector). A very brilliant illumi- 
nation is obtained, the rays from which are 
made parallel by a small diaphragm in front 
of the light through which they must pass. 
Separate from the lamp is a small wooden 
frame placed at a right angle on a firm base. 
Upon the upright frame are four springs to 
hold the negative in position. On the op- 
posite side are four small pieces of silver 
upon which the sensitive plate rests, so that 
the two surfaces may not exactly touch. 
A metal trough is put below the frame to 
catch all the silver drainage. To make a 
glass positive, light the lamp, put on the 
diaphragm, and place the frame containing 
the negative (collodion side away from the 
lantern), directly in front of the light, at a 
distance of about 15 inches from it. Pre- 
pare the plate in the usual way. Cover the 
negative so that the light may not strike it 
until the sensitive plate is in position. After 
the plate is excited, place it upon the metal 
corners (collodion towards the negative), 
and, by turning a spring which presses 
upon the centre, the plate will be kept per- 
fectly rigid during the exposure, which 
should be of about two minutes' duration. 
Allow the light to strike the negative for 
the requisite time, and cover again. Re- 



54 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GEAPHEE. 



move the plate and develop, being careful 
not to fog by over development. 

Several pictures were made during the 
evening, to illustrate its practical merits. 

The Secretary stated that he had used 
Mr. Marcy's photographic printing appa- 
ratus repeatedly with excellent success, both 
as regards sharpness and illumination. By 
the use of this instrument, pictures can only 
be made of the exact size of the negative, 
which is limited to £-size plates ; a very 
convenient size, however, for the magic 
lantern. 

On motion, adjourned. 

John C. Browne, 

Recording Secretary. 



FERROTYPERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The monthly meeting of the Ferrotypers' 
Association of Philadelphia, was held at 
Mr. E. F. Warrington's gallery, Tuesday 
evening, January 11th, 1870. 

The President, Mr. C. L. Lovejoy, in the 
chair. 

After roll call the minutes of last meeting 
were read and adopted. 

Mr. Charles E. Bolles was elected a mem- 
ber of the Association. 

The Treasurer made his annual report. 

The President now resigned his seat in 
favor of Mr. A. K. P. Trask,who was elected 
to that office last month, when the annual 
election of officers for the Society took place. 

On taking the chair, Mr. Trask made 
some appropriate remarks. He thought it 
would be a good plan to offer a prize medal 
to the members who would bring in the 
best work; he showed several fine album- 
sized ferrotypes taken on the chocolate- 
tinted plates. 

A vote of thanks was given to ex-Presi- 
dent Lovejoy for the able and impartial 
manner in which he had conducted our past 
meetings. 

On motion of the Secretary, it was re- 
solved, that each member shall make at 
least one ferrotype, and bring it to the next 
meeting for examination and competition. 
The best picture to be decided on by a ma- 
jority of the members present. But none 
to know, before the decision, each other's 



pictures. The formula used in making the 
best ferrotype to be published in the Phila- 
delphia Photographer. 

Motion made that a committee be ap- 
pointed to examine into the manner of doing 
business and style of skylights used at the 
different galleries in the city. 

An amendment was offered and passed 
to let the above lay over for one regular 
meeting. 

Adjourned, to meet again Tuesday even- 
ing, February 1st, at Mr. C. L. Lovejoy's 
gallery, No. 500 South Second Street. 

D. XiOTHROP, 

Secretary. 



EXHIBITION OF 1870, AT PARIS. 

AT THE PALACE OP INDUSTRY. 

Paris, 22d December, 1870. 
Societe Francaise de Photographie , 
Rue Cadet, 9. 

The French Photographic Society had 
thought fit up to the present time to abstain 
from granting any recompenses at the end 
of its exhibitions; at the last meeting it 
was decided that at the next exhibition, in 
1870, would be placed medals and, honorable 
mentions at the disposal of a special jury, 
named under certain conditions, which will 
be hereafter determined. 

The earnestness and interest with which 
the last exhibition of the Society was visited, 
engage its committee to make a warm ap- 
peal to all photographers, practical and 
amateur, French and foreign, in order to 
give the most possible eclat to the next ex- 
hibition, which is to inaugurate this distri- 
bution of prizes. 

The monthly bulletin of the Society will 
contain in its next number of January, 1870, 
the detailed regulations of the exhibition, of 
which we will merely mention here the 
principal dispositions. It will contain the 
list of the jury who will alone be charged 
with the examination and admission of the 
prints which may be presented, and will 
point out the conditions under which will 
be named the special jury of prizes. 

The opening of the exhibition will take 
place on the 1st of May, 1870, at the same 
time as that of the Exhibition of Fine Arts, 
and all shipments should be sent (freight 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



55 



paid) to the Palace of Industry, door No. 
1, from the 1st to the 10th of April, at the 
latest. 

The Society takes charge of all the ex- 
penses of organization, installation, and ad- 
ministration, in consideration of a fixed and 
only tax of 10 francs for each meter of surface 
occupied by the frames. 

Persons desirous of exposing should give 
notice as soon as possible before the 15th of 
March, making known the space that they 
desire to occupy. 

For the Committee. 
MM. Begnault, Honorary President. 
Balard, President of the Society. 
Peligot, Pres't of the Committee. 
Davajtne, V.-Pres't " " 

Bayard, Secretary-General. 
Portier, Secretary-Treasurer. 
Secretary-Agent, M. Laubier, 
Kue Cadet, No. 9, at Paris, where all let- 
ters should be addressed. 



MYSTERIES OF THE NEW YORK 
DARK CHAMBERS. 

A number of our readers have expressed 
a desire for the working formulae of some of 
the eminent operators in New York, main- 
taining that they must have some "secrets" 
which are not made public. 

These requests, then, are our apology for 
what follows. They are no secrets, and 
have never been held as such. The gentle- 
men whose names they bear are nearly all 
members of the National Photographic As- 
sociation, and are too old in the business to 
be guilty of holding what they know as 
"secrets." They have too often enjoyed 
the benefits of inter-communication, and 
met our request for their " secrets" with a 
disclosure of all we asked, and we give them 
to our readers without extra charge. 

FORBES'S FORMULA FOR NEGATIVES. 

I have no secrets in my dark-room, and 
I am willing to let the craft know how I 
am working, and that is the simplest way 
I can without raising any dust : 

COLLODION. 

Ether and Alcohol, . equal parts. 

Iodide of Ammonium, . 5 grains. 

Bromide of Ammonium, . H " 



Bromide of Cadmium or 

Potassium, . . . ]j grains. 

Cotton, . . . . 4£ to 6 grs. 

I find that this mixture works well, winter 
and summer alike. Sometimes I work am- 
monium and cadmium alone (5 grains of 
iodide to 2J grains of bromide), and mix 
together some of both, and have found them 
to work well. 1 never let my bath get below 
40 grains, and I keep my room warm night 
and day. In developing I use plain proto- 
sulphateof iron, 20 to 25 grains to the ounce 
of water ; sometimes I have to use less, ac- 
cording to the subject and the style of dress 
the parties have on. To make good work 
you have to make every sitting a study. 
Yours, truly, J. L. Forbes, 
Gurney's Gallery, 
5th Av. and 16th St., N. Y. 

January 6th, 1870. 

Mr. Forbes is one of the most talented 
manipulators in this country. We have 
seen many of his negatives, and they are a 
wonder, a study, and a delight, having all 
the good qualities of perfect negatives. 

kruse's amm. -nitrate printing 
process for plain paper. 

My process, of course, is only used for 
copies and solar prints. It is, doubtless, 
the same as that used by all others. I 
have no "secrets." I find it good, and, 
such as it is, I give it unto you. 

I prefer the Steinbach paper to all oth- 
ers, for its regular quality. It is easily 
salted and is not injured by washing. 

SALTING SOLUTION. 
Chloride of Amm., . . 60 grains. 
Water, . ... 1 quart. 

I salt two sheets at once. Placing them 
back to back, I sweep them through the 
solution three times, and then immerse 
them one minute. I then hang them up 
to dry, distinctly marking the salted side, 
to guide me in silvering. Care should be 
taken in salting, that the right side of the 
paper be outward. 

SENSITIZING SOLUTION. 

Nitrate of Silver, . . 1 ounce. 

Water, . . . .8 ounces. 

From this pour off one-fourth (or ' 2 

ounces), and to the remainder add 6 ounces 



56 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEK. 



of liquor ammonia, drop by drop, rapidly 
stirring with a glass-rod all the while. The 
solution will at first turn brown, but, after 
stirring, will clear up again. Now add the 
2 ounces separated to the other, and filter.* 
The solution is now ready for use. Pour a 
sufficient quantity carefully on the sheet 
of paper, and spread it uniformly over the 
whole with a pad. The pad I use is made 
by winding prepared cotton around a bot- 
tle with the bottom knocked out. When 
spreading the silver on the paper, rub 
gently, and as little as possible, yet have a 
care that the whole surface of the sheet has 
attention. 

TONING AND FIXING THE PRINTS. 

Ilyposulphite of Soda, . 8 ounces. 
Chloride of Silver, . . 60 grains. 

Chloride of Gold, . . 15 grains. 
Water, .... 1 quart. 
Immerse the prints without washing, ten 
minutes, or until they are properly fixed 
and toned. Finally, wash the same as al- 
bumen prints are washed. 

Edward Krtjse, 
Bogardus's Gallery, New York. 
January 11th, 1870. 

Mr. Kruse is one of Mr. Bogardus's most 
devoted helps, and for over ten years has 
given his energies to plain-paper printing. 
His counsel then comes as from one who 
knows how to teach. 

S. P. VAN LOAN'S PROCESS FOR ALBTJMEN- 
IZINQ PORCELAIN GLASS. 

Having given much attention to the mak- 
ing of porcelain pictures for the past three 
or four years, and finding at the start that 
I had but little given me to work from that 
was reliable, the various receipts then known 
and published not giving permanent or satis- 
factory prints, I left the beaten track and 
entered into a series of experiments to en- 
deavor to get a perfectly reliable collodio- 
chloride, or, to be more plain, a solution in 
which alcohol and ether could be made to 
hold a given quantity of silver without pre- 
cipitation or docom position. The task has 
been a hard one ; defeats often. But, not 
to be baffled, I persevered, and perfect suc- 
cess followed. I have solutions of collodio- 



* The same filter may be used repeatedly until 
worn through. 



chloride months old, and no precipitation 
of silver can be seen, the solution working 
as perfectly as when first made. I do not 
intend to give this part of the process to the 
fraternity at present, as I think I ought to 
have some return for the time and trouble 
spent in its discovery. 

The preparation of the albumen and the 
coating of the glass for the chloride I give 
below, and, unless this part of the work is 
done in a thorough manner, no success can 
be expected, for this is the ground of the 
work. 

ALBUMEN FOR THE FIRST COATING. 

I take the whites of 8 fresh eggs (store 
eggs will not do), hold them up to the light 
and remove all bits of the germ and other 
foreign matter. I use an 8-ounce graduate 
to break the eggs in, and, as each white is 
about equal to an ounce, I have about 8 
ounces of albumen. I now dissolve 12 
grains of clear table-salt in 1 ounce of 
water, and add to the albumen. I now 
beat in a dish until the froth is so stiff I 
can overturn the dish without spilling any 
of the albumen. I then set it aside over 
night to settle, and in the morning pour off 
the clear part into a graduate, and again 
allow it to settle. I draw a piece of tissue 
paper over the surface always before using, 
to remove dust, bubbles, etc. 

To clear my porcelain plates, I use rotten 
stone, water, and a cotton -pad. While the 
plates are still wet (though drained), from 
the washing, I pour the albumen from one 
corner, taking care to have it flow evenly 
and to avoid bubbles. Pour the excess into 
a bottle to throw away, and never pour it 
back into the stock-bottle. Stand the glasses 
on nails to dry on the edges, and not on the 
corners. The longer the plates are albu- 
menized before using, the less liable are 
they to blister on the surface when fixing, 
therefore it is best to albumenize a good lot 
ahead. I now coat with my collodio-chlor- 
ide, and, when they are perfectly dry, fume 
them from 5 to 15 minutes, according to the 
weather. Print a little stronger than pa- 
per prints, and wash well before toning. 
Any weak toning process will do. Tone 
until slightly blue by transmitted light, and 
wash well before fixing. Be sure the ton- 
ing bath is not in the least acid. The 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



57 



hypo bath must be weak and contain one- 
quarter salt. Leave the plates in long 
enough only to get the color you like, then 
remove, wash well, and dry. 

In using ground-glass the albumen may 
be reduced in strength one-half with water, 
but add the salt, 1 J grains to each ounce in 
bulk. After printing, wash under running 
water full 15 minutes, to get rid of the free 
nitrate of silver left in the pores of the glass, 
and then tone and fix as usual. 

Many have been troubled with ground 
porcelain turning dark in the light after 
finishing, but thorough washing, as above 
directed, before toning, will end all the 
troubles in this direction. 

Those who desire to try the collodio-chlo- 
ride, can do so by addressing me at Bogur- 
dus's gallery, 363 Broadway, New York. 
It is put up in half-pound bottles, $3. 

S. P. Van Loan.* 

January 11th, 1870. 



KURTZ'S FILTERING APPA- 
RATUS. 

"With this I send you the drawings of 
my filtering apparatus with full directions 
for its construction. 

Let A represent a piece of wood about 1 
inch thick, and a half disc sawed out, half 
the circumference of the demijohn, B. There 
is also a piece of soft wire, D, fastened at one 
end of the piece of wood, A ; at the other 
end it is bent so as to hook into the screw 
eye, E, and thus keeps the inverted demi- 
john, B, in its place. This piece of wood is 
fastened at the proper height to any con- 
venient wall of the apartment. The demi- 
john, B, capable of containing the entire 
solution of the bath, is provided with a cork, 
through which passes a glass tube about 3 
or 4 inches long and a quarter of an inch in 
diameter; a portion of the cork is also cut 
out, as represented in the drawing, F. 
Around the neck of the demijohn are two 
pieces of wood joined together which in- 
close the neck, (1. The demijohn being 
charged with the solution and corked, is in- 

* Mr. Hugh O'Neil (firm C. D. Fredericks & 
Co.) has also kindly furnished us with his for- 
mula; — too late for this, but will appear in our 
next issue, with others. 



verted over a funnel containing the filter. 
The uprights, H H, support the piece, G, and 
keep it from resting on the funnel. This 
funnel rests in a hole cut out of the shelf, I, 
which latter is supported by the brackets, 
J J, which are, like the piece A, fastened to 
the wall. The lip of the funnel either dips 
into another similar demijohn or, if you 
prefer, into the buth-holder. You will ob- 
serve that the instant the demijohn, A, is 
inverted the solution commences running 
out, and the air-bubbles in, and the solution 
would eventually all run out, were it not 
for the fact that the mouth of the demijohn 
dips below the top of the funnel, consequently 




as soon as the solution reaches the cork in 
the demijohn, the atmosphere is cut off from 
entering the hole in the cork, and thus 
matters come to a standstill until sufficient 
solution has run through the filter to again 
allow the air to enter the demijohn, when 
the solution runs out as before, etc., etc. 
Should your bath consist of 3- or 4 gallons 
of solution, which would require many hours 
to filter, you have merely to start this simple 
piece of work at night when you go home, 
and in the morning the work is done. 
Hoping this may have been clearly ex- 
plained, I shall at some future day describe 
many more just such pieces of apparatus in 
daily use in my gallery. 

W. Kurtz, 

872 Broadway. 
January 7th, 1870. 



58 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



OUR PICTURE. 

Our picture this month is the one of the 
composition or genre class, for which the gold 
medal was awarded by us last November, 
as being the best of all its competitors. It 
was, as we have before announced, made 
by Mr. M. M. Griswold, Columbus, Ohio, 
and we think we will not offend the others 
when we say we look upon it as the 
best of all the pictures sent for compe- 
tition. That Mr. Griswold has displayed 
much care, thought, taste, knowledge, pa- 
tience, and skill, that he tried hard to win 
the prize, is very decidedly proven by the 
picture. We have agreed to call it " Blow- 
ing Bubbles." The occupation of the two 
little cherubs, no doubt, brings vividly to 
the minds of many of us, recollections of 
just such scenes as our picture represents. 
It is charmingly natural and lifelike, and 
shows what a beautiful picture can be made 
with the commonest and most ordinary ac- 
cessories. 

When our next prizes are offered, we do 
hope that more of our talented subscribers 
will try to make pictures and secure the 
prize. Do your best, and we ask no more. 

There are several other very meritorious 
pictures in the genre class, all of which 
would make good illustrations for our Jour- 
nal, but we think those who made them 
can do still better, and we give them another 
chance this month to try. Among those we 
speak of, are the pictures by Messrs. Merz, 
Inglis, Tripp & Schellhouse, Forest, Vail 
& Elton, etc., etc. Let them try again. 
Those who desire to see good and bad work, 
so as to know what to follow and what to 
avoid, should get sets of the prize prints, 
and study them with the criticisms of the 
judges. 

We now close with a detailed statement 
from Mr. Griswold of his modus operandi, 
which we have asked for, as suggested by a 
correspondent last month : 

Dear Sir : The medal was received without de- 
lay, and I am much pleased with it. In com- 
pliance with your request I will give you the 
modus operandi hy which the bubble pictures 
were made. The lens used was an extra 4-4 
Holme;-, Muolh A Haydon, of the old make, and, 
with the exception that it may be somewhat 
slower, will compare favorably with Dallmey- 



er's, Willard's, and others of the best modern 
brands. The size of the stop was 2 inches ; 
time of day, about eleven o'clock ; distance from 
the lens to the subject about 18 feet ; time of ex- 
posure, about 20 seconds. Collodion, ether, and 
alcohol, equal parts ; iodide of ammonium, 5 
grains ; bromide of cadmium, 2£ grains ; Antho- 
ny's cotton, 5 to 8 grains, or to the proper con- 
sistency. Developer, very strong, viz. : proto- 
sulphate of iron, 6 ounces; water, 64 ounces; 
sulphate of iron and ammonia, 1 ounce ; sul- 
phate of copper, h ounce ; acetic acid, 1 ounce 
to every 4 ounces of solution. My silver bath 
ranges from 35 to 45 grains. It could not have 
been over 35 grains when the prize negatives were 
taken. I am very much cramped for space in 
my light-room, and, in order to get distance, 
had to cut an archway into another room to get 
range for the camera. The shape of the building 
is such that this archway could only be made 
about the middle of the room, and not as near 
the side-light as I would have desired. My light 
faces the north, and is about the usual form, 
with the exception that the side-light runs into 
the corner of the room about 3 feet nearer 
the wall than the top-light, and is of clear glass, 
while the top-light is of ground-glass. Theback- 
ground I use is the wall, east end of the light- 
room, painted in oil of the usual background 
tint, and flattened with wax and turpentine in 
the color. For screens overhead, I use four 
frames made of light tin tubes and covered with 
white tissue-paper, the bottom ones sliding close 
to the glass on wire, one under the other, so that 
they can be slid entirely away from the light 
when necessary. The top ones swing on hinges 
back against the flare of the ceiling. Contrary 
to accepted ideas, I have my side-light screened 
with black curtains in four parts, so arranged 
that any part or the whole of the light can be 
shut off; the side-light running into the corner 
beyond the skylight, enables me to throw the 
light on the background behind the sitter, and 
also to light the head behind, a useful arrange- 
ment in getting the so-called " Rembrandt ef- 
fects." The shape of my room is such, that I 
can work only towards the east. It often hap- 
pens that I wish to throw the right side of the 
head in shadow ; this can readily be done by cov- 
ering the side-light and lighting the other side 
of the face from the top of the sky-light. 

In the composition of the bubble picture, I 
have attempted to show that pretty pictures can 
be made of simple every-day subjects. Of course, 
some study and a large amount of patience are 
necessary, especially when small children are 
the subjects. To know just how much to put in 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



59 



and what to leave out, in the make-up of such 
compositions, that they mny appear natural and 
not made up, requires some artistic, or, to say 
the least, good taste. The first thing to do is to 
conceive the subject and form the picture in the 
mind, and finally build it up before the camera ; 
accessories will suggest themselves as we pro- 
gress. No exposure of plates should be made 
until the picture is seen complete in all detail 
upon the ground-glass of the camera. Finally, 
common sense, good taste, and skilful manipula- 
tions are the requisites which will succeed with 
any good chemical formula. 



M. M. Griswold. 



Columbus, 0. 



The prints were made by Mr. William 
H. Khoads, No. 1800 Frankford Avenue, 
Philadelphia, on Trapp & Munch's cele- 
brated albumen paper. Mr. Ehoads de- 
serves considerable praise for these prints. 
They are very regular, although made at 
the season of the year when the weather is 
very uncertain. 

As many have no regular formula for 
working this paper, we submit that by which 
Mr. Ehoads secured his excellent prints. 



SILVER BATH. 



Water, . 
Silver, 
Alcohol, . 
Liquor Ammonia, 



1 ounce. 
40 grains. 
1£ drachms. 



"When you want to replenish, add silver, 
water, and alcohol, in the above propor- 
tions, and about one-half the amount of am- 
monia. 

TONING BATH. 
Water, . . . .24 ounces. 

Acetate of Soda, . . 45 grains. 

Salt 45 " 

Chloride of Gold, . . 3 :l 

Neutralize the gold before adding with 
bicarbonate of soda. Use three or four days 
by adding gold each day, then make a new 
bath. 

Portrait photography is said to have 
progressed and improved immensely in En- 
gland during the last year or two — the re- 
sult of the frequent exhibitions held there. 
So it will improve here immensely if pho- 
tographers will earnestly take hold and 
help make our next Exhibition worthy of 
us. 



NOTES IN AND OUT OF THE 
STUDIO. 

BY G. WHARTON SIMPSON, M. A., F.S.A. 

Monckhoven' s New Artificial Light for En- 
larging — Collodio- Chloride Transparencies 
— Progress in Carbon Printing — Keeping 
Dry Plates — Mixed Iron and Pyrogallic 
Acid Developer — Photographic Mechanical 
Printing Process — Photographic Mosaics, 
1870. 

One of the most interesting photographic 
events of the month, was the practical dem- 
onstration of the value of the new artificial 
light and enlarging apparatus, before the 
Photographic Society of London, by Dr. 
Van Monckhoven, who also read a copious 
and interesting descriptive paper. Tenny- 
son tells us that " things seen are mightier 
than things heard," and unquestionably a 
practical demonstration is at all times more 
instructive than many descriptive papers. 
Possibly the use of artificial light for en- 
larging purposes may scarcely possess the 
same interest and value in a climate like 
that of America, that it does in the more 
changeable climate, with the less brilliant 
and constant light of this country. Here, 
with the uncertainty of direct sunshine for 
any continuous period, except in the few 
summer months, the question of artificial 
light, applicable to photographic purposes, 
especially enlarging purposes, possesses 
great interest. 

Dr. Monckhoven's night light consists of 
the oxyhydrogen light, with pillars of pure 
carbonate of magnesia instead c * lime cyl- 
inders. The result, at the demt. ^stration 
in question, was a light with the c. -miical 
intensity of the ordinary magnesium ight, 
without its unsteadiness and irregularity, 
and at a less cost; or, in other words, it 
was a Drummond light with a much higher 
actinic power than that of incandescent 
lime. The light was intense, concentrated, 
actinic, steady, and continuous,, supplying 
all the conditions requisite for photographic 
enlarging operations. 

The enlarging apparatus, which is, in 
general principles, similar to a magic lan- 
tern with the necessary special modifica- 
tions to suit the light, has already been ex- 
plained to your readers by our friend, Dr. 



60 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



Vogel. A couple of flint-glass plano-con- 
vex condensers of short focus are employed, 
the flint-glass being selected in preference 
to crown, which is commonly used for con- 
densers, because Dr. Monckhoven has found 
that the latter has the property of absorbing 
a considerable portion of the actinic rays 
emitted by artificial light at a low tempera- 
ture. 

In the course of his demonstration, Dr. 
mMonckhoven produced two very excellent 
enlarged negatives; the first on a fifteen 
inches by twelve plate, from a collodio- 
chloride transparency, somewhat less than 
card size. This was effected on a wet col- 
lodion film by an exposure of six seconds, 
the result being a perfect and well-exposed 
enlarged negative, with excellent gradation 
and sufficient intensity. The second ex- 
periment consisted in producing from the 
same transparency a paper negative on a 
whole sheet of paper. The paper was pre- 
pared with iodide and bromide of potas- 
sium, 1\ grains of the former and 1\ grains 
of the latter in an ounce of water, and 
floated on a bath containing 35 grains of 
nitrate of silver and 35 minims of glacial 
aeetic acid in an ounce of water, exposed 
wet. With an exposure of considerably less 
than three minutes, an excellent negative 
was obtained on developing with a 1-grain 
solution of pyrogallic acid, containing 2 
grains to the ounce of citric acid. Not- 
withstanding the difficulties attendant on 
delicate experiments of this kind in a lec- 
ture-room, where all the arrangements have 
to be improvised, the success here was com- 
plete. 

Collodio- Chloride Transparencies — I had 
a very interesting conversation with Dr. 
Monckhoven, on a subject of a somewhat 
extensive series of experiments he has re- 
cently made with the collodio-chloride of 
silver process. He states, in the first place, 
that for the production of enlarged nega- 
tives, he finds the collodio-chloride of silver 
transparency very much superior to any 
transparency produced in the camera on 
wet collodion. But the chief object of his 
research, in connection with my process, 
has been to overcome a tendency to solari- 
zation which often occurred in deep print- 
ing. Many of your readers may be familiar 



with the fact that, in certain conditions a 
collodio-chloride film, instead of progress- 
ing in blackness or bronzing, from long 
exposure, has a tendency to become of a 
light reddish-brown tint, and finally tends 
to bleach rather than to darken. The 
remedy the Doctor has found for this, con- 
sists in fuming the film with ammonia be- 
fore exposure. His formulae and mode of 
working have already appeared in your 
pages, and I may remark that he attaches 
considerable importance to strict accuracy 
in following out his instructions. Certainly 
his transparencies are some of the finest I 
have seen. 

Keeping Dry Plates. — A very comprehen- 
sive and satisfactory practical test of the 
value of dry plates and of certain facts in 
connection with them, has recently been 
made by my friend, Mr. England, who, as 
you probably know, is one of our most ex- 
perienced and trusted landscape photog- 
raphers. I speak of the trust his word 
commands not merely because he is a man 
of much experience and great probity, but 
because he is a very skilful and careful ex- 
perimentalist, and a shrewd observer, who 
is not easily led away by the apparent prom- 
ise of excellence. Everything he takes in 
hand is subjected to a thoroughly searching 
practical test before he pronounces an opin- 
ion upon it. Photography has suffered 
much from an opposite class of experi- 
mentalists, men whose great aim is to an- 
nounce some new and startling thing. 
These are they who, having performed an 
experiment at the writing-desk and worked 
out a theory on paper, announce discoveries 
which are to revolutionize photography, but 
of which photographers rarely hear much 
more than the first announcement. 

Mr. England is not one of these, and as 
he has very thoroughly tried most of the 
recognized dry processes, including some of 
his own, his dictum is valuable. During 
the past summer, in Switzerland, he has 
produced several hundreds of most admir- 
able negatives on dry plates, the series being 
marked by a singular uniformity of excel- 
lence. The process he has worked, and 
which he now prefers to all others, is Mr. 
Gordon's gum-gallic process, using the 
alkaline developer in preference to the iron 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



61 



solution recommended by Mr. Gordon, 
chiefly because it permits development after 
a longer interval between exposure and de- 
velopment than the iron solution. But 
there is one point upon which he has come 
to a very definite conclusion during the 
summer : it is, that dry plates by every pro- 
cess suffer considerably in sensitiveness by 
keeping, either before or after exposure. A 
conclusion similar to this has frequently 
been arrived at by individuals ; but the gum 
process has had the reputation of possessing 
extraordinary keeping qualities. I believe 
it really does possess better keeping quali- 
ties than other sensitive dry plates ; but Mr. 
England is satisfied that a steady and con- 
stant deterioration goes forward. When 
the plates were freshly prepared he found 
that an exposure of twice the time required 
for wet plates was sufficient; but at the end 
of a week they required an exposure of three 
times the time required by wet plates, and 
so progressively. This accords with the ex- 
perienceof Mons. Ferrier, whose fine instan- 
taneous stereographs are well known. He 
informed me that he frequently obtained in 
a good light, and with a suitable subject, in- 
stantaneous negatives on collodio-albumen 
plates ; but that for this purpose they must 
be absolutely freshly prepared, much of the 
sensitiveness being lost if exposed on the 
second day. This fact seems to deprive dry- 
plate photographs of at least one element of 
value, as the possibility of keeping plates pre- 
pared during a journey of a few weeks was 
one of the great charms of the dry processes. 
Mixed Iron and Pyrogallic Acid Devel- 
oper. — The practice of mixing the iron and 
pyrogallic developer for the purpose of se- 
curing the short exposure, without loss of 
detail of the one and the density and vigor 
of the other, is an old one; but the rapid 
decomposition of the mixture has militated 
against its popularity, and it has never come 
into general use. A recent observation 
made by Col. Stuart Wortley may tend to 
bring it into greater use and reputation. 
Few of the pictures in our recent exhibition 
excited greater interest than a magnificent 
series of sea and cloud pictures on plates 
16 x 12 by Col. Stuart Wortley. The effects 
of light and shade, cloud and atmosphere, 
were very marvellous, and the exposures 



manifestly instantaneous. In the course of 
conversation as to the means of production 
1 learned that he derived many advantages 
from the mixture of these two developers, 
and that he was enabled in the course of his 
experiments to determine the cause of the 
rapid decomposition of the mixture, and so 
avoid it. Whenever the solutions were old 
when mixed, the decomposition and precip- 
itation took place almost immediately ; but 
if the two solutions were made new and 
then mixed, no decomposition took place, 
and the solution kept exceedingly well. I 
subjoin a few remarks on the subject by Col. 
Wortley, in a subsequent communication 
to me, in which he indicates his mode of 
dealing with the developer. 

" I find this invaluable, not only for cloud 
pictures, but for ordinary work as well. It 
has a remarkable power, used in conjunc- 
tion with formic acid, of developing detail 
combined with due density, and gives a 
more harmonious negative at one operation, 
and with no necessity for after-intensifica- 
tion, than I have as yet been able to obtain 
by any other means. 

" I prefer to keep the iron and pyrogallic 
solution mixed separately, so that I can mix 
them in the required proportions for each 
plate; but they keep perfectly when made 
up ready to use, making a clear greenish- 
colored solution. When either of the two 
solutions is old, the mixture rapidly decom- 
poses. 

" I may mention that for portraiture in 
a weak light, this developer is of great 
use, giving softness and intensity under con- 
ditions in which the usual developers would 
work with great difficulty. It is, in fact, 
according to the proportions in which the 
two solutions are originally made up, and 
afterwards mixed, of value at all times, and 
under all circumstances." 

Mechanical Printing Processes. — A flood 
of photo-mechanical processes has poured 
forth of late, in which singularly little pro- 
gress is manifested. With the exception 
of Woodbury's and Albert's, none as yet 
can compare with photography proper, and 
both these continue to make progress. Mr. 
Woodbury has recently sold his Belgian 
patent to Messrs. Simonau & Toovey, who 
have for years been working photolithogra- 



62 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



phy with so little satisfaction, it would seem, 
that for many purposes they now intend to 
substitute Mr. Woodbury's method for it. 

Photographic Mosaics. — I have been re- 
cently much pleased in glancing over your 
"Mosaics" just issued, and I must con- 
gratulate you, and those who are fortunate 
enough to possess it, on its more than usual 
excellence. Although I cannot confess to 
being an old man, I sometimes feel an at- 
tack of old fogyism stealing over me, as I 
look at such volumes, and sighing, say to 
myself: " Ah, if only some one would have 
issued such works, embodying even the lit- 
tle then known, twenty years ago, for the 
guidance of young photographic students, 
such as I then was I" I think I may add, 
without being guilty of egotism, that it is a 
source of some pride and satisfaction to me 
to reflect, as I see photographic annuals is- 
sued in America, France, Germany, as well 
as this country, as a necessary and highly 
prized institution, that all these had their 
parentage in the Year Book I first issued up- 
wards of ten years ago, and in the Almanac 
which was then incorporated with it. May 
the shadow of any of the annuals never be 
less. 

London, January 14th, 1870. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC WORLD. 

The Photographische Notizen is the name 
of a new photographic journal in Vienna. 

M. Personne avers that pyrogallic acid 
is quite as poisonous as phosphorus. 

The original manuscript of Burns's "Tarn 
O'Shanter" has been photolithographed. 

Poiteven claims to have invented the 
" Albert process." 

M». Lea receives special congratulations 
and commendation from the British Journal, 
for his Chloro-Bromide Process. 

Kkutlinger, in Paris, has been exposing 
as much as 40 and 50 seconds during the late 
dull weather. 

A darkey serenader, in London, has 
been fined one farthing for assaulting a pho- 
tpher. 



A young British officer having fallen in 
love with the photograph of a young lady 
in Minnesota, entered into correspondence 
with her. Kesult, the marriage of the two. 
What will photography not do? 

Our three English contemporaries, the 
News, the Illustrated Photographer, and the 
British Journal, all issue an annual this 
year, similar to our Mosaics. There is so 
much now that every photographer ought to 
read, that even weekly journals cannot con- 
tain it all. These annuals contain the 
" milk and honey " and the "strong meat " 
of the year in concentrated form, and are 
very hand}' for reference. 

The "Archiv" contains the following 
simple way of preparing collodio-chloride 
of silver. The chloride is dissolved in clear 
plain collodion, and the fused nitrate of 
silver is added. 

The plain collodion is prepared as fol- 
lows : 

Alcohol, . . . 100 cubic cent. 
Gun Cotton, . . 2 grams. 
Ether, . . . 100 cubic cent. 
Papyroxyline, . . 2 grams. 

The papyroxyline is added when the cot- 
ton has been dissolved. 

In 500 cubic cent, of the settled and clear 
collodion 2 grams of chloride of cadmium 
are dissolved, and 10 grams of fused nitrate 
of silver are added, the whole is well shaken 
until all the silver has dissolved. 

For glass transparencies 4 grams of citric 
acid are added. Transparencies require a 
substratum of gelatine or albumen, or they 
will lack strength. 

Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth, at a late meeting 
of the Edinburgh Photographic Society, ex- 
hibited a large number of enlargements 
from his Pyramid negatives in the lantern, 
and, by ocular demonstration, proved the 
assertions of the enlightened Col. Sir Henry 
James to be merely " a pile of dirt, which 
can easily be removed with the hands." 

A number of specimens showing the ac- 
tion of sunlight on glass, the result of Mr. 
Gaffield's experiments, wero shown at the 
December meeting of the French Photo- 
graphic Society, and much praise was given 
Mr. Gafiield for the thoroughness of his 
researches. 



THE 



PtiMtfljrta ^htUpnyhtt. 



Vol. VII. 



MARCH, 1870. 



No. 75. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, 

By BENERMAN & WILSON, 

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



THE EXHIBITION 

OF THE 

National Photographic Association of 
" the United States. 

The following circular has been printed 
in German, French, and English, and sent 
abroad to -foreign photographers. That none 
maybe missed we reprint it here. Will our 
foreign exchanges please oblige us by copy- 
ing the same, viz. : 

The National Photographic Association 
of the United States will hold its Second An- 
nual Exhibition in Cleveland, Ohio, beginning 
Tuesday, June 7th, 1870. ■ 

You are cordially invited to expose examples 
of your work on that occasion. Ample space 
will be granted in the best light, free of charge, 
to all foreign exhibitors. 

It is expected that a grant from Congress will 
allow the entrance and return of foreign speci- 
mens free of duty. Parties who desire that what 
they send should be sold for their account and 
not returned, will receive the best attention to 
their wishes. In all cases, two itemized invoices 
should be sent to the Secretary, and notice as to 
date of shipment, name of steamer, &c. The 
freight must, in all cases, be prepaid. Packages 
should not be sent later than April 20th, and 
should be directed as follows : 

NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION. 

Care Edward L. Wilson. Secretary, 
Philadelphia, U. S. A. 
O^* Via Steamer to Boston. 



The Cunard Steamers sail from Liverpool, 
England, for Boston every Tuesday, and those 
of the Inman Line every alternate Saturday. 
Freight is £1 Is. for moderate sized packages. 
Many Americans visit your country, and this 
will give you a good opportunity of advertising 
your work. Further information cheerfully 
given on application. 

We hope you will respond to our invitation to 
join us in this grand Exhibition. 

For the Executive Committee, 

Edward L. Wilson, Secretary, 
Office Philadelphia Photographer, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

American photographers who intend to 
exhibit will be given full instructions prob- 
ably in our next issue. There will be noth- 
ing to retard any American or Canadian pho- 
tographer from exhibiting freely, whether a 
member of the Association or not. The Ex- 
hibition is a National one and all are invited 
to participate freely. Fuller details as soon 
as the Executive Committee and Local Sec- 
retary are able to complete their arrange- 
ments. 



THE SOLAR NEGATIVE PRIZE. 

Our readers will not forget our offer for 
the best solar negative, made in our last is- 
sue. The time expires on March 15th. 

The successful competitor will be an- 
nounced in our next issue. "We hope for 
some fine negatives to be sent, for we want 



66 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GEAPHEE. 



to see some fine solar work al the Exhibi- 
tion. 

Competitors can trust Mr. Moore to ren- 
der them full justice, and those who prefer 
to lend their negatives to entering the com- 
petition, will have the greatest care taken 
of them. 

The negatives should be well packed, and 
in all cases the carriage must be paid. 
Please read over the conditions of the offer, 
and be prompt in sending the very best you 
can produce. 



THE PKESLDENT ON THE 
EXHIBITION. 

To the Editor of the Philadelphia 
Photographer. 

I wish to give to you and the fraternity 
my reasons for attending the Annual Exhibi- 
tion of the National Photographic Association 
to be held at Cleveland, Ohio, in June 
next. 

1st. I believe we shall all be greatly bene- 
fited by being more closely united as a body 
of men engaged in developing one of the 
greatest and most useful discoveries of the 
age. Let us' all feel that everything tending 
to advancement is for the good of all. Let 
us show a willingness to assist each other in 
perfecting ourselves in every branch of the 
art ; let every member of the Association be 
ready to aid even the most humble member 
in his endeavors to advance, for by so doing 
we shall be raising the whole profession and 
advancing the interests of all. 

We have too long continued in the old 
tracks, each one believing himself to hold the 
secret of success and to be the embodiment 
of wisdom and perfection. I have, in sev- 
eral instances, known such men to wake up 
some morning and find a despised rival turn- 
ing out work that astonished them, and they 
in turn were compelled to put on their 
"thinking caps " and try to get hold of their 
rival's secret. Now, gentelmen, we have 
had enough of this. You may succeed in 
one part of the process where I fail, and 
again I may succeed where you fail. The 
fact is we all need teaching, and we cannot 
do a better thing than to meet together once 
in the year and compare notes. Let us 



show our best work, and if you beat me this 
year I shall try and beat you the next, and 
vice versa. 

2d. I shall attend to hear the discussions 
on the many subjects in which the whole 
profession is interested. How to build sky- 
lights, whether large or small, whether high 
or low lights are best, whether sloping or 
flat, at which point of the compass to face 
them, etc., etc. I am now using four dif- 
ferent lights, and believe if I had to build 
another I should make it different from any 
of them. This subject I hope to hear fully 
discussed. I hope to hear the advantages 
of the different modes of manipulating 
shown by the leading and most successful 
operators. I hope to hear what is doing to 
render the photograph more durable. We 
all know the dissolving nature of the silver 
prints, and are all anxious to make them per- 
manent if possible. Let us see what we can 
offer on this subject. It must be done, and 
the sooner the better. I expect to see all 
the newest improvements in apparatus and 
machinery exhibited. The whole process 
is now too complicated, difficult, and uncer- 
tain. We need ivork-pe?]fecting as well as 
labor-saving apparatus. Bring along every- 
thing new and show it to the men gathered 
from all parts of the Union, and if it. is good 
and desirable, we shall all want it, and you 
cannot have a better opportunity to show it. 

Again, I shall attend to see what the 
photographers of Europe will show us. 
Many things new and beautiful 1 have no 
doubt will come across the ocean, and we 
will never have a better opportunity to see 
what they are doing. I shall attend to meet 
and take by the hand men well known by 
reputation, but whose faces I have never 
seen. I believe the East will be largely 
represented, I hope to meet many well- 
known names from the South, and surely 
the West will send her young giants in 
scores. I want to sec them all. 

And now, one word about tho Boston 
meeting last Juno. I learned much and 
saw much while there, and I have not seen 
the first man who was sorry he was there. 
On the contrary, all expressed themselves 
delighted and benefited by the liberal views 
and unselfishness of the gentlemen compos- 
ing that Convention, and I have no doubt 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GRAPHEE. 



67 



they will almost to a man be at Cleveland 
next June. 

I am what might be called an old fogy in 
the profession, but I cannot consent to have 
my younger brethren outstrip me in the 
attempt at advancement, and you may count 
on me as putting my shoulder to the wheel 
to lift our art higher and higher to the per- 
fection to which I believe it is tending. 
Life, health, Providence, and the railroads 
permitting, I shall be at Cleveland. 
Tours, respectfully, 

Abraham Bogardtis. 

1153 Broadway, N. T. 

From one of the Executive Committee. 

Dear Mr. Editor : Do you imagine that 
all the members of our National Photo- 
graphic Association realize that over eight 
months of the year have passed since our 
meeting in June last? And how many of 
them have commenced making preparations 
for the next "Grand Exhibition?" 

As the time will soon be here, perhaps 
another reminder to the craft generally 
may be of some service, and they profit by 
it, and commence at once making their 
specimens while there is time. Our last 
Exhibition was a grand success, and we feel 
assured from the efforts that are being put 
forth that the next will not be behind its 
predecessor. Let us work with a will to 
make it so, and take pains to make it, if 
possible, even superior. 

I trust that every convention held will 
prove more profitable to the members, both 
in the fine exhibition of their work as well 
as practical hints to be obtained that will 
be of real substantial benefit to the mem-' 
bers when they shall have returned to their 
studios. 

Magic lantern exhibitions and able lec- 
tures on chemistry and other subjects con- 
nected with our art are always acceptable 
to the craft, but I doubt if either would be 
relished as well as spicy debates on every- 
day subjects connected with our daily prac- 
tice in the profession, with which none are 
so well versed but what they might learn 
something new even from a tyro in the pro- 
fession. 

There are so many subjects connected with 



the practice of photography, upon which we 
can all gather new ideas, that I .suggest at 
our next meeting we discuss a few of them. 

Practical hints on the " retouching of 
negatives " would be a good subject. If nec- 
essary let a few members bring negatives, 
with prints from the same, then after being 
retouched compare them ; the best for- 
mula for collodion for indoor work, with 
specimens to show its value; the best gen- 
eral developer. Lectures on failures with 
negatives and prints to illustrate. All will 
readily see that there is no end to the sub- 
jects that could be discussed, and of how 
much practical benefit they would prove to 
the mass of hard-working photographers. 

I am very glad to hear we are to be treated 
to another view of fine foreign work. From 
them we can gather new ideas and impulses 
and strive to do still better. 

Our local Secretary is a host in himself, 
but the preparations he is making will ac- 
commodate a still larger one with all their 
"traps." Cleveland as a beautiful city can- 
not be surpassed we think, and then to think 
of the good things in store for us who go. 
Let those who thought they enjoyed the fine 
ride in and around Boston be sure and go 
to Cleveland, and they will not be disap- 
pointed by not enjoying themselves as well 
as being benefited. 
Photographically and fraternally yours, 

Walter C. North. 
Utica, N. Y., Feb. 7th, 1870. 

We are glad to see these spontaneous out- 
bursts from the officers and members of our 
National Association. We believe it will 
be the plan of the managers this year to 
have no lectures of any length, but to devote 
a short time each day to the business of the 
Association, and the rest of the time to prac- 
tical experiments, demonstrations, and dis- 
cussions pertaining to subjects that will 
come right home to every working photog- 
rapher. Whenever a photographer has a 
novel source of failure or a negative well 
illustrating any evil, let him save it and 
bring it along. Also any models, prints, 
etc., that will interest or benefit the whole. 
Time will be given to all. In our next we 
hope to give a more extended synopsis of the 
programme. — Ed. P. P. 



68 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHER. 



PORTABLE CHEMICAL ROOM. 

The season for landscape work is ap- 
proaching, and we propose, for a few 
months, to give some hints as to the para- 
phernalia needed for that class of photo- 
graphic work. We begin with a descrip- 
tion of a very handy portable chemical 
room, contrived by Messrs. French & Saw- 
yer, Keene, N. H. 




V 4 



The drawing above, represents a rear and 
interior view of the contrivance, which is 
very plain. The body of the cart is 2 ft. 8 
in. long, 2 ft. 10 in. wide, and 3 ft. height. 
The top is arched one inch. The body is a 
mere skeleton frame covered with green 
enamelled cloth. The semicircular piece 
cut out of the bottom, is to accommodate 
the person of the operator when the door is 
shut, while manipulating, and he sits on the 
seat seen in the cut. When mot in use a 
board is fitted into this semicircular cut in 
the bottom, the seat is put inside, etc., etc. 
The shafts project 3 ft. 6 in. in front, with 
a cross-bar to draw by hand or to fasten to 
a carriage when going long distances. The 
wheels are 3 ft. 6 in. in diameter. 

The inside is fitted with all necessary 
baths, bottles, etc., and with a little water 
tank, 10 in. long, 8 in. wide, and 6 in. deep, 
to which a faucet is fastened. We are as- 
sured by Mr. French that it answers admi- 
rably and that it pays. It is so light any boy 
can draw or push it, and it can be cheaply 
made by any one having the time, the 
wheels and axle being supplied and they 
are easily obtained. 



" It is good enough " is u bad adage. 



Enamel Photographs— Burnt-in 
Photographs. 

BY PROF. J. TOWLER, M.D. 

The reader at the outset must correct a 
mistake, into which he most probably has 
already fallen, of comprehending under the 
head of enamelled photographs, photo- 
graphs on paper glazed with a layer of 
collodion, gelatine, &c. Let these be 
called by their proper name: glazed pho- 
tographs. Enamelled photographs are 
pictures taken by the lens on a porcelain 
base, developed by an enamel powder, 
which is afterwards fused, in a muffle 
in the cupel or assay furnace, into the 
porcelain as a background, and thus 
becomes a part of the material and equally 
as imperishable. The art of thus burning- 
in photographs has attained already a con- 
siderable degree of perfection in the hands 
of a few ; and from the facility and cer- 
tainty of the process, it is somewhat sur- 
prising, that so few have embraced the pro- 
cess as a business. Of all photographs, the 
enamelled photograph is the most imper- 
ishable, and, at the same time, about the 
most beautiful ; and certainly this is so, 
when the art of the limner co-operates 
with the manipulations of the photogra- 
pher. 

The white surface of a watch-face, on 
which the hours, &c, are delineated, is an 
enamelled surface; and if a photograph be 
taken on such a surface and afterwards, by 
fusion in the fire, it can be blended with the 
substance and become a part of it, then such 
a photograph is called an enamelled photo- 
graph. Solomon and Gamier, Joubert and 
Poitevin, have given us processes by means 
of which photographs can be taken that 
admit of being burnt-in, or fused into a 
porcelain or enamel base. Solomon and 
Gamier, I believe, were the first to call at- 
tention to a peculiar property of the chro- 
mic salts in mixture with saccharine or 
gummy solutions, whereby these lost their 
stickiness when exposed to light. Working 
upon this principle as a base, the authors 
just mentioned, as well as Joubert, Alker, 
and Geymet, Lucy Fossariero, and some 
others, have so far perfected processes in 
carbon printing as to apply them in enamel 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



69 



printing or vitrification with great success. 
The principle is this : a composition is made, 
of course in the dark-room (yellow-room), 
of water, bichromate of potassa, sugar, 
honey, and gum. This represents the col- 
lodion ; it is filtered two or three times, and 
then poured, exactly in the same manner as 
collodion, over a glass plate. The film is 
then dried. Even when dry, the surface 
attracts or adheres to fine powder as of 
charcoal, enamel, &c, with much avidity, 
by reason of a certain amount of moisture 
or glutinosity in the film ; but if it be ex- 
posed to sunlight for a few seconds, the film 
loses this glutinous character, parts with its 
moisture, and, consequently, no longer ad- 
heres to the powders above mentioned. If 
a negative, therefore, be placed over such 
a film, all the dark parts, such as the sky in 
a landscape, and the face in a portrait, will 
prevent the light from acting upon the film 
beneath ; these parts, therefore, retain their 
original character of adhering to charcoal 
powder, and will exhibit dark parts in the 
film corresponding to the dark parts on the 
negative. Thus negatives produce, on such 
prepared films, also negatives ; and posi- 
tives produce positives. 

Poitevin's process is based upon the prin- 
ciple that tartrate of the protoxide of iron 
is hygroscopic, and that this substance can 
be produced by the action of light on the 
sesquisalts of iron in connection with tar- 
taric acid. The representative of collodion 
in this process is a mixture of sesquichlo- 
ride of iron, tartaric acid, and water, which 
is poured upon the glass plate and dried. 
In this state it is not hygroscopic, conse- 
quently, just the reverse of Joubert's plates, 
but becomes so where the light acts. It is 
thus evident, that negatives produce posi- 
tives on such films, and positives produce 
negatives. Both these processes have been 
applied with success in the production of 
enamel photographs. Naturally these en- 
amel photographs are monochromes, that 
is, they are printed in a single color, like 
all our uncolored ordinary photographs. 
The artist, of course, can work in, upon the 
monochrome photograph, whatsoever me- 
tallic colors he chooses, which can be brought 
out in the muffle in true lifelike colors, and 
thus produce those magnificent specimens 



of cetamic art which we see executed at the 
potteries of Dresden, &c. 

Now that I have described the principles 
upon which we have to work, in order to 
produce a burnt-in photograph on enamel 
and with enamel, 1 will proceed to the de- 
tails of a working process. 

THE PREPARATION OF THE POSITIVE. 

A great deal of the success in enamel 
photography depends upon the original neg- 
ative or positive used to make the impres- 
sion. "We shall follow Joubert's process; 
and, consequently, a positive is required. 
The positive must absolutely be on plate or 
perfectly flat glass; and the impression to 
be received on the chromic collodion must 
be also on plate glass; and if the positive 
is to be made from a negative by contact, 
the negative glass, too, must be perfectly 
flat. Use, therefore, nothing but plate glass 
in this process, as far as glass is needed. It 
will scarcely be necessary here to describe 
minutely how a good transparent glass posi- 
tive is prepared ; I have already done this 
in a preceding number of the Philadelphia 
Photographer of the current year ; refer to 
the article in question. We will now pro- 
ceed to the next part of the operation. 

CHROMIC COLLODION. 

Distilled water, ... 2 ounces. 

Bichromate of ammonia, . . 100 grains. 
Gum arabic (picked), . . 48 " 

Sugar, loaf, . . . . 20 " 
Honey, . . . . . 9 " 

This mixture must be made in the dark- 
room, and kept in the dark when not re- 
quired for use. It is better to prepare it 
fresh for each operation .* Filter the solu- 

# This fluid is very apt to undergo fermenta- 
tion, hence, as observed, it is better to piepare 
it fresh ; but Lucy Fossariere prepares his fluids 
and keeps them in stock ready for mixture as 
follows : 

1. STOCK SOLUTION OF BORAX. 

Pulverize a pound of borax and place it in a 
quart stoppered vessel; fill up the vessel with 
distilled water, and shake the mixture frequently 
for several d;<ys. The upper portion is to 
be used when required ; and the vessel is then 



70 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



tion two or three times through paper, or a 
tuft of cotton. Furthermore, receive the 
filtrate into a tall cylindrical vessel, and al- 
low the solution to stand for about twenty- 
four hours before use. By means of a 
syphon the upper part of the fluid can be 
decanted off from the residual portion ; but 
this must take place without shaking the 
vessel or agitating the contents. The upper 
part alone will be perfectly clean and free 
from all invaluable particles. 

Before you coat the plate glass with this 
mixture, see that it is perfectly clean (no 
substratum of albumen, &c, is necessary); 
if the plate has just been cleaned and pol- 
ished, breathe upon its whole surface, and, 
as soon as the film of breath has evaporated, 
pour upon it the chromic collodion, just as 
you would any ordinary collodion, and let 
the plate drain a few moments. Remove 
any excess from the lower corner and edges 
with a piece of blotting-paper, and then dry 
the film at a gentle heat, on a plate of iron 

again filled up with water. In this way a satu- 
rated solution is always in readiness. 

2. STOCK SOLUTION. 

Dissolve in a two-quart bottle as follows : 
Losif sugar, ...... 6 ounces. 

Gum arabic, 2 '• 

Filtered water, 1 quart. 

The mixture has to be shaken frequently for 
several days, until thegutn is dissolved, and then 
a pint of stock solution No. 1 is added. Shake 
the mixture well up, and place away for use. 

3. STOCK SOLUTION. 

Mix together in a three-ounce vial as follows : 

Honey, 1 ounce. 

Borax (clear solution from No. 1), . 1 " 

Shake well and keep until exhausted. 

4. STOCK SOLUTION. 

Mix together in a three-ounce bottle as follows : 
Bichromate of ammonia, . . .2 ounces. 
Water, 2 " 

Shake the water so as to obtain a saturated 
solution. , 

5. SENSITIVE LIQUID FOR TRESENT USE. 

Borucic liquid (stock solution No. 2), ■ 60 minims. 
Bichromate " " " '• 4 , . 40 " 
Water, filtered, 100 " 

N. B. — If the weather is very warm and dry, 
add three or four drops of the stock solution 

No. :;. 



placed over the flame of a spirit-lamp. 
When dry it is ready to be exposed, and 
must be exposed right away, or nearly so, 
since it undergoes changes if kept. 

(To be continued.) 



Water-tight Covering for Field Bath. 

BY A. F. CLOUGH. 

I send you a model of a little contrivance 
I use as a covering or box for my field bath. 
A simple box A is made, plain as you please, 
to fit your bath. The lid B is made to fit 
the mouth of the bath and is supplied inside 
with a strip of rubber. This lid is pressed 
tightly and securely to the mouth of the 
bath by the contrivance which is made 
plain in the figure. 




C is a rod or bar of metal running across 
the lid, and a hook at each end, D D'. 
The hook D / fits in a permanent eye fixed 
to the side of the box, and the other hook 
D is caught by an adjustable eye E, 
which is jointed at its lower end at F to the 
handle or lever G. It is plainly seen that 
when the parts are adjusted, if the lever (J 
is pressed closely to the side of the box it 
will bring the adjustable eye to bear upon 
the hook D and thus press the lid down 
tightly, which may bo kept so by fastening 
the lever by means of the hook II. I find 
it to answer admirably, and to work quickly. 
Any blacksmith can make the iron-work, 
and you can make the box yourself. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



71 



MYSTERIES OF THE NEW YORK 
DARK-CHAMBERS. 

(Continued.) 

Agreeable to our promise we append 
below the formulae furnished us by Mr. 
Hugh O'Neil, a member of the firm of C. 
D. Fredericks & Co., New York. 

There is probably no manipulator in the 
country possessing greater ability than Mr. 
O'Neil. He has grown up with American 
photography, and has been identified with 
it since its advent here. He is a gentleman 
who has no patience with pretenders, and 
those who do not use their brains, and con- 
tends that you may give the best formulae 
and the best chemicals to a man, and if he 
has not good judgment and skill, his pro- 
ductions will be botches and blotches upon 
the fair fame of our blessed art. 

Neither does he hold secret what he 
knows, and for these reasons it will be a 
pleasure to hear him. 

Permit us to add that we have witnessed 
some experiments with Mr. O'NeiPs for- 
mula? by Mr. William Bell, of this city, and 
have found considerable advantage in treat- 
ing the cotton as recommended by Mr. 
O'Neil. The exposure is shortened ; there is 
entire freedom from structure in the film, 
and the color of the negative is remarkably 
pleasing, deep, and dense, — yet of fine print- 
ing quality. But Mr. O'Neil's work has a 
world-wide reputation, and we need not en- 
large here. He writes: 

My formula is very simple, and such as 
it is you are welcome to it. 

COLLODION. 

Ether, . . .12 ounces. 

Alcohol 12 " 

Bromide of potassium, . 48 grains. 

Iodide of ammonium, . 108 grains. 

Mix the ether and alcohol together, dis- 
solve the bromide in a little water, then 
add the iodide to it and dissolve in the same 
water. Add this solution to the ether and 
alcohol. Shake well, filter, and it is ready 
for the cotton, which I prepare as follows : 
I weigh the amount required and place it 
in a small dish ; add about a pint of water 
and a drachm of strong ammonia, stir it 
well and let it stand for fifteen or twenty 
minutes, then wash it in several waters or 



until the ammonia is washed out. I then 
wring it as dry as possible in a crash towel, 
then pour a little alcohol on it so as to dis- 
place the water and add it to the excited 
ether and alcohol. Filter as soon as dis- 
solved and it is ready for use. 

The results of taking the trouble to wash 
the cotton as above stated, are, quickness, 
a clean, handsomely colored negative, great 
depth in printing, and still it prints quickly. 
Any one who will try this method of pre- 
paring the cotton will continue to do so. 
Take cotton with which it is almost impos- 
sible to make a negative, prepare as above. 
It will make a nice negative and work in 
half the time. 

THE SILVER BATH. 

1 use from 40 to 45 grains, neither under 
nor over. Iodize with a little iodide of sil- 
ver, not iodide of potassium ; make it a lit- 
tle acid with acetic or nitric acid, C.P., 
well diluted with water. Evaporate about 
one-third of the solution when necessary. 

DEVELOPING SOLUTION. 

2 ounces iron and 1 quart of water ; 
enough acetic acid to make it flow smoothly. 

For children use it almost double strength . 

FIXING BATH. 

Hypo, soda and a little cyanide. Fix 
quickly, and the result will be much finer 
prints. 

SILVER BATH FOR PAPER. 

Take half a gallon silver solution, 35 grs. 
to the ounce; add § ounce muriatic acid. 
Shake well and add enough strong ammo- 
nia to make it slightly alkaline. Shake 
well, filter, and save the filter as long as 
possible. Every time you strengthen add a 
little acid and ammonia. If red tear-drops 
should appear, add a little nitric acid, C.P. 
and neutralize. This solution will silver 
any paper, — no matter how strongly salted 
— in one minute, and for most papers not 
over forty seconds are required. If floated 
too long it will have a weak look as if un- 
der-silvered. It prints quicker and finer 
than any solution I have ever used. 

Fume with strong ammonia eight or ten 
minutes. 

TONING BATH. 

Pour the required amount of water in a 



72 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEK. 



dish, add enough of concentrated solution 
of washing soda to make it slippery to the 
touch ; add gold enough to tone in ten to 
fifteen minutes. 

Take the prints out before they are toned, 
as they will dry up darker. With a little 
experience any tone can be produced. It 
will work as soon as made, and no matter 
how weak the negative is, there will be no 
mealiness, but a handsome silky print. 

FIXING. 

About one-half of the usual amount of 
soda, and about five minutes in the bath. 

H. O'Neil, 

587 Broadway. 
New York, January 15th, 1870. 



After-Intensifications of Portrait and 
Landscape Negatives. 

BY JOHN C BROWNE. 

The habit among photographers of de- 
pending upon intensification to force nega- 
tives up to what they may consider a proper 
printing strength, is a very dangerous evil, 
well calculated to make them careless of 
their work and reputation. Prints from 
such negatives are generally masses of black 
and white, and may well be described as 
monuments to intensification. 

The writer had quite recently an oppor- 
tunity of examining a very large number 
of negatives from almost all parts of the 
United States, and it would appear from 
a careful study of their merits, that this 
injurious habit is an epidemic extending 
over a large portion of the country. The 
chemical sulphide of potassium was respon- 
sible for a large share of the spoiled work, 
but bichloride of mercurj- and its attendant 
ammonia were fairly represented. It will 
be a glorious day for photography, when 
its votaries will banish from their dark- 
rooms these chemicals. As things of the 
past they must now give place to a more 
advanced knowledge upon the subject of 
the chemistry of photography. 

The intensifying of negatives is too often 
used to cover up such defects as dirty plates, 
under-exposure, over-worked chemicals, 
etc., but almost always at the sacrifice of 



every particle of half-tone which is the 
charm of all pictures. Although opposed 
to intensifying as a rule, still I would make 
some exceptions. 

Often it is difficult to obtain sufficient 
density in a negative by the application of 
the developing solution only. The chemi- 
cals that worked so well yesterday, for some 
reason fail to-day. Atmospheric influences 
may be the cause ; but, chemical solutions 
are liable to get overworked, and need rest 
from their continued labors. Under such 
circumstances an entire change of chemi- 
cals may prove of advantage. But if an 
otherwise good negative should show signs 
of weakness, with no prospect of obtain- 
ing a better result by another trial, then it 
is of importance to add strength to make it 
worth printing. 

There are many chemicals that will an- 
swer the purpose of increasing the density 
of negatives, and, provided that great care 
is exercised to know when to stop, negatives 
not worth saving are rendered capable of 
giving fair prints. Foremost among the 
number of strengthening solutions, I would 
suggest pyrogallic acid and silver as giving 
the most reliable results. Permanganate of 
potassium, iodine, silver, and citric acid, 
also prove in experienced hands worthy of 
consideration. 

The object of this article, however, is not 
to discuss at length the chemicals that can 
be used for this purpose, but to seriously 
caution photographers not to depend so 
much upon the habit of universally strength- 
ening negatives as is now the case. Let 
the aim of every operator be to get the right 
amount of intensity with the iron developer 
alone, and, bj a rigid scrutiny of chemicals, 
light, etc strive to make none but first- 
class negatives, clean, forcible, and well- 
lighted, without the use of any intensifying 
agent whatever. Depend upon it, that the 
less chemicals put upon the plate after the 
first development with iron, will be tho bet- 
ter for all concerned. 



Keep the dust out of your camera; your 
lenses clean ; wipe the dark-slide out often; 
keep your ground-glass in place when not 
exposing, and your lens capped or covered. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



73 



THE SHAW AND WILCOX 
PATENT. 

The work is going bravely on in the suit 
which the Shaw & Wilcox Co. have made 
against Mr. G. W. Lovejoy for using an old 
barrel in which to precipitate his wastes. 
Testimony is being taken of a most convinc- 
ing nature against the "^>a-tent," and the 
result we think will be favorable to the pro- 
fession. 

No better evidence of the insignificant 
value of the " Co.'s " contrivance and their 
style of doing business can be given us, how- 
ever, than the numerous letters and personal 
accounts we have had and continue to have 
from our subscribers who have been victim- 
ized. But yesterday ve were told by a pho- 
tographer that all the return the "Co." 
made him from eight months' savings was 
" one share of stock in the 'Co.' and three 
dollars and a half." During that eight 
months the photographer had purchased ajid 
used eighteen pounds of nitrate of silver. A 
most remunerative method of saving wastes 
that, of the "Shaw & Wilcox Co." Cer- 
tainly. 

We have also seen some sharp correspon- 
dence between Mr. Shaw and one of his fel- 
low "stock" holders, and the following ex- 
tract from one of Mr. Shaw's letters gives 
the doctrine of the " Co." What a "wide 
mouth " they open forsooth ! Shall they be 
blessed ? 

Bridgeport, Conn., Jan. 14th, 1870. 

" What we claim in our patent 

is the saving and recovering of silver and 
gold from waste solutions by means of pre- 
cipitating ingredients, without regard to 
what kind of a vessel it is saved in, or with- 
out regard to the substance used to precipi- 
tate with. 

"All parties who recover their waste by 
precipitating it use our patent, and all who 
have not a license from us are now infring- 
ing and will be proceeded against by us just 
as soon as we get a decision from the court 
which will enable us to bring an injunction 
and shut up their galleries in case they refuse 
to settle. . . . All who do not send us their 
waste must pay us a royalty for the use of 
the patent." 

*' Just as soon !" — Ed. 



Knapp's Combined Camera- Adjuster 
and Copying-Stand. 

The want of some means by which copy- 
ing can be readily done without much in- 
crease of apparatus has been nicely supplied 
by the contrivance which we are about to 
describe, and a cut of which we give below. 




Here we have a steady, strong, and admir- 
able camera-stand to which an extension- 
frame is added, with a plan board for hold- 
ing the object to be copied, all mounted on 
a case with closet and drawers for the safe 
keeping of lenses, articles to be copied, etc., 
etc. 

Every motion, every adjustment that one 
ever needs to suit the light to the object, 
the lens to the object, and vice versa, is sup- 
plied here by the mechanism of the appa- 
ratus, quickly. The nicest adjustments can 
be made and the platform may be length- 
ened or shortened at will to secure the dis- 
tance required. Those parts needed in copy- 
ing only, may be quickly removed, when we 
have a complete camera-stand, suited to a 
large or small box. 

The whole arrangement is very complete 
and useful, and a more detailed description 
of it will be found given by the manufac- 
turer in our advertising colums. We have 
examined the apparatus thoroughly. It is 
well and handsomely made, and will answer 
all that is claimed for it. 



74 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



A STRONG AND USEFUL TRIPOD. 

BY F. G. WELLER. 
D 

B«liB«(Jc 

e! 




I noticed in a recent issue of this journal, 
a description of a tripod which has the con- 
venience of being made adjustable to uneven 
ground. 

Although it has advantages over the old 
style tripod used by most photographers, 
yet I think it inferior to the one I have 
used for two years ; as my work is all out- 
doors and in all conceivable positions, from 
the bed of the rivers to the top of the high- 
est mountains in New England, I found a 
tripod answering all the requirements, a 
thing not easily found; one that worked 
well in some situations and under some cir- 
cumstances, was good for nothing at other 
times. After experimenting for some time, 
I settled upon one, the same, or nearly so, 
as is used by engineers to set their transit 
upon. It is composed of two joints, a ball, 
and socket; the ball-joint allows the cam- 
era to be levelled in whatever position the 
tripod may stand; the socket-joint (the 
top part of whicli is secured to the camera), 
permits the camera to be turned in any di- 
rection, and fastened by a catch and set 
screw, also giving the means of readily tak- 
ing the camera from the stand for transpor- 
tation. The only objection I have, is the 



weight, which, when climbing mountains, 
I find to be considerable before reaching 
the top. Still, I think it no heavier than 
the one described in your journal, but be 
that as it may, when taking views in such 
places, photographers know we have always 
more or less wind to contend with, and 
generally of sufficient force to render a tri- 
pod of ordinary strength too feeble to pre- 
vent vibration. 

I find the legs of mine not any too stiff, 
although they are If inches in diameter in 
the largest place, tapering both ways, and 
made of cherry, with metallic points. The 
more the legs are spread, the lower the cam- 
era, and the firmer it stands. 

Perhaps some one may have a better style 
than either of these, if so, I would be glad 
to hear of it through your journal. 

There is a screw cup which tightens the 
ball-joint. B, a spring plug which slides in 
a groove, and prevents the camera from fall- 
ing off whether secured by set screw or 
not. C is a set screw to prevent the cam- 
era turning after being placed in the proper 
position. D, the top of the tripod. E, 
a section of both joints with the groove 
that the end of the catch B plays in. The 
metal parts are brass, except the bottom 
part of the points, which are iron. 



THE "TONICA" SECRET. 

In our January issue we published the 
circular of a man named Syphers, emanating 
from Tonica, 111., in which he promised 
much to all who would purchase his secret. 
One of our patrons has been victimized and 
sends us a " Tonica " picture and Syphers's 
letter of instructions how to make them, 
which the aforesaid victim gives to the 
fraternity, hoping they will not allow them- 
selves to bo so foolish as he was, even after 
being cautioned by the Philadelphia Pho- 
tographer. The process is as follows ; 

Make a solution of bichloride of mercury 
in pure water in a collodion vial ; now 
make an ambrotypo on a clean glass, and 
wash well ; now pour on as much of tho 
bichloride solution as will lay on (he plate, 
and hold it over tho fiamo of an alcohol 
lamp, moving it meanwhile from side to 
side. In a moment or so the picture will 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



75 



be white. The plate should not be allowed 
to get dry on the top while the bleaching 
process is going on. Finally wash the pic- 
ture well, dry, tint the cheeks, back it with 
an iron ferrotype plate and case with mat 
and preserve, and you have the picture. 
No varnish is used, and in tinting care 
should be taken not to scratch the picture 
with the brush. An oval form may be given 
to the picture by fastening a piece of thin 
back-board in the camera-box just before 
the ground-glass ; in the centre of the board 
cut a hole and fasten an oval ferrotype mat 
over it, and thus a clear outline is obtained. 
Mr. Sypbers states to our informant that 
the "country operators bite " at his process 
"like hungry sharks." This is the whole 
thing. He charges from $4 to $25, "ac- 
cording to the man," he says. 



UNDER THE SKYLIGHT. 

BY ROLAND VANWEIKE. 

Well, Focus, I suppose it is understood 
that I am to explain matters to you as we 
go along to-day with a view to giving you 
some instruction. The morning is fine, 
and we have the promise that "Sol" will 
favor us with his most cheerful rays. The 
first thing to be considered in working under 
the skylight is, what kind of a light have 
we? There is a variety of forms and styles, 
and it is difficult, perhaps, to prescribe any 
particular style as best. A large light can 
be worked more successfully than a small 
one, for all kinds of work ; it is of great ad- 
vantage in dull weather, and can be arranged 
with curtains to close as much as you wish 
at any time. A side and top light com- 
bined is the most popular light, and is the 
style for general portrait photography. I 
believe Focus in using curtains on a sky- 
light; so arranged that you can drive the 
light wherever you want it. Curtains of 
white or blue may be used of different tex- 
ture, to soften or exclude the light as the 
case may require. Every photographer is 
supposed to possess sufficient ingenuity or 
constructive ability, to arrange those things 
so as to get his light where he wants it, and 
to be able to regulate it according to changes 
that may occur during the day. If he has 



not he had better get somebody that can do 
it for him, or else get out of the business. 
Man} r good lights are spoiled by bad man- 
agement. I "don't believe in these clap-trap 
blinds that many use, arranged like the 
sides of a down east fisherman's smoke- 
house, to open and shut. They always ob- 
struct more or less light, become elegant 
receptacles of dust, and require a good deal 
of tackle and machinery to operate them. 
Give me curtains that you can roll up at 
night and keep clean, or in dull weather 
when you want all the light you can get. 
But here comes a sitter, Focus, and we will 
try the practical application of what we 
have been talking about. Card vignette ; 
that's a style of picture I like to make. The 
face and head are what we want — they are 
really the person — the rest is merely acces- 
sory, and it is gratifying that a somewhat 
cultivated taste has relieved us, in some 
measure, from the disagreeable duty of ar- 
ranging in presentable shape, awkward, un- 
couth limbs and big boots. Take a seat 
here. This is about the position, Focus, for 
most sittings of this style, just under, or a 
very little back of the edge of the skylight, 
i. e., the edge or side farthest from the 
camera. This admits the light well around 
the sitter and gives roundness and relief to 
the figure. If you place your subject too 
far back, the result is a flat picture with the 
light all in front. Now this lady has a fine 
head and regular features, about a three- 
quarter view will be most favorable. As 
her shoulders slope well, we will have a front 
view of the body and turn the head ; that's 
it. As the light is not very strong yet, we 
only need to draw that curtain on the shadow 
side sufficiently to give roundness to the 
face, and bring the curtains up part way on 
the side-light ; now bring the background 
up pretty close, so that the shadow cheek 
will be cut out sharp against it. That looks 
very well. You want to learn to see the light 
and shade on the face, and when you have 
done that, Focus, you will be capable of 
seeing just how your subject will look in the 
picture. The untutored eye does not see 
lights and shades on a face any more than 
on that screen, hence there are many that 
go it blind, sitting their subjects in a cer- 
tain place, getting a focus and making pic- 



76 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



tures. As a clock that does not go is right 
twice in twenty-four hours, so there will 
be certain conditions of the light during 
the day that may make good work ; it will 
be right sometimes. But, Focus, the light 
is our servant, and will serve us well if we 
study it closely and learn to make it do our 
bidding. Now have the lady keep her head 
quite firmly against the rest ; direct the eyes 
here, letting them wink naturally, and 
think of anything else than the matter in 
hand, forgetting, if possible, that she is be- 
fore the camera. Now, about thirty seconds 
will be sufficient, .... that will do. 

All this must be done quietly. If your 
sitter is communicative it is well enough to 
converse and keep her attention as much 
as possible away from what you are doing ; 
but do not annoy her, or make yourself 
appear impertinent. "Work coolly with- 
out any bustle or appearance of nervous- 
ness ; have no loud calling to "Joe'' in the 
dark-room, " Kate " in the waiting-room, or 
''Bill" in the printing-room ; nothing that 
will tend to excite the most delicate lady, or 
make her feel otherwise than perfectly at 
home, and that you understand your busi- 
ness, and are master of the situation. 

Our experience with this subject will 
serve us for all like sittings during the day, 
with variations according to circumstances. 
But all sitters are not like this one, and we 
need a versatility of resources to deal with 
all successfully. This man now with thin 
features, we will give a three-quarter view 
of the body, and turn his face well to the 
front; or when the profile is good, with a 
well-formed head, that view is perhaps de- 
sirable. This thin face will not bear quite 
so much shadow. Give a little more light 
on the shadow side, and draw that thin cur- 
tain directly above the sitter, so as not to 
have so strong a top-light, and let the cur- 
tains well down on the side-light. These 
directions will also answer for this next sub- 
ject, who has heavy projecting brows. Get 
your direct light from as low an angle as 
possible, use a good deal of diffused light, 
and give a good full exposure. For gray, 
or very liglit hair, we will carry the back- 
ground farther hack, so as to make it darker. 
Almost any desired shade of background 
can be had by the distance you place it from 



the sitter. This man with a bald head re- 
quires quite a dark ground. I like bald 
heads ; they are generally good subjects, 
with brains enough to keep them steady. 
(To be continued.) 



THE ALKALINE BATH. 

I have nothing new to offer, but desire to 
strongly recommend some old processes that 
have not been mentioned since their publi- 
cation, and some that were never practical 
with the old acid solutions. 

I will commence with the silver bath for 
negatives, as that was the subject lately dis- 
cussed at the Boston Photographic Associa- 
tion. The committee appointed to report at 
the next meeting of the Association reported 
a very good bath, and I can heartily indorse 
its value. 

But I must speedily come to the conclu- 
sion that they never worked an alkaline 
bath — the same one that you published in 
the summer. I claim that it works quicker, 
i. e. it shortens the exposure of the negative 
— gives clearer shadows and a quicker print- 
ing negative than can be made with an acid 
bath. 

I made one solution on reading the for- 
mula in the number of the journal that it 
was published in, and in two weeks com- 
menced to work it. In two weeks more it 
became disordered and nothing would re- 
store it to working order, although it worked 
splendid for the first ten days. The next 
one I made the same as the first, and let it 
stand in the sun two months. I then worked 
it some four weeks, until it became charged 
with alcohol, and then boiled it down to 
drive the alcohol out, filled it up to make it 
forty grains to the ounce; added one drachm 
of a saturated solution of permanganate of 
potash to make it alkaline, and sunned it a 
week. It now works as well as a new bath, 
and I have never seen any signs of fog. 

Mr. G. Wharton Simpson gives us along 
article in the November Photographer, and 
a very interesting one on the use of a de- 
veloper without acid. 

Now, Mr. Simpson, I can insure you to 
make clean negatives without acid, and 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGrEAPHEE. 



77 



without your substitute of glue or glycerine 
to keep it from fogging. 
I proceed as follows : 

BATH FOR NEGATIVES. 
Nitrate of Silver, . . 4 ounces. 

Pure Water, . . .2 ounces, 

and dissolve. If the silver does not all dis- 
solve, add a little more water. After it is 
all dissolved add of a saturated solution of 
bicarbonate of soda 20 drops ; shake well 
and set in the sun two months in a clear 
glass bottle. After sunning two months 
add 48 ounces of water, and sun two or three 
days longer; then filter, and it is ready to 
produce clean negatives that will not re- 
quire mountains of bichloride of mercury to 
build them up. If they are not as strong as 
you like, a few drops of silver and iron are 
all that is necessary to make a first-rate 
negative without any acid in the developer. 
I use for developer the double salts of iron 
and ammonia and no acid. The above bath 
also makes a very fine clean positive or 
ferrotype, but not quite as good as an acid 
bath with nitrate of lead in the developer. 

To keep this bath in working order add 
of a 60-grain solution to keep up the strength 
made the same as the bath. Add none that 
has not been purified. One ounce of a solu- 
tion of common silver will spoil a 40-ounce 
solution, and set it to fogging. No iodide of 
any kind. 

When it becomes charged with alcohol 
boil it down to evaporate it, then add water 
to make it 40 grains strong to the ounce, 
and add two drachms of a saturated solution 
of permanganate of potash to make it alka- 
line again, and set in tne sun for a week ; 
try and keep it alkaline by using a neutral 
collodion and well-washed glass, if you clean 
the glass with chromic acid ; I use none but 
albumenized glass well washed. 

P. Hawk. 

Hamilton, 0. 



Method of Copying Statuary in Va- 
ried Positions on One Plate. 

BY GEORGE WILLIAM WHITE. 

I can best explain my method by giving 
my first experience. I had occasion to 
make some card copies of a small marble 
statue of the Greek Slave, and thinking it 



would make a much more attractive picture 
if it could be copied in a variety of positions 
on one card, that I would attempt it. I 
took for the background a strip of dark 
brown cotton-velvet, arranging it so that 
the lower portion covered the top and hung 
a few inches over the edge of a small stand. 
Placing the image on the centre of the stand. 
I got the proper size and focus with the or- 
dinary camera, and made a faint 'mark 
around the base on the velvet, then moved 
the image to the right and left of the first 
position, being careful that one position 
should not interfere with the other, and 
marking around the base each time, that I 
might know just where to place it in the 
subsequent operations. I then prepared 
and exposed my plate, covered the camera, 
moved the image to the next position, and 
exposed, and again as before. On develop- 
ing my plate, I found I had a remarkably 
fine negative of one object in three posi- 
tions. Almost any number of positions may 
be obtained in this way, but the time of ex- 
posure must be lessened as the number of 
positions increase, and each position should 
receive an equal exposure. Whether the 
idea is new to every one I cannot say, but 
that it may be a useful one to many is evi- 
dent. To such I give it. Those who photo- 
graph statuary for the stereoscope, would 
do well to try it. 
Chillicothe, 0. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting was held 
on Monday evening, February 2d, 1870, the 
President, Mr. Graff", in the chair. 

The minutes of last meeting were read 
and approved. 

The committee appointed to procure a 
certificate for the prize awarded for the best 
specimen of photography for the year 1869, 
reported, and presented a very handsome 
certificate, engrossed by Mr. Soule, which, 
after the signatures of the officers were ap- 
pended, was presented to the recipient, Mr. 
John Moran. 

Mr. Tilghman, Chairman, then reported 
the proceedings of the committee appointed 
to consider the propriety of a junction of 



78 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOT OGEAPHEE. 



the Philadelphia Photographic Society with 
the Franklin Institute, and to become a 
section thereof. The report was able and 
exhaustive. 

The Secretary then read a minority re- 
port upon the same subject. 

After much discussion, on motion of Mr. 
Sergeant, it was resolved that the junction 
was inexpedient, and that the whole matter 
be indefinitely postponed. 

The committee on "The Lantern," then 
reported, and produced a Marcy lantern, 
for which Mr. Tilghinan had kindly pre- 
sented the Society with an objective. 

A vote of thanks was then offered to Mr. 
Tilghnmn for his very acceptable donation. 

Mr. Davids offered the following resolu- 
tion which was carried, nem. con. "It is 
understood that honorary and correspond- 
ing members of the Society are privileged to 
compete for any prizes which the Society 
may offer for the best specimens of photog- 
raphy." 

Mr. E. L. "Wilson then introduced to the 
Society Dr. Edward Curtis, of the Army 
Medical Museum, who exhibited and ex- 
plained some very interesting and instruc- 
tive photographs of the recent eclipse of the 
sun (being the same which accompanied his 
official report to thegovernment), and, also, 
some illustrations of the phenomenon known 
as "diffraction." Dr. Curtis then explained 
a very simple and ingenious method of as- 
certaining by the means of photography, 
whether diffraction actually occurs in pho- 
tographing the sun. 

Mr. E. L. Wilson exhibited two prints 
on glass, made by Mr. Carbutt, of Chicago, 
by the new Woodbury process. The nega- 
tives and gelatine reliefs were made in Eng- 
land, but the prints were by Mr. Carbutt, 
the first made in this country. They were 
very beautiful and elicited much praise. 

A few pictures were shown by the Marcy 
lantern; it worked admirably, covering a 
disc of four feet diameter, to the satisfaction 
of the members. 

The Secretary laid before the Society a 
roll of prints received from the St. Louis 
Photographic Society, and a letter, couched 
in the kindest terms, offering to exchange 
photographs and essays connected with our 
art. 



On motion, Mr. Wallace, Corresponding 
Secretary, was empowered to receive from 
members, prints, etc., to be sent in return 
to the St. Louis Association, with our kind- 
est greetings. 

On motion, adjourned. 

Ellekslie Wallace, Jr., 
Corresponding Sec'y and Secretary pro tern. 



FERROTYPERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting of the 
Association was held at Mr. C. L. Love- 
joy's gallery, Tuesday evening, February 
1st, 1870. 

The President, Mr. A. K. P. Trask, in the 
chair. 

After roll call the minutes of last meeting 
were read and adopted. 

Messrs. J. C. Harmon and G-. D. Wise 
were elected members of the Association. 

A letter written to the President by Mr. 
J. W. F. Wild, of Demopolis, Alabama, 
was read to the meeting. He wished to 
know if he could become a member of our 
Association; and requested that formulas 
for making ferrotypes be sent to him, etc. 

It was resolved that the President should 
answer his letter and give the desired infor- 
mation. 

The members now handed in their speci- 
men work, in compliance with a resolution 
passed at the last meeting. The President 
arranged all the pictures on a table, and 
each member present examined them ; there 
were exhibited about twenty-five very 
fine album-sized ferrotypes, mostly large 
heads. The two ferrotypes selected as the 
best, were made by Mr. D. Lothrop. The 
subjects were a little girl and a young lady, 
taken large and made on the black glossy 
plates. 

Mr. Lothrop acknowledged the compli- 
ment paid to his work, and gave to the 
meeting his formulas, which are as follows : 

COLLODION. 

Ether nnd Alcohol, . equal quantities. 

Iodide of Ammonium, . . 5 grains. 

Iodide of Cadmium, . . . ]£ " 

Bromide of Cadmium, . . 1£ " 

Anthony's negative gun cotton, 

to the ounce, . . . 4J grains. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



79 



NITRATE OF SILVER BATH. 



Strength, . 



40 grains. 



DEVELOPER. 




Water, .... 


. 120 ounces. 


Protosulpbate of Iron, 


. 8 " 


Acetic Acid, . 


. 8 " 


Alcohol, .... 


. 6 " 


Nitre, .... 


. 100 grains. 


VARNISH. 




Bleached Shellac, 


. 11 ounces. 


Alcohol, .... 


. 70 " 


Liq. Ammonia, 


. 35 drops. 


Oil of Lavender, 


. 2^ drachms 



Adjourned, to meet again Tuesday even- 
ing, March 1st, 1870, at Mr. C. M. Gilbert's 
gallery, No. 202 South Second Street. 

D. LOTHROP, 

Secretary. 



FILTERING COLLODION. 

BY M. CARET LEA. 

The clearing of collodion by filtration is 
a matter that does not always work very 
smoothly. Filtering through sponge, it is 
true, answers tolerably well. But in the 
apparatus made and sold for this purpose, 
if the sponge be not very tightly rammed 
round the tube, the collodion finds some 
channel for penetrating without filtering. 
And, if the ramming is thoroughly done, 
the filtering is very slow. But the worst 
is, that if the apparatus is put awaj r for 
some time (unless a quantity of collodion 
be expressly left in the lower part), the 
sponge becomes a hard lump by the drying 
up of the collodion with which it is satu- 
rated, and this contracts it extremely. This 
contractile power of collodion is something 
very curious : we see its effects when a nega- 
tive splits in drying, and I am informed 
that this means is now employed in medi- 
cine where it is desired to apply a contrac- 
tile force to the skin, as, for example, in 
some forms of erysipelas, the skin is painted 
over with plain collodion, and the effect 
produced is simply mechanical. This con- 
tractile acting upon the sponge is very apt 
to spoil the filter, so that if the operator, 
unaware of the effect that has been pro- 
duced, proceeds to filter his collodion 



through the contracted sponge, he finds his 
plates spoiled by motes. 

Some have advocated filtering through 
paper, and I believe that there does exist 
paper through which collodion may be fil- 
tered ; it is, however, not at all easy to get, 
and I judge that, at best, the operation must 
be exceedingly tedious. 

Tt recently occurred to me to try filtering 
through strong but fine and close-woven 
cotton stuff, such as that which is made for 
the best quality of cotton shirting. I find 
it answers so excellently that I now use it 
habitually. The proceeding is as follows : 
select a piece of cotton stuff that is very 
close- woven, smooth, and perfectly free 
from fuzziness of surface.- It is only the 
very best sorts that possess the desirable 
qualities. Throw it into boiling water and 
let it lie for some hours to detach the starch 
and dressing ; rinse it well out in cold 
water, wring, and dry it. A small circu- 
lar piece about four inches in diameter will 
make a good filter; as the collodion runs 
through pretty rapidly, it is useless to em- 
ploy a larger filter. 

A still better filtration is got by combin- 
ing this with a sponge. A small piece of 
very clean sponge is pushed into the neck 
of the funnel. The effect is quite different 
from where the sponge is used alone. The 
muslin stops nearly all the fibres and in- 
soluble material which would rapidly clog 
up the sponge, so that the latter remains 
much freer. And thus the filtration through 
the sponge and muslin goes on more rapidly 
than it would through the sponge alone. 

I now employ this mode of filtration ex- 
clusively, rejecting the regular collodion 
filter which I formerly used. Although 
the surface is exposed, the evaporation 
amounts to very little, and may be further- 
more checked by laying a piece of glass or 
of card on top of the funnel to stop the cir- 
culation of air. It is best to use a funnel a 
little larger than the muslin, so that the 
card may rest upon the sides of the funnel 
and not touch the filter. 

I find this mode of operating especially 
convenient for the collodio-bromide and 
chloro-bromide processes. It is rapid and 
efficient. When the sponge becomes choked 



80 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



it is easy to replace it. I generally use a 
fresh sponge with each collodio-bromide 
filtration : this is not at all necessary when 
filtering ordinary collodion. The quantity 
of insoluble matter in the collcdio-bromide 
mixture tends to clog up the sponge sooner. 
The sponge sold as surgeons' sponge is 
very suitable. Common Bahama sponge 
(carriage sponge), is even better if it be 
soaked for two or three days in a good 
quantity of dilute hydrochloric acid, and 
then be thoroughly well washed out. 



SARONY'S PHOTOGRAPHIC 
CRAYONS. 

On pages 100, 165, and 243, of our last 
volume, our esteemed friend Mr. G. Whar- 
ton Simpson described to us a novel and 
beautiful new style of portraiture which had 
been introduced in England by Mr. Oliver 
Sarony, of Scarborough. Soon after, the 
process was offered for sale in our advertis- 
ing colums, but not being pushed much, 
we suppose our readers lost faith in the 
matter, and like ourselves, forgot all about 
it. Now, however, as Mr. Sarony has 
sent his nephews and pupils, Messrs. T. H. 
N. and N. A. P. Lambert, to this country, 
to personally introduce the new picture and 
teach the method of their production, it 
is, therefore, proper that we should inform 
our readers more fully on the subject. 

The pictures may be produced of any size, 
from a large or small negative ; with only 
the appurtenances of the smallest establish- 
ment; in all kinds of weather; in a very 
few minutes ; very easily and at very little 
cost. Shadows may be reduced or strength- 
ened with the greatest ease. 

The effect is that of a finely worked crayon 
photograph on tinted paper with the most 
artistic hatching around, while in reality 
there is not a single touch of a pencil 
on the whole picture. They are, when 
skilfully printed (and practice soon attains 
that), from good negatives, perfectly lovely. 
The Messrs. Lambert have produced them 
in our presence, and the ease and quickness 
with which they are made, makes their pro- 
duction merely pleasurable pastime. Each 
new print increased our admiration for 



them, because we were disappointed when 
we first saw them. We shall soon make 
them with our own hands, and then be able 
to give more information practically. 

They are made in this wise : A collodion 
print is made upon glass according to in- 
structions given by the Messrs. Lambert, 
vignetted while printing, developed, fixed 
without washing, dried, and then backed 
up with a piece of white or tinted draw- 
ing paper, peculiarly roughened, on which, 
in bold hatching is the graduated vignet- 
ting which breaks up the outline, and causes 
the picture to merge into the background 
apparently. In the centre of the crayoned 
vignetting is a space for the head or figure. 
Place the glass print on one of these sheets, 
and a perfect metamorphosis is the result. 
At once the impression of a costly worked- 
up picture is given, an impression very 
hard to overcome. The roughness of the 
drawing-paper imparts elegant softness to 
the picture, and, as some one has said, very 
happily, " permitting the image to be super- 
posed on its own shadow, increasing depth 
and softening asperities." 

While we write, one of these charming 
pictures is before us. It was produced from 
a rather under-exposed carte negative of a 
•two-year old child. The head is fully four 
inches, and could as easilj 7 have been six. 
It was produced while the rain was falling 
in torrents, in less time than we have taken 
to write these words. It is backed by a 
warm-tinted crayon sheet, and we believe 
we could induce nine out of every ten pho- 
tographic experts to believe that it is a 
finely worked-up crayon head. 

Now the advantage of this style of picture 
is, that old negatives may be utilized and 
made to produce revenue. Mr. Sarony's 
plan is to print from some of his best nega- 
tives at his own risk, and, in most cases, the 
parties cannot resist buying them. Another 
advantage is, good prices may be readily got 
for them, and the cost of their production 
is but trifling. 

The Messrs. Lambert, with their agent, 
Mr. A. E. Alden (see advertisement), pro- 
pose to visit our principal cities and towns 
in person for the sale of these sheets, and to 
all who buy a certain quantity they teach 
Mr. Sarony's method of making the prints. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



81 



Moreover they will not sell the sheets to 
any but those who are taught by them, thus 
giving protection to all their patrons. And 
permit us to suggest that, as here is proba- 
bly a chance for a lucrative business, let the 
prices be well kept up, and make pictures 
good. 

They are very beautiful when well made, 
and to attract the public they must be well 
made. 



BOSTON PHOTOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY. 

The minutes of the January meeting of 
the Boston Photographic Society did not 
reach us last month, but come now with 
those of the February meeting. The sub- 
ject for discussion was, Retouching the Nega- 
tive. 

Mr. E. L. Allen read a paper thereon, 
quoting from instructions that had been 
published. He also exhibited a number of 
his own retouched negatives, which were 
very fine. 

Mr. Allen stated that he found it diffi- 
cult to obtain in Boston, what he called 
good nitrate of silver. He now used Ma- 
gee's Philadelphia silver, which he found 
much better. He then gave his formula 
for making collodion, viz.: 

FORMULA FOR COLLODION. 

No. 1. 

Dissolve 400 grains of Nitrate of Silver in 16 
ounces of Water in a quart-bottle. In 
another bottle dissolve 320 grains of Iodide 
of Ammonium in 1 pint of Water, and add 
to the silver solution. Wash the precipi- 
tate two or three times with Water, after in 
95 per cent. Alcohol. Shake well, settle, 
and pour off. 

No. 2. 

Dissolve 320 grains of Bromide of Ammonium in 
16 ounces of 95 per cent. Alcohol. Dissolve 
and add to bottle No. 1. Shake for half an 
hour. This is a saturated solution of Bro- 
mo-iodide of Silver and Ammonium. To 
excite, add 1 ounce of Bromo-iodide of Sil- 
ver and Ammonium to 8 ounces of plain 
Collodion, and it is ready for use. 

The discussion was then continued, and 
Mr. Stevens said that he found rubbing a 
little Indian red on the negative varnish 



would give a good surface to take the pen- 
cil in retouching. 

It was resolved that the competition at 
the next meeting be for plain cards, the 
person making the best to have all compet- 
ing prints, to be decided by the vote of the 
Association. 

A discussion ensued on the subject of ni- 
trate of silver, it being intimated that 
some samples were adulterated. Messrs. 
Low, Tupper, and Marshall were appointed 
a committee to analyze different samples, 
and to report the result. 

Beautiful specimens from retouched nega- 
tives by Mr. J. P. Kyder, Cleveland, Ohio, 
were exhibited, and also enamelled cards 
from Mr. M. G-. Trask, Bangor, Maine ; 
cartes from Prescott & White, Hartford, 
and photographs of animals from Schreiber 
& Son, Philadelphia. 

The subject chosen for discussion at the 
next meeting was, On Printing Photographic 
Pictures, and, on motion, adjourned. 

February Meeting. 

Vice-President Burnham in the chair. 

Minutes of last meeting were approved. 

The annual fee of members was fixed at 
$2. 

The Committee on Nitrate of Silver asked 
for further time. 

The subject of discussion for the evening 
was then taken up. 

Mr. South worth stated that in 1854 he 
printed photographs with thin substances, 
as mica, thin plate-glass, etc., between the 
negative and the paper, for the purpose of 
getting soft prints. In 1855 Mr. Hawes 
and himself exhibited such pictures at the 
Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable 
Mechanic Association, and a description of 
this process of printing was given to the 
committee of that Association at that time. 

Mr. Southworth's remarks were quite ex- 
tended and very instructive and interest- 
ing. He favors soft pictures,' without, as he 
calls it, an excess of sharpness. 

He was followed by Mr. Burnham, who 
favored sharp but soft pictures. 

Mr. Allen prints altogether under ground- 
glass. He finds it harder work to get the 
prints as they ought to be, than to make 
the negatives. 



82 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



Communications were received from 
Messrs. Loomis, Meinerth, and Lovell. 

Mr. Black asked for the best manner of 
making good transparencies. A discussion 
ensued, in which Messrs. Black, Allen, and 
Tupper took part. Mr. Black said Mr. 
Tupper made the best transparencies he 
had seen. Mr. Tupper said his method did 
not differ from others. He used a little 
thinner collodion than for negatives, and 
took much care as to the time of exposure 
of the plate. 

A recess was had to examine the pictures 
brought in for competition, which was for 
the best plain card photograph without re- 
touching on the negative. The contribu- 
tors were Messrs. George K, Warren, Cam- 
bridgeport; C. F. Richardson, Wakefield; 
E. L. Allen, T. R. Burnhara, E. J. Foss, 
E. F. Smith, Boston ; W. R. Hawkes, East 
Boston ; and J. L. Lovell, Amherst, Mass. 

After the meeting was again called to 
order, Mr. A. Marshall was appointed a 
committee to ascertain who should have all 
the specimens presented (that being the 
prize), none voting but the contributors, 
and each one to vote for some one other 
than himself. 

After a few minutes, Mr. Marshall re- 
ported that Mr. E. L. Allen had the largest 
number of votes, and was entitled to the 
pictures. 

Mr. Black appealed to the members in 
behalf of a destitute photographer, who, 
although not a member of our Society, yet 
needed and should have our assistance. 

On motion, voted that a committee of one 
be appointed to take up a collection in be- 
half of this destitute photographer. 

The Vice-President appointed Mr. J. W. 
Black that committee, who attended to the 
duty assigned him, and soon reported a con- 
tribution of $14.42. 

Voted, that Mr. Black be a committee to 
forward the contribution to our distressed 
brother. 

On motion'of Mr. Marshall, it was voted 
that we have another competition for best 
card-photographs from retouched negatives 
at our next meeting. 

The following were elected as members 
of this Association: Messrs. R. B. Wilson, 
A. F. Buzzell, and J. C. Richardson, of 



Boston ; Mr. C. F. Richardson, of Wake- 
field, Mass., and Mr. Benjamin Jones, of 
Salem, Mass. 

Voted to adjourn. 

Feed. C. Low, 

Secretary. 



NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. 

The photographic section of the Ameri- 
can Institute met Feb. 1st, V. P. Bogardus 
in the chair. 

A large presentation of prints was made 
by Messrs. Kurtz, Mason, Captain Russell, 
photographer of the U. P. R.R., Bierstadt, 
and Bogardus. 

Captain Russell, at the request of the gen- 
tlemen present, "gave his experience." It 
might well be called photographing under 
difficulties. 

Owing to the generally alkaline nature 
of the water in large sections of our " big 
great West," he had been forced to carry 
good water a distance of seventy miles ; he 
had often travelled fifty miles upon foot for 
certain views ; was often absent four and 
five weeks, and forced to subsist upon game. 
Many of his situations and of his com- 
panions as well, were unpleasant and not 
uncommonly ludicrous. Upon one occasion 
in descending a mountain almost as steep 
as the side of a house, the horse of one of 
the party, either from uncontrollable gravi- 
tation or a desire to go faster, started, the 
result being that he left his rider, but no 
longer master, pendant in a tree, an aston- 
ished and dissatisfied mass of helpless hu- 
manity. Upon another occasion the Cap- 
tain was astride his mule descending some 
upright mass or another of nature, when he 
found himself moving faster than his faith- 
ful servant; they both moved downwards 
together, but the Captain beat the mule, 
and declares that had it not been for the 
ears of said mule he would have gone over- 
board ; they proved his salvation and kept 
him aboard. The Captain is not responsi- 
ble for my words; I only report facts, not 
exact language. 

This reminds me of the mule Josh Bil- 
lings tells about: how he spells it is more 
than I know, but he says: " The mule is a 
bird of larger growth than the turkey, he 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



S3 



has two legs to walk with and two to kick 
with, and he wears his wings on the side of 
his head." This, I judge, to be the kind 
of a mule Russell had. 

The Captain exhibited his camera-box ; 
it was of novel and ingenious construction, 
but without drawings, I cannot explain it. 
Mr. H. T. Anthony volunteered to have a 
drawing made of it, so that by your next I 
trust it will be in shape to publish. 

The prints presented by Mr. Edward 
Bierstadt were made by Dewey, of Paris. 
The film of the positive was removed from 
the plate and laid upon paper of some tint 
best suited to the subject. If of coins, upon 
a gold, silver, or copper paper ; if of bronzes, 
upon a bronze paper ; if of a sunset, upon a 
paper which will give the glow and warm 
coloring desired. The effect was very fine 
in some. 

Yours, &c, C. W. H. 



GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. 

Keeping Negatives — Retouching Negatives, 
and the Berlin Process — Large Heads 
Card-size — Action of Lighting and Con- 
trast — Keeping Silvered Albumen Paper. 
A lively discussion on the best mode of 
keeping the negative film from splitting, 
took place at the last meeting of our So- 
ciety. 

Much has been said as to the cause of this 
annoyance, but it certainly is not exactly 
understood yet. The thoroughness of the 
washing, and the quality of the water, ex- 
ercise, undoubtedly, a great influence. 

The question, however, is, how can this 
evil be prevented, and many parties have 
proposed to cover the negative with an am- 
ber solution and to varnish afterwards. 
This would have another advantage, it 
would protect the collodion films against 
the action of the varnish. The amber fur- 
nishes an excellent surface for retouching, 
and the retouch would itself be protected 
by the last varnishing. Until, however, 
the amber varnish has stood the test of time, 
its claims to freedom from cracking must 
remain conjecture. 

Another proposition, i. e. to remove a quar- 
ter of an inch of the collodion film all around 



the plate and to varnish afterwards, seems 
to offer advantage. It would certainly give 
greater protection, and prevent moisture 
from insinuating itself at the edges between 
the film and the glass. Time alone can set- 
tle these points definitely. 

I made lately a curious discovery in re- 
gard to this verj' subject One of my Aden 
negatives commenced to show signs of 
cracking all over the surface, so fine, how- 
ever, that they did not interfere much. I 
tried to get rid of them by exposing the 
plate to vapors of alcohol, but they remained 
as before. Finally, I retouched the sky on 
the varnished side with India-ink contain- 
ing gum-arabic, and put the negative away. 
This was some months ago ; I looked at it 
again a few days ago, and found the plate 
covered with cracks, except the places 
where it had been retouched. This seems 
to prove to me that a covering over the var- 
nish will prevent the splitting of the film. 
The best expedient to get tolerably good 
prints from cracked negatives, is rubbing 
the plates with lampblack. It fills up all 
the fissures, and makes them for the time 
being disappear. 

Next to the question of the preservation 
of the negative, the manipulations of the 
retouching process always claim our atten- 
tion. This branch of the business becomes 
from day to day more important, in the 
same proportion as the passion for large 
heads in card-size spreads amongst the gen- 
eral public. It is indeed a mania that gives 
a great deal of trouble to the photographer. 
There are heads with all the modern acces- 
sories, as chignons, curls, flowers, laces, and 
all the the other fixings; they make beauti- 
ful pictures, particularly when one knows 
how to sit, and is accustomed to being pho- 
tographed. Actresses make splendid mod- 
els ; you can always make something out of 
them; their toilet is generally excellent, 
and their skin has undergone such a 
thorough "positive retouch," that the ar- 
tist has very little trouble. The case with 
ladies from private life is quite different. 
They are often awkward in their movements 
or even resist the arrangements of the artist, 
they object to being handled, and show a 
skin, which, in spite of all the artifices of 
illumination, looks, in the negative, like a 



84 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GEAPHEE. 



freshly ploughed field. Negative retouch- 
ing has to come here to the rescue, and this 
becomes more difficult as the size of the 
head increases. 

Formerly photographers were generally 
through their day's work with the setting 
of the sun ; now you find them late at night 
at the retouching desk, to retouch the nega- 
tives that have been taken during the day. 
In large establishments, when four images 
are made on one plate, only one of the four 
is retouched for want of time. 

Last fall I reported to you the plan of 
Grasshoff, to rub thk negative with cuttle- 
fish, and produce a surface that will take 
lead-pencil marks. The process has proved 
perfectly successful. On the ground surface, 
the lead-pencil marks are placed with the 
same care as on paper. All the negatives 
taken by Loescher & Petsch are treated 
in this manner, that is, not the whole nega- 
tive but the face only, which is the only 
part that is subjected to retouching. Some 
varnish, however, when rubbed with cuttle- 
fish, will become smooth instead of dull. 
In such cases I take finely-powdered pum- 
ice-stone. That gives the best surface, and 
a hard pencil answers very well. Grass- 
hofFuses the so-called silver pencils (metallic 
lead mounted in wood), on account of their 
cheapness and the points do not break. 

I give this lengthy description that your 
readers may know the nature of the real 
" Berlin process." A piece of ground-glass 
will not do. It is the careful selection and 
treatment of the orginally artistic illumina- 
tion and careful retouching of the negative. 
To learn the latter requires much patience, 
and can only be acquired by long practice. 

In my last letter I called your attention 
to the optical difficulties in talcing such pic- 
tures, and showed what care is necessary in 
the selection of the apparatus and how the 
proper distance has to be studied in order 
that a head does not appear too thin or too 
broad. Similar mistakes can be produced by 
improper illumination. A strong front-light 
makes a head appear much broader than 
a side illumination. It is also a fact that the 
exaggerated large hands, of which formerly 
so many complaints were heard, are now, 
where the hands are made dark instead of 
white, not so much noticed. Here it is the 



contrast which can improve or deteriorate 
a picture. 

A white surface will look much whiter 
when placed alongside of a dark one. Mr. 
Kurtz has given some excellent hints on 
this subject in the Mosaics. Allow me to 
call your attention to another effect of con- 
trast. 

A very diminutive lady called on Mr. 
Priimm here. She complained that on all 
the photographs which had been taken of 
her she looked so very small, and that pho- 
tographers were very unskilful people. Mr. 
Priimm placed the little woman alongside a 
toy table, threw the drapery over it, took a 
plain background and made the picture, a 
three-quarter length, from the knees up. 
The effect was remarkable. Alongside the 
small table the lady looked quite large. 
She was delighted with her likeness, and 
declared that Mr. Priimm was the first 
photographer in the world. 

Another artist was called upon by a 
couple, the husband small, the wife very 
large. The husband insisted on looking as 
large as his wife. What was to be done? 
The operator placed the husband on a foot- 
stool, took a three-quarter length picture, 
and the little man was satisfied. Of course 
all the objects which can act as a guide to 
comparison must be left out of these pic- 
tures, such as chairs, pillars, architectural 
backgrounds, etc., etc. 

In conclusion a few remarks on the per- 
manent silvered paper that of late has been 
so much talked about. It consists simply 
of ordinary silvered albumen paper from 
which the free nitrate of silver has been re- 
moved by washing ; this paper will keep for 
weeks, while otherwise it will turn yellow 
in three or four days. 

In our last meeting Grashoff demon- 
strated the effect of the pressure pad on the 
turning of the paper. A print which had 
been backed by a pad made of newspaper 
turned yellow in two days, but the places 
which had rested on the black letters re- 
mained perfectly white, and the letters were 
reproduced white or yellow on the albumen 
print. 

Now Grnshon" places a piece of oilcloth 
on the papor and the pad on top of this. 
Beneath the oilcloth the paper remained 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



85 



white for four days. Waxed paper does 
not answer as well ; it frequently contains 
small holes which will cause yellow spots 
on the paper. «• 

Tours, very truly, 

Dr. H. Vogel. 



NOTES IN AND OUT OF THE 
STUDIO. 

BY G. WHARTON SIMPSON, M.A., F.S.A. 

Nationality of Photographic Discovery — 
Boiling the Printing Bath — Combination- 
Negatives — Protecting Films from the sol- 
vent action of Varnish — Side-light v. Front- 
light — Which is best. 

A somewhat amusing challenge is made 
by " An Old Photographer " in the Photo- 
graphic News to American photographers, 
or rather, to a certain section of American 
photographers. It arises out of a circum- 
stance reported as occurring at a recent 
meeting of the Photographic Section of the 
American Institute in New York. Mr. 
Chapman is there reported as complain- 
ing that Mr. William England had been 
accredited with the idea of boiling the 
printing bath, as a means of purifying it, 
whilst, in truth, he stated he had himself 
introduced that method of clearing the 
bath in 1865 ; whereupon, the report in 
your contemporary states, Mr. Hull re- 
marked that the "old world usually 
claimed, as their own, whatever happened 
to be first produced in the new." This re- 
mark has aroused the ire of my correspond- 
ent, the " Old Photographer." Before re- 
ferring to his challenge, allow me one word 
in relation to the method of rectifying the 
bath in question. I can assure Mr. Chap- 
man that it is very much older than 1865. 
It is mentioned in the Photographic News 
as a known method eleven years ago, and, 
unless my memory misleads me, it has been 
familiar to me a still longer time. It is, 
in fact, one of the most obvious methods of 
purifying a bath which has become con- 
taminated by contact with albumenized 
paper, inasmuch as not only is heat well- 
known as efficient in reducing organic salts 
of silver, but boiling is the recognized 



method of precipitating albumen in solu- 
tion. Nevertheless, both Mr. Chapman 
and Mr. England did good service in re- 
stating the fact, because, by doing so they 
may have reminded some who had forgot- 
ten the remedy, and informed others to 
whom it may never have occurred ; but 
they give to it the weight which always 
attaches to the indorsement of good practi- 
cal men. I should like to impress this fact 
on all photographers, that they may often 
do good service by restating, with the com- 
ment suggested by their own experience, 
old processes or well-known methods, and 
such restatements may often have all the 
interest, and more than the value of novel- 
ties. To return, however, to the "Old 
Photographer," I can scarcely help think- 
ing that Mr. Hull, who is, if I mistake not, 
your esteemed New York correspondent, 
must have been misunderstood by the re- 
porter referred to, as his remarks seem cer- 
tainly somewhat unfair. With a full ap- 
preciation of the excellence of national 
spirit in citizens, and admitting that it is 
natural and not ungraceful to maintain the 
claims of fatherland, I think science should 
be essentially cosmopolitan. It belongs to 
the world, and, although it is possible to 
assign great discoveries to the countries in 
which they originated, it is difficult to in- 
dicate all the minor contributions from 
whence it may be each great discovery took 
its rise. Our " Old Photographer," refer- 
ring to Mr. Hull's remark, says: 

" If Mr. Hull be correctly reported, he 
is surely, as a photographer, a little oblivi- 
ous or ungrateful. America has con- 
tributed a respectable quota to the progress 
of the photographic art, but I have yet to 
learn that the old world has laid profane 
hands on any of the laurels of the new in 
this art. Was photography on silver-plate, 
glass, or paper discovered in the new world ? 
Was the collodion process discovered there ? 
Was the carbon process discovered there ? 
Was the Woodbury process discovered 
there? Was the Alberttype process dis- 
covered there ? In short, to be an invent- 
ive and ingenious nation, does it not seem a 
fact, that whatever of executive skill and 
enterprise they have shown, they have not 
contributed their fair quota to the discov- 



86 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



eries of the photographic art ? Nor have 
they introduced novelties or improvements 
which have taken their place in the univer- 
sal practice of the art. With all friendly 
feeling, and without a desire to introduce 
any bitterness into the matter, I should 
like to ask those American photographers 
who charge the Old World with a "habit 
of appropriation " in regard to American 
photographic ideas, to point out one im- 
portant photographic discovery, which has 
come into practice, which does not belong 
to the Old World, and also to point to one 
important American modification or im- 
provement, the origin of which has not 
been duly acknowledged." 

Possibly, it may be an interesting under- 
taking for some of your veterans to give a 
brief history of American photographic dis- 
covery, and meeting the challenge in the 
spirit of cordiality and good humor, in 
which I am sure it is made. 

Combination Negatives. — By combination 
negatives I mean several negatives com- 
bined so as to form one, and produce at 
one printing, a similar result to that usually 
obtained by combination printing. A dis- 
cussion, evoked by the issue of Mr. Robin- 
son's large instantaneous sea view, with a 
flock of sea gulls on the wing, has called 
forth many ingenious suggestions as to the 
mode of securing similar effects, where the 
multitude and minuteness of the objects, as 
in a flight of birds, would render double 
printing difficult or impossible. A paper was 
read at the last meeting of the Photographic 
Society by Mr. Dunraore, in which he de- 
scribed two methods by which he had been 
enabled to produce effects somewhat similar 
to those in Mr. Robinson's pictures, a flight 
of pigeons taking the place of a flock of 
gulls. In both his methods a transparent 
positive, obtained cither from painted or 
real birds, is employed ; the sensitive plate, 
which has been exposed to the landscape, is 
again exposed under the transparent posi- 
tive of the birds, so as to receive a negative 
image, which is developed at the same time 
as the landscape. There is only one draw- 
back to tliis ingenious plan, and that Mr. 
Dunmore indicates in his remark to the 
effect that theobjectsto be introduced must 
be of a lighter tint than the portion of the 



landscape upon which they have to be super- 
imposed. It is manifest, in fact, that they 
must be sufficiently light to obliterate the 
impression of the landscape upon which they 
have to be impressed. If they have any 
shadow or transparent part in the negative, 
the detail of the landscape negative would 
show through the shadow, and the birds 
would look like airy phantoms rather than 
solid bodies. This was, indeed, shown in one 
of Mr. Dunmore's examples, in which some 
trellis- work was seen distinctly through 
the body of a bird. To give value, then, to 
this process, two precautions would be nec- 
essary : the birds or other objects should be 
sufficiently light and opaque to obliterate 
all indication of objects underneath, and, if 
possible, the landscape should be so chosen 
as to present sufficient dark space without 
strongly marked detail -to permit other 
images to be impressed perfectly and solidly. 

A more efficient method than that was 
recently suggested to me by a correspon- 
dent. It is briefly as follows : first, a nega- 
tive of the birds, etc., is obtained, either 
from life or drawing, on a plate of size re- 
quired, with a perfectly transparent instead 
of opaque background in the negative. In 
obtaining this negative, care is to be taken 
to make the background quite clear and 
transparent, and the figures quite opaque, 
by intensifying or afterwards painting on 
them. This plate is to be used as a mask. 
Then the sensitive plate, of precisely the 
same size, is exposed to the same figures 
with the same lens at the same distance, so 
as to get fac simile images on the plate. 
Now place the first obtained mask negative 
in front of the sensitive plate, and expose 
for the landscape. The opaque images in 
the mask negative will protect the sensitive 
plate in the portions which have already 
been exposed to the birds or other objects, 
and the whole being developed, a combined 
negative will be obtained without any 
phantom-like forms on the one, or any 
special arrangement of the subject to avoid 
such a result. 

Other methods will occur to the ingenious 
photographer, and the following may be 
worth trying: let the photographer select 
from his stock of landscape negatives such 
as present dark spaces suitable for the in- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



87 



traduction of figures, either men, women, 
birds, dogs, or cattle. Produce a transpar- 
ency, like that used by Mr. Dunmore, of 
the figure, photographed either from life or 
from a drawing, the former being in- 
finitely preferable. Coat the landscape 
negative with dilute albumen, and, when 
dry, coat again with collodio-chloride of 
silver, and expose under the transparency 
so as to bring the figure or figures in the 
right spot. After exposure, fix and wash, 
and a combined negative, with the requisite 
additions, has been obtained, ready for 
printing. 

Whether Mr. Kobinson employed any of 
these methods or anything similar, he de- 
clines at present to state. 

Protecting films from the solvent action of 
Varnishes. — Most photographers are famil- 
iar with the fact that the collodion film, 
either from the use of cotton soluble in al- 
cohol, or from the collodion being very ripe, 
will dissolve under the action of a strong 
spirit varnish. As a remedy for this, Mr. 
England has recently suggested giving the 
film a preliminary coating of a very dilute 
amber varnish, in which the solvent being 
chloroform, no action on the film would 
take place. Upon this thin film of amber 
he then proceeds to apply the usual hard 
spirit varnish. A simpler remedy than 
this, however, will be found to answer per- 
fectly: it has been employed for years by 
Mr. Blanchard, either when he had reason 
to fear that the film would dissolve under 
the action of the varnish, or that it would 
split in drying. He has, after fixing and 
washing the negative, just flooded the film 
with stale beer. The small amount of 
gluten contained in the beer permeates the 
film, prevents it from splitting in drying 
and effectually protects it from any solvent 
action of the varnish. 

Side-Light v. Front-Light. — The experi- 
ence of practical photographers is, as a rule, 
the best guide to an effective lighting of 
the sitter, and discussions on the subject, 
although always interesting, are rarely in- 
structive, inasmuch as it is very difficult to 
deal with the question in the abstract. As 
a rule, a predominant side-light prevails in 
all the best studios, and even in those built 



with a front-light it is customary to so ar- 
range the blinds that the principal light 
reaching the sitter has really the character 
of a high side-light. In a paper recently 
read before one of our provincial societies, 
Mr. Ennel assumed the heterodox position 
of recommending a front-light as the prin- 
cipal or dominant light, and I note that 
your intelligent contributor Mr. D. Dun- 
can calls attention to the form of studio de- 
scribed as well worthy of consideration. 
I cannot but think that he has done this, 
without fully realizing the mischievous ef- 
fect of a prevalent front-light, and as I have 
known cases in which the inexperienced 
have been put to much useless trouble and 
expense, by following foolish advice, and 
building studios with front-light, I always 
feel concerned to correct this error when 
I find it repeated. I have recently heard 
of more than one studio which had to be 
pulled down and rebuilt, solely on account 
of the error. 

In a certain sense, of course, all the light 
used in portraiture is front-light, inasmuch 
as it is in advance of the sitter; but the light 
which is at the side of the sitter, as well as 
in advance of him, is spoken of as side-light, 
because it derives its essential value from 
being at the side, crossing over the face in- 
stead of striking it full in front, lighting 
up the salient features, which acquire relief 
and vigor by being defined against those 
parts which, escaping the touch of the domi- 
nant light, are left more or less in shadow. 
The direct front-light, on the contrary, falls 
on every part of the face with equal force, 
and the only indication of form, gradation, 
and modelling, are obtained by the slight 
recession from the light of the retiring 
parts of the face, and the inevitable ten- 
dency is to flatness in the delineation. By 
throwing a flood of light on a globe directly 
in front, it may be made to look like a disc 
and direct front-light has tendency to flat- 
ten into a disc-like effect many faces in por- 
traiture. And, in proportion, as the front- 
light is the dominant light, the tendency 
will be in the direction of the flatness. 

Certain it is, that the common experience 
of the best photographers, has determined 
that a high side-light, at a variable position 
in advance of the sitter, is the easiest to 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



manage, and gives the most satisfactory re- 
sults. It may be of a little interest to some 
readers to know that excellent authorities, 
in relation to pictorial art, have determined 
that such a mode of lighting is most effective 
and pleasing, and have directed its use long 
before photography, as an art, was in exist- 
ence. Frank Howard, son of an eminent 
Royal Academician, in his clever "Whole 
Art of Picture Making," says : 

" The light should never be directly in 
front of the picture, or object chosen for the 
picture, that is to say, coming in over the 
head of the spectator from behind him. If 
the subject be a flat object, such as the side 
of a tower, it will present a mass of equal 
light, or a spot. If the object approach the 
circular form, or a round tower or tree, the 
light will graduate equally from the centre 
to the two equally dark sides. . The outline 
of the two sides of the tower, and through- 
out of the tree, will be of uniform degrees 
of dark, and all pictorial effect in danger of 
being lost." 

The same author, in a chapter on the 
treatment of heads, in another work on 
" Imitative Art, or the Means of Kepresent- 
ing the Pictorial Appearances of Objects," 
says : 

" If a head is to be represented, it should 
be treated in a similar manner to be a globe, 
and should receive the light on that side 
which will afford the greatest breadth. 

"On what is technically termed a three- 
quarter view of the head, the brightest light 
will be upon the forehead, cheek-bone, and 
nose, from whence it should graduate to the 
retiring side and the chin. The brow will 
receive light in proportion to its prominence, 
and under it will be perceived a shadow 
strongest between the eye and the nose. 
The light will again glance upon the cheek- 
bone, graduating up to the hollow under 
the eye, and down to form the oval of the 
cheek. A light will run down the lino of 
the nose, glance upon the point of the upper 
and the fulness of the under lip, and faintly 
touch the prominent part of the chin. . . . 

" The retiring side of the head graduates 
into shadow, slightly relieved by half-lights 
upon the eye, the brightness of which will 
depend, as in the other, upon the promi- 
nence of the eye, or the heaviness of the lip 



but must not be equal to the light upon the 
nearest eye. . . . 

" If a head be seen in front, the same as- 
similation to the effect of a globe should be 
preserved ; the principal light being on one 
side of the forehead, cheek, and nose, and 
graduating from thence diagonally to the 
other cheek and chin. The treatment of 
the various parts will be nearly the same as 
the view just described, the difference being 
principally in the outlines of the several 
forms. 

" A profile will be made most intelligible 
by introducing the light rather behind the 
head, so as to throw the receding boundaries 
of the front of the forehead, eyes, cheek, 
nose, and chin into a half-tint. The prin- 
cipal lights will be on the upper parts of the 
temples, the cheek-bone, and the ear; and 
the principal shadows under the hair, upon 
the cheek and temples, and under the eye- 
brow, close to the nose. The whole of the 
front of the iris of the eye will be light, 
except close under the eyelashes. The 
pupil of the eye will be scarcely visible, 
but the eyeball will appear darkest where 
the pupil is known to be." 

London, February 10th, 1870. 



The new Atelier of Loescher & 
Petsch, in Berlin. 

The knowledge of several deficiencies in 
the construction of the studio of Messrs. 
Loescher & Petsch, which in the course 
of time, became more and more annoying, 
and gave rise to an unpleasant feeling of 
being dependent on the peculiarities of the 
atelier, induced these gentlemen to embody 
their experience in a new building, which 
should be, as near as possible, perfection. 

The principal ideas which guided them 
in the execution of this work were, that the 
photographer, by the nature of his art, is 
compelled to make the most of the few 
moments of exposure, to take into account 
every, even the smallest advantage in re- 
gard to illumination, the management of 
the decorative or technical accessories and 
utensils, and, finally, to avoid everything 
which can give trouble or become a hin- 
drance. Tins is the only way to enable 
him to devote his whole and undivided at- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



89 



tention to the person whose picture he is to 
take, and to the arrangement and the har- 
monizing of the principal effects. Another 
important point is the location of the studio. 
It should he located on the ground-floor; 
for, besides this being the most convenient 
for the public, such a location admits also the 
total exclusion of direct sunlight, by plac- 
ing it to the north of a tall building. At- 
tention should also be paid to a proper ar- 
rangement of the different work-rooms, 
partly to save time, partly to enable the 
head of the establishment to have every de- 
partment constantly under his eye. These 
were the general principles which Messrs. 
Loescher & Petsch tried to embody in their 
new establishment. How difficult it is to 
find a locality where all these advantages 
are combined, anybody who is acquainted 
with Berlin will know. 

The building is located in the garden of 
the house, LeipzigerStrasseNo. 132, opposite 
the porcelain factory. No trees or shrub- 
bery can have an injurious effect on the 
light, as for a distance of one hundred and 
fifty feet the space is perfectly clear. 

The annexed ground-plan will explain 
how the different rooms are connected to- 
gether. The advantages of this arrange- 
ment are, principally, that the photogra- 
pher is enabled, at any leisure moment, to 
communicate with the counting-room, the 
mounting-room, the retouching-room, or 
the copying establishment. He can con- 
stantly overlook and superintend the work- 
ing of all the different departments. 




Ground Plan of the Building. 

A studio; C counting-house; WZ wait- 
ing-room ; B mounting-room ; PB artist's 



studio for coloring ; P vestibule ; B bal- 
cony ; DK dark-room ; NB room for nega- 
tive retouching, underneath which are the 
wash-room and copying-room ; T staircase 
leading to the copying-room. 

The main glass-room faces nearly due 
north, and is protected by the two-story 
house from the direct rays of the sun. The 
copying-room, the main side of which also 
points north, is likewise protected against di- 
rect sunlight. 

We will now proceed to the details of the 
building. The studio proper is of the follow- 
ing dimensions: 35 by 17 feet floor, and 
height from 10 to 14 feet. The inclination of 
the roof is 4 feet in 17, and is sufficient*to re- 
move the accumulated dirt whenever a rain- 
fall occurs. The moisture on the inside, 
caused by condensed vapor, runs off through 
a small slit between the roof and the sides. 
In this way the gutters, which are gener- 
ally placed below the supports, could be dis- 
pensed with. At the junction of the two 
glass surfaces is a slight iron rod to carry 
the rollers for the illuminating apparatus, 
which absorb very little light. The north- 
ern side and about three-fourths of the 
roof are glazed. The plates of glass are 24 
inches square, and only 16 bars were nec- 
essary as supports. The central ones are 
fth in. by 3 inches ; the side ones are an 
inch thinner. In this way a broad mass of 
light from the north became available, 
which, in some particular instances only, 
had to be modified. It became necessary 
to invent an arrangement which would ex- 
clude every particle of side-light, and re- 
duce the source of light to one opening 
only. Ease in the management and cer- 
tainty in the effect were necessary, dura- 
bility and a pleasing appearance desirable. 
These considerations induced Mr. Petsch 
to substitute, for the old-fashioned curtains 
of doubled muslin, frames covered with 
some opaque material, which were easily 
movable and avoided all the shortcomings 
of the former arrangement. The old ar- 
rangement with curtains never excluded 
the light absolutely, while, at the same 
time, they would, in course of time, hang 
down loosely, leaving openings between the 
different strips, the light from which would 
be annoying to the sitter and interfere with 



90 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



a proper illumination, not to speak of the 
dust and unsightly appearance. 

With the frame arrangement the sup- 
ports for the glass became available as car- 
riers for the frames, doing away with all 
the rods, wires, rings, and cords of the 
old establishment. The frames are made 
of light iron bands, covered with linen, 
which is made water and light-tight by a 
coating of glue, chalk, and oil paint. 

(To be continued.) 



VOICES FROM THE CRAFT. 

Mysteries of the Dark-Chambers. — 
Mr. Editor: The formulae under the above 
head in your February journal, will no 
doubt be instructive to many, and many may 
go to work with renewed zeal to practise 
them ; but they are so near the same thing as 
we are all using, that they will be of little as- 
sistance to those in the fog. Good formulae 
and good chemicals can be readily com- 
manded by every photographer, but the 
question is how to use them. Now it seems 
to me if the eminent operators who have 
given their formulae and say they " have no 
secrets," would answer the following ques- 
tions, many a poor fellow might get at the 
cause of much of his trouble. 

What is your method of treating the 
negative bath ? How long do you use it, and 
what are the signs of its failing? Do you 
precipitate and filter out the excess of 
iodide? Do you boil, and how much ? Do 
you ever fuse, or remake in any way ? Do 
you sun your bath, and do you consider it 
necessary to have a double solution ? How 
do you neutralize ? How often is it neces- 
sary to make a new bath ? What is your 
method of keeping up the strength ? 

I believe there are more failures from 
want of proper management of the negative 
bath, than any other cause connected with 
the dark-room. Use good materials for 
collodion, pure silver and pure water for 
bath, the best of iron for developer, and see 
that everything is kept in good working 
order, and almost any formula will make 
good work. But if a photographer works 
his hath day after day, and goes home each 
night leaving it to take care of itself, he 
will soon come some morning and find it 



sick ; then, instead of a little rest or healthy 
renovation, he commences to dose it, and 
the more he doses the worse it gets, till 
finally he gets disgusted, turns it out, makes 
up a new one, and goes through the same 
routine again. Let us have the mode of 
management. Photo. 

Dear Sir : At your request I have given 
Mr. O'Neil's process a just and fair trial. 
To do so, I got the purest and best materials, 
and adhered strictly to the directions. I 
find that steeping the cotton in dilute am- 
monia water does confer very marked 
increased sensitiveness to collodion, over 
collodion made from cotton not so treated, 
but not to the extent of one-half as claimed. 
The negatives from this collodion and bath 
are so excellent, that I shall set aside my 
mode, and permanently adopt Mr. O'Neil's 
(this decision calls for no little sacrifice of 
self-opinion). The silver solution for paper 
gave me better results than is claimed for 
it in the process. Negatives that heretofore 
gave harsh contrasts in printing, gave fine 
details by the use of this silver solution. 
The toning is simple, but any desired tone 
can be obtained by it, with very little con- 
sumption of chloride of gold. To photog- 
raphers: Prepare your glass as described by 
W. J. Baker [Photographic Mosaics, p. 18), 
and then adhere to Mr. O'Neil's process all 
through, get pure materials, be sure of that ; 
use distilled water. Do not attempt to com- 
bine your process with Mr. O'Neil's. If you 
do, do not wonder that it will not work. By 
this process you have all that is needed to 
produce the very best of results. Many a 
time to my knowledge has Mr. O'Neil re- 
ceived $50 for his mode of working, and 
were any of you to go to him to-day, he 
would give no more for that sum than is 
given you in his process by the editor of this 
journal for your subscription. 

William Bell. 

Philadelphia, February 11th, 1870. 

Mr. O'Neil requested that we ask some 
of our practical men here to test his pro- 
cesses before publishing them. We there- 
fore asked Mr. Bell to test them, and tho 
above is his answer. Mr. Pennemoro also 
tried tho steeping of the cotton in ammo- 
nia, and likes it very much. — Ed. P.P. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



91 



NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC PATENTS. 

Several new patents have been issued 
lately, the specifications of which are before 
us. The American genius seems to run 
very much in the mechanics of photography, 
while our brethren on the other side of the 
Atlantic pay more attention to the means by 
which improved processes may be secured. 

Mr. J. Glessner, Cincinnati, Ohio, has 
patented a means of producing artificial 
clouds, &c, in landscape negatives. The 
negative is made in the usual way, and with 
opaque color the sky is painted out. A 
" sky plate " is then formed by painting 
upon a piece of glass with opaque color 
the light portions of the clouds or other 
light objects to be introduced into the sky, 
and also those parts corresponding to tall 
trees and other objects that extend up into 
the sky above the horizon are painted out 
in the "sky plate," the object being to ex- 
clude the light at those parts in order to 
preserve the lights of the object printed by 
the regular negative. In printing, the 
negative is printed first, of course. When 
a cloudless sky is desired a plain glass is 
used, and the part printed from the negative 
covered with cloth; a "shiftable" shade is 
used, by which the printer can shade one 
portion of the sky plate while the other is 
printing, and by moving it according to 
circumstances he thus secures a gradation 
of tint in the sky. This shade is so held as 
to expose the upper sky, and is then moved 
slowly down and up during printing, so as 
to allow the light to act the longest on the 
upper portion of the sky, and to give an 
evenly blended tint which becomes brighter 
towards the horizon. This may be repeated 
where necessary. 

When clouds are to be introduced, then 
the " sky plate" described above is used in- 
stead of the plain glass, and the sky is blend- 
ed with the shade as above. To make the 
clouds more effective, a perforated shade is 
held so as to allow a pencil of sunlight 
through the perforation to fall on such parts 
of the clouds or sky as need to be printed 
deeper to harmonize with ' the subject. 
Sharply defined objects, such as a streak of 
lightning, are printed on the under side of 
the negative, and clouds on the upper side 



thereof. A flock of birds maj r also be in- 
troduced from a separate negative, whose 
entire under surface except the figures is 
stopped out. 

When printing gradated skies in diffused 
light, a curved or bent shade is used and 
fixed so the strongest light will fall on the 
parts of the picture to be printed deepest. 
Artificial light may be used in printing the 
skies. The examples furnished the Patent 
Office are very effective. The great art will 
be in producing the "sky plates." A care- 
ful printer can do the best. 

Mr. J. S. Eeid, Orange, Indiana, has pat- 
ented a " stand for exhibiting photographs," 
made to revolve, for the parlor table, in place 
of an album. It has no particular novelty 
about it worth describing. We have only 
seen the drawings and description. 

Several other photographic patents have 
been granted, viz. : To J. & C. Paxson, New 
York City, for improvement in solar came- 
ras, by which they make 1st, a single holder 
suit all sized negatives by means of springs 
and clamps; 2d, the employment of a bel- 
lows in the vignetting device, whereby the 
vignetting lens may be quickly adjusted 
altitudinally to enlarge or diminish the size 
of the picture; 3d, the arrangement of ver- 
tical screw rods with the printing-board, for 
elevating and depressing the same; 4th, the 
large part of the camera-box is made of 
canvas stretched over a light framework 
and properly painted, thus making the body 
of the camera lighter, and so the heat can- 
not split it. 

Mr. H. M. Hedden, Worcester, Mass., has 
secured a patent for a japanned photo-paper 
to be used in place of the iron ferrotype 
plate, patent leather, etc., and so as to save 
transferring the film from the iron plate. 
The paper is japanned on both sides alike, 
so as to prevent the solutions from affecting 
it; and the middle is composed of a fibrous 
material, which permits the sides to be sepa- 
rated easily. The picture is then made on 
one side — the paper being treated same as 
an iron plate — separated and mounted on a 
card mount in the usual way. 

Mr. J. H. Stoddard, Ansonia, Conn., has 
patented a device by which the insertion of 
the plate-holder displaces the ground-glass, 
and again when the holder is removed, the 



92 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



other springs back in place, thus keeping 
the camera always closed, and the ground- 
glass always in place. It seems a very use- 
ful invention. 



OUR PICTURE. 

Our picture or pictures, this month, are 
intended to give our readers a practical il- 
lustration of the advantages to be derived 
from retouching the negative. It will be 
observed that in one the features are coarse, 
all the rugosities of the face showing, while 
in the other the skin is smooth and even, 
yet natural, true, and manly. This great 
contrast is obtained by working upon the 
negative film with the lead-pencil or brush. 
The method has long been practised abroad, 
and recently has been adopted here by some 
of our most eminent artists. 

That it is advantageous no one will dis- 
pute. How to do it is the next thing. We 
have frequently given instructions in our 
pages on the subject, and Mr Kurtz, who 
has practised the method for a year or more, 
has given very elaborate instructions in 
Mr. Ayres's second edition of "How to 
Paint Photographs." 

The following requirements must be met 
to enable you to prosecute it successfully. 
1. You should know at a glance what your 
negative needs to improve it, i. e., you 
must know where to touch and what the 
effect will be in the print. 2. You should 
be quick to appreciate what is natural and 
what unnatural, so as to work with care. 3. 
You should have a good retouching frame. 
Below is a cut of one which we partly con- 
trived, and which we like. It hardly needs 
an explanation. It is so made as to fold up 
compactly, but in the cut is represented as 
placed for use. A is a ground-glass on 
which the negative is placed. C is a sil- 
vered mirror working on pivots, so as to 
enable one to change its position and reflect 
the light wherever wanted. This latter is 
a great advantage, for the light can be in- 
tensified on* any part of the negative that 
you are working on at the time. B is a 
shield for the eyes. D is the frame or 
stand bearing the whole. When not in use 
tin- supporting rods are folded in, and the 
whole shuts up compactly, which keeps it 



always clean. E is a rest for the arm, and 
slides up and down. F is an adjustable sup- 
port for the negative. In use, the frame is 




set on a table at a north window if possible. 
The sun should never shine on it. Faber's 
pencils P, PB, and B, brands are best. We 
shall give further instructions as we get 
them, and meanwhile refer to Mr. Ayres's 
work and our former papers on the subject. 
We hope those of our readers who are prac- 
tised will give the benefit of what they 
know. 

The negatives for the pictures were made 
and retouched by Mr. J. P. Ryder, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Mr. Byder obtained an artist 
from Germany some time ago to do this 
class of work, and finds it a profitable in- 
vestment. The negatives have been much 
printed from, and yet show no signs of 
wear. They are very perfect as negatives, 
and we have received the following notes 
concerning them from Mr. Ryder. 

" I use for 

COLLODION". 



Alcohol, . 

Ether, . . . . 
Iodide of Ammonium, 
Bromide of Cadmium, 
Cotton (mixture of An- 
thony's and Pary's), 



32 fl. oz.— 1 qt. 
22 " —lib. 
270 grains. 
108 

270 



SILVER BATHS. 

From 40 to 45 grains strong, slightly aoid. 

DEVELOPER. 
Common Proto-Sulphate of iron 

to 1 pint of water, . . .1 ounce 
Acetic Acid, No. 8, . . .2 ounoes. 

The instruments used, were Voigtlander 
& Sons J size twin tubes, size of stops ljth 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



93 



inch, time of exposure 30 seconds, on a 
cloudy day. 

My light is 10 feet wide and 15 feet long, 
the lower end of sash 6J feet from floor, 
and stands at an angle of 45 degrees. 

I use neither blue frosting or ground- 
glass — simply plain glass. Neither do I 
use screens inside. My background is a 
painted one, and stood about three feet be- 
hind the subject. 

My retouching artist does not employ 
any of the various means suggested for a 
biting surface. The negative is varnished 
with any good sample of varnish, and he 
works upon the smooth surface, with a hard 
lead-pencil, and with Prussian blue, moist 
color." 

The prints were made by Mr. William 
H. Ehoads, Philadelphia, on Trapp & 
Munch's German albumen paper. Mr. 
Ehoads's formula for working this paper was 
given in our last issue. Mr. Rhoads seems 
to have exceeded himself in these prints, 
and we hope our readers will derive much 
practical advantage from our illustration. 
The gentleman who kindly sat for the 
negatives is well known in photography, 
as many will find when they go to Cleve- 
land next June. 



WRINKLES AND DODGES. 

For a light screen in my dark-room, 
I have used successfully yellow paper 
pinned together in the form of a cylinder, 
about 10 inches long, and 4 or 5 wide. A 
piece of steel out of a hoop-skirt, pinned 
into the top and bottom by a sort of "hem," 
gives necessary stiffness, and it can readily 
be set over a candle or removed. 

To enable me to wash my labelled bottles, 
I varnish the labels with shellac. They do 
not stain from the solutions, and are water- 
proof. I informed Mr. Hull of this one 
day, and found he had done the same seve- 
ral years before. 

Perhaps you have used wide-mouthed bot- 
tles with very shallow corks in them, and 
broken the edges of the cork in its frequent 
removal ; you couldn't dig it out with your 
finger-nails and your penknife was not in 
your pocket to help you. To remedy all 
that, remove the paper, which always comes 



on the cork, then insert the cork with a new 
piece of paper, say 5 or inches square, into 
the bottle, double up the corners into a 
twist, and you have a handle to pull the cork 
by, which can be renewed as often as neces- 
sary. 

I notice in the last journal a plan of keep- 
ing prepared paper, by washing out the free 
nitrate and fuming when it is required for 
use. It strikes me that the same idea ought 
to be applied to dry plates with success. 
Wash and dry without preservative ; fume 
before or during exposure ; soak thoroughly 
and develop with retarded iron developer. 
Has any one tried it ? 

Robert Shriver. 

Cumberland, Md. 

In one of the numbers of this journal in 
1866 it was proposed to use wooden dippers. 
I immediately fashioned one to my own 
taste, made it very hot in an oven, and gave 
it a good bath of hot beeswax. The two 
I am using now have stood in the solution 
day and night for two years, and do not 
harm the silver bath the least. 

The winter of 1867-68 I had cyanide sores 

on my hands for several weeks. My family 

physician failed to heal them. I then, on 

going to bed, wrapped my hands in muslin 

wet in rain-water, and kept them wet all 

night from a dish by my bed. After three 

nights' treatment in this way they were well. 

W. P. Bennet. 
Marietta, 0. 

About seven months since I put a lead 
faucet in my water tank, and since that 
time I have been troubled with spots on the 
pictures or ferrotypes. They appeared white, 
and in my negatives they were very trouble- 
some. When I made the prints I had nu- 
merous spots to touch out ; but last week I 
observed the faucet was wearing, and I con- 
cluded at once that it was the cause of all 
my trouble. So the next picture I devel- 
oped I took a tumbler of water and flowed 
over the plate before letting the water on 
out of the tank that had the lead faucet, 
and I had no spots. My trouble was at 
an end then, as I had the lead faucet taken 
out immediately and an iron one placed 
instead. I have had no trouble since. 

G. W. Sittler. 

Shelbyville, III. 



94 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGrEAPHEE. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC WORLD. 

Licht (light) is the title of the journal 
of the Photographic Society of Berlin, ed- 
ited by L. G. Kleffel, Esq. 

The " Industrie Blatter " is the title of a 
new German journal, edited by Dr. Jacob- 
sen. 

Dr. Vogel is preparing a work on pho- 
tographic aesthetics, to be profusely illus- 
trated. 

Very pretty effects may be produced by 
backing collodion transparencies with sil- 
vered, gilt, or bronzed papers. 

The Photographic News says Mr. Ayres's 
"How to Paint Photographs" is ''evi- 
dently the work of a practical man who is 
perfectly familiar with the work he de- 
scribes." Also, that "each year's issue of 
Mosaics improves, and this (1870) is decid- 
edly the best of all." 

Under-exposed pictures can be im- 
proved by developing them to their full ex- 
tent, then shaking and tossing them vio- 
lently and redeveloping. — Light. 

Mr. Fowler, Paris correspondent of the 
British Journal, doubts the truth of the as- 
sertion that the Paris photographers keep 
a "dummy " baby for the use of those who 
fancy maternal poses. 

Mr. Kuthereurd has lately photographed 
successfully the star group of the "Plei- 
ades." He has measured them micromet- 
rically and found his measurements to cor- 
respond with those of the celebrated Berrel. 
Mr. Berrel was employed for eleven years 
in his measurements. Mr. Rutherfurd ac- 
complished them in one night. So much 
for photography. 

M. Dubost, says the Bulletin Beige, pre- 
pares his plates for the coffee dry process 
with the following collodion : 



Alcohol, 

Iodide of Ammonium, 

" Strontium, . 

" Cadmium, . 
Bromide of Cadmium, 



.30 grnnis. 

i grnm. 

1 " 
2)j grams. 

J gisim. 

The solution of coffee is prepared with 30 
grams of burnt and ground coffee and 15 
grams of white sugar in 300 grams of boil- 
ing water. Develop with 2 grams of pyro- 



gallic acid, to which add 6 grams of silver 
nitrate and 6 grams of citric acid in 100 
parts of water. 

Among the members of the Photographic 
Society of Berlin, we notice Miss Paul, pho- 
tographic atelier, in Stella, Prussia ; Mrs. 
Ida Rath, photographic institute, Kissin- 
gen, Bavaria. Woman's rights have en- 
tered the realm of photography. 

As it may interest some of our readers to 
have a water-proof covering for their tents, 
we give the following process from Light: 
In a bucketful of water place half a pound 
of sugar of lead and half a pound of alum ; 
stir from time to time until the liquid has 
become clear. The material to be made 
water-proof is placed in this for twenty-four 
hours and dried without wringing. 

At a recent meeting of the London Pho- 
tographic Society, Mr. Dallmeyer, having 
placed three lenses on the table, said "that 
he had frequently to answer questions re- 
specting rapidity and angle of field that 
the lens covers. Many persons compared 
lenses together, which, although of the same 
diameter, were otherwise quite dissimilar, 
and intended for different purposes. The 
three lenses before them were of the same 
diameters (two inches), but their distinctive 
features were entirely different. One of 
them embraced an angle of 100°, another 
an angle of 75°, while the third included 
50° or 55°. It would be observed that, al- 
though of the same diameter, there was a 
great difference in their respective lengths ; 
that which was the shortest embraced the 
greatest angle. Rapidity in a lens was 
purchased at the expense of diminution in 
field. The angular aperture of these lenses 
were respectively.y^th, -J-th, and £th ; that is 
to say, there was an inch of aperture for 
so many inches of focus, and the relative 
exposures would be as 1, 4, and 8 seconds." 

Here is a great deal of information in a 
very few words, and worthy of the especial 
attention of those who ignorantly condemn 
a lens very often because it wont " do every- 
thing." A blacksmith cannot make a nail 
with a sledge or weld a bar with a nail 
hammer, neither can a photographer make 
one lens do all classes of work. — Ed. P. P. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



95 



A Desirable Establishment for Sale. — 
Our readers will notice in our Specialties that 
Mr. John Carbutt, the eminent Chicago photog- 
rapher, advertises his photographic establish- 
ment for sale. With an excellent, first-class 
patronage, the choicest location, a favorable and 
extended lease, and every convenience, this is 
an opportunity rarely offered. Mr. Carbutt has 
determined to devote himself entirely to the 
Woodbury process, and therefore makes the offer. 
We have twice seen the establishment, and all 
the owner will say for it can be relied upon. 
There is an admirable chance for some one. 



Sad Accident. — On the evening of February 
4th, while Mr. J. W. Black, of Boston, and his 
worthy assistant, Mr. J. L. Dunmore, were 
about to commence a lantern exhibition in Low- 
ell, one of the gas-bags exploded with tremen- 
dous force, threw Mr. Dunmore high in the air 
and burned him sadly about the face and eyes, 
knocked Mr. Black senseless, drove a stick 
through the nose of the organist, and damaged 
the organ-loft, organ, and church considerably. 
Mr. Dunmore, at this writing, still lies suffering 
much and very low, but, with great care, it is 
hoped, may recover his sight. Mr. Black, though 
much hurt and quite deaf, faithfully applied re- 
storatives to Mr. Dunmore the whole night of the 
accident, or the poor sufferer's sight would have 
been gone. Mr. Dunmore's many friends will 
be grieved to learn this, and with us heartily 
sympathize with him and hope for his speedy 
recovery. We have not yet learned the cause 
of the accident. When the explosion occurred, 
some old revolutionary female spirit innocently 
inquired of her neighbor if "that was the signal 
to commence the exhibition." 



In Mr. Kruse's formula last month, at bottom 
of page 55, it says "to the remainder add 6 
ounces of liquor ammonia,'' etc., etc. It should 
be to the remaining 6 ounces add, etc., etc. 

Reports op the Total Eclipse op the 
Sun of August 7th, 1869. — Through the cour- 
tesy of Com. B. F. Sands, Superintendent United 
States Naval Obsevatory, Washington, we have 
reeeived a copy of this report, which is very 
elaborately and handsomely executed. It con- 
tains the reports of the observations made by the 
following parties : Com. B. F. Sands ; Prof. S. 
Newcomb, U. S. N. ; Prof. William Harkness, 
U. S. N. ; Prof. J. R. Eastman, U. S. N. ; Dr. 
Edward Curtis, U. S. N. ; and of Mr. J. Homer 



Lane, who were stationed at Des Moines, Iowa ; 
of Mr. W. S. Gilman, Jr., who was at Sioux 
City ; of Mr. F. W. Bardwell, at Bristol, Tenn. ; 
of Brev. Brig.-Gen. A. J. Myer, who was sta- 
tioned on the summit of White Top Mo.untain, near 
Abingdon, Virginia, and of Prof. Asaph Hall, 
U. S. N., at Plover Bay, Siberia, together with 
lithographs of the observatory at Des Moines ; 
of Dr. Curtis's photographs of the eclipse, draw- 
ings illustnting the several reports, etc., etc. 
Accompanying the report from the Surgeon- 
General, through his assistant, Dr. C. H. Crane, 
were several photographs from Dr. Curtis's nega- 
tives. Dr. Curtis's negative of the corona was 
the most perfect one taken of that phenomena, 
we think, and is a grand affair, though his par- 
tial phases are not so good as others. His re- 
port is very elaborate and highly interesting, 
and we shall have occasion to make extracts 
from and allusions to it hereafter, especially in 
relation to the "luminous band" or line of 
light which appeared in some of the eclipse 
negatives taken by nearly all the different expe- 
ditions. The whole get-up of the report is ex- 
ceedingly creditable, with the exception of some 
of the lithographs, which, to those who witnessed 
the totality, are anything but refreshing. No 
government in the world has ever acquitted it- 
self so handsomely as did ours, in giving every 
possible facility for the proper observance of the 
eclipse. It is receiving the highest commenda- 
tion from all parts of the scientific world, as are 
those who observed and photographed on that 
eventful occasion. 



The Year-Book of Photography and Pho- 
tographic News Almanac for 1870, by G. 
Wharton Simpson, A.M., has been received by 
us, full of matter of vital interest, from the mas- 
ters of the profession in the Old World. The 
quantity of matter which the able editor gives 
us for so small a sum, and of so good a quality 
too, is astonishing. One cannot open it at any 
page without finding something that is useful and 
valuable. The Year Book is the parent of all 
our photographic annuals, and is well worthy of 
that dignity. Benerman & Wilson are the 
American publishers, and will soon have it for 
sale. 

The British Journal Photographic Almanac 
for 1870 is also received, and, like its competi.- 
tor, is full of good and useful matter that every 
photographer ought to read. Mr. J. T. Taylor is 
the editor, as usual, and. as usual, has displayed 



96 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



no ordinary tact in its get-up. Messrs. E. & 
H. T. Anthony & Co., New York, are the Ameri- 
can agents for its sale. 

The Photographer'' s Annual for 1870, edited 
by A. H. Wall, J. W. Green, London, publisher, 
is the third English photographic annual. Mr. 
Wall prefers to issue his annual of the same size 
and style as his journal, The Illustrated Photog- 
rapher, and treats us to a splendid variety of 
matter and subjects. All three of these English 
works may be described in four letters — GOOD. 



Answers to Correspondents. 

J. Reid. — We do not think there is any laio 
that would compel you to remove a picture from 
your show-case unless damages could be proven, 
but would it not be policy as well as most cour- 
teous, to obey the will of your patrons in such 
cases? 

George. — The copies of Mr. Robinson's book 
which we furnish, are of the English edition, and 
the pictures and all are made in England. It is 
a book we would desire much to have studied 
well by all of our readers. They would find it 
invaluable. 

J. B. Davison (Wolfville). — The whole of 
the " Spirit Photograph " humbug was reviewed 
in our last volume — New York Correspondence 
— and all the "probable" and improbable "me- 
thods '' given at same time. 

S. P. Tressler. — The wooden screen you 
propose would rob you of too much light. You 
should coat the inside of the glass with blue 
frosting, rather thick, and use the curtnins be- 
sides. Ground-glass instead of plain would dif- 
fuse the light also, but we prefer the other. 

E. V. Seutter. — Adding alcohol and water 
to your negative developer is sufficient and right 
to fit it for ferrotypes, etc., but, if you get "too 
much intensity," you should thin your collodion 
with iodizing solution, or, as some improperly 
call it, " collodion minus the cotton." 

Julius Hall. — Your print is evidently toned 
in a bnth too fresh, and the collodion has at- 
tacked the print, or there is too much gold in 
your bath and the print is toned' too quickly. 
Hence, the minute reddish spots covering it. 

W. R. Brooks. — Received, but too late for 
this issue. Thanks. 

G. S. (Ottumwa). — Although we expressed our 
willingness to help our subscribers when in any 
special trouble, we did not propose to teach 
them the whole business, from one end to the 
other, by letter. Get some good books on the 
subject, and, if you have not skill enough to get 



along, then you would do well to get some pro- 
fessional photographer to instruct you. We can- 
not find time to do that. 

Amateur, 23 West Thirty-fourth Street, 
New York. — The excessive use of tungstate and 
acetate of soda has caused your toning bath to 
become too alkaline, and that is why your gold 
precipitates. In using those ingredients, your 
toning bath should be made only a few hours 
before using. 

H. B., Jr.— The " Sliding-box " case will 
probably be heard the last of this month. We 
have no doubt of the decision being right. Of 
course, every photographer ought to assist Mr. 
Schoonmaker. He has worked hard, has spent 
a great deal of time and money, and will save 
you a great deal. We will cheerfully forward 
any sums sent us for him, though we should pre- 
fer they be sent to him. If photographers shirk 
their duty in this instance, they deserve to be 
burdened with odious and oppressive patents. 
Mr. Schoonmaker will positively not give up. 

G. W. C. — Mr. Luckenbach's method was 
fully described in our last volume. When he first 
told us of it we would have willingly advertised 
it for him, and on promise of advertising patron- 
age, we wrote a circular for him which he was too 
illiterate to write for himself. After wasting sev- 
eral hours of our time he offered us a second- 
hand i tube as part payment for advertising. 
This we declined, of course. He then left us, 
promising to send the cost of an advertisement 
"soon." After he had gone, shortly, we found 
he was threatening everybody he met, who sil- 
vered paper by the old and well-known method 
of folding up the sides of the sheet so as to hold 
the solution, with prosecution "for infringe- 
ment." Moreover, he attempted to humbug par- 
ties by offering "valuable receipts." for a con- 
sideration. For those reasons "his advertise- 
ment was not allowed to appear in our journal." 
Does this explain the " seeming inconsistency ?'' 
We have some of his licenses for the full term of 
the patent duly signed by him, and will present 
you with one on receipt of three cents to pay 
postage, or send us your address and we will 
give you one ; or if not you, the first applicant 
shall have it free, postage thrown in. 

D. E. Cottrell. — The "white scum" over 
your ferrotopes is evidently caused by keeping 
the plate sensitized too long before exposure, 
thus allowing the silver to crystallize. Dirty 
plate-holder and too much alcohol in the bath 
will cause a similar trouble. 

Mr. Manly Gaylord, Medina, N. Y. , was 
burned out November 'Jth. 




"^ 



."8! 



THE 



MMrfjrMa ^kurtojrajrkr* 



Vol. VII. 



APRIL, 1870. 



No. 7 6. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, 

By BENERMAN & WILSON, 

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



DOINGS OF THE SHAW & WILCOX 
COMPANY. 

ARREST AND BINDING OVER OF THE EDITOR OP 
THIS JOURNAL FOR "MALICIOUS LIBEL." 

A Discourse to Photographers. 

Subject. — On Friday morning, March 
11th, 18"0, while walking with my wife to 
the Courtland Street Ferry, New York, on 
our way home, after nearly two weeks' 
absence, I was met by Jebyleman Shaw, 
"President" of the "Shaw & Wilcox 
Co.," so-called, pointed out by him to a 
deputy sheriff of New York, and by the 
latter arrested, taken to the Sheriff's office, 
and there detained until I could procure 
$2000 bail for my appearance at court when 
directed, to answer a charge of the said 
Shaw, for " malicious libel." Said " libel " 
being the publication in this Journal, Feb- 
ruary, 1869, of an article by Mr. V. G. 
Bloede on the Shaw & Wilcox Silver 
Saving Apparatus, and my remarks thereon, 
together with my remarks on the same sub- 
ject, as editor of this Journal, in the last 
issue; damages claimed by said Shaw being 
$30,000. 

Although the said Shaw swore in his com- 
plaint that he knew me, he had never seen 
me but'once (on an occasion we will never for- 
get). I am informed " he was obliged to stop 
several other persons at the ferry, taking 
them to be me, before he caught the right 



one, and that in the middle of the night, 
suspecting that I might be in the city, he 
was prowling around hotels to hunt me, and. 
awakened the deputy sheriff, as early as 4 
A.M., fearing that I might get away from 
him." I, of course, had but little delay in 
procuring necessary bail in New York, and 
was only delayed a few hours. I make this 
statement personally as a prelude of what 
follows editorially. 

Edward L. Wilson, 
Editor Philadelphia Photographer. 

The above statement need not give our 
readers any alarm. The fact of our arrest 
is a great compliment to the strength of our 
Journal, which we ever intend every man 
disposed to take advantage of our sub- 
scribers shall feel, and is it not a most con- 
vincing evidence of the weak faith Mr. 
Shaw has personally in the claims he makes 
respecting his patent ? 

What would you think if your neighbor 
should invent and patent a new lock for a 
door, and then with his patent papers in his 
pocket, prowl around the country and tell 
you and everybody else that unless you 
used his lock on your door, or paid him a 
royalty, you could not lock your door at 
all, even though the lock thereon be one 
that your grandfather used before you ? 
And if you refused to buy his lock or pay 
him " a royalty for infringement " he would 



98 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APIIEK. 



.shut up your house and imprison you until 
you settled with him ? "Would you not 
laugh him to scorn, or pity him for his in- 
sanity ? 

And is not such the conduct of this man 
Shaw and his confederates, and dare not the 
editor of a respectable Journal say so, for- 
sooth, or discuss the merits and demerits of 
the case, without being arrested and held 
under heavy bail to answer a complaint for 
"malicious libel," and to show cause why 
he should not pay "$30,000 damages" ? 

"Will photography nourish and grow with 
such a state of affairs? 

Will photographers prosper if such out- 
rages are allowed? 

As we have before stated frequently, the 
aforesaid "Co." have prosecuted Mr. George 
W. Lovejoy, of Stepney Depot, Conn., for 
infringement of their patent, their patent, as 
we stated in our last issue, having been de- 
scribed in this Journal some time ago, and 
is a mere contrivance for catching and pre- 
cipitating photographers' silver wastes. Be- 
cause the " Co." had a patent for the said 
contrivance, can they absorb the insane 
idea that every photographer who saves his 
wastes by precipitatioyi (see extract from 
Shaw's letter in our last issue, page 73), 
"infringes" their patent? Can they con- 
front photographers with this idea, and 
claim a settlement? We leave this for our 
readers to answer. 

Mr. Lovejoy, we are told, merely uses a 
barrel for recovering his wastes in, the same 
as thousands of other photographers use. 
Mr. Shaw, or his agent, waited upon him, 
claiming that the said barrel was an in- 
fringement upon the Shaw patent, and so 
was the fact of his recovering his wastes by 
precipitation, no matter what sort of a ves- 
sel it was done in. This Mr. Lovejoy could 
not understand, and resisted such claims. 
He stated his case to us, and we answered 
him that, in our opinion, Mr. Shaw's claims, 
as he represented them to us, could not be 
sustained in court. He then sought legal 
direction, and was advised to contest the 
validity of the claims made upon him, E. 
Y. Bell, Esq., 43 Wall Street, New York, 
acting as his counsel. But Mr. Lovejoy is 
poor, and litigation isexpensive. He there- 
fore called upon the trade to help him, the 



matter being of quite as much moment to 
them as to him. Very little response was 
made and he appealed personally to several, 
but with little success, however ; photogra- 
phers seemed to be asleep on the subject. He 
collected much good testimony, however, 
but every time a meeting was held before the 
United States Commissioner to take testi- 
mony, the costs were added to, and his 
funds are about exhausted. 

Mr. Lovejoy and his counsel feel, and 
with what propriety our interested readers 
must judge, that it is of vital importance to 
the whole fraternity to have the case con- 
tinued, and to go on taking testimony of 
a convincing nature against the claims ad- 
vanced. Will not those photographers, 
whose views of Shaw's claims accord with 
Mr. Lovejoy, help Mr. Lovejoy to test the 
case, in order that it may be legally decided 
whether said claims are valid or invalid? 
It is for you to infer, whether or not such 
an investment will prove more profitable 
than letting your wastes go down the sink, 
or settling the claims that may be made 
upon you if the case goes by default. Do 
not understand that the opposition is to 
Shaw's patent. What he has patented is, 
possibly, harmless enough, but the opposi- 
tion is to the construction he puts upon his pat- 
ent, and which, it is felt, are not authorized 
by his letters patent. Of all the persons 
in the world, we are the least interested in 
the result of this contest. If the claims are 
sustained, we have nothing to pay, and if 
they are not we have nothing to gain. Our 
action in the matter is entirely on account 
of the desire we have to see photography 
and its votaries unhampered by hindrance 
of that kind. We may repeat, therefore, 
our honest conviction that Shaw's claims 
should not be sustained, and that it is of vi- 
tal importance to the trade that they should 
not be. Eor our part we wish Mr. Lovejoy 
success. 

The suit against us, of course, has no 
connection with Mr. Lovejoy's. We shall 
manage that satisfactory to all. Mr. Shaw 
asserted, we are told, that " unless we apolo- 
gized he should sue us for damages." We 
never made an apology that we wore satis- 
fied with afterwards, so we resolved to 
"move on without change" in this matter. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



99 



Consequence, an arrest, &c, as stated. So 
much for defending the interests of our sub- 
scribers. The end is not yet. If we have 
space, in our next we shall publish his com- 
plaint. We trust it is giving him mucb 
consolation. " So mote it be." See re- 
marks of President Bogardus on this sub- 
ject on page 117. 



Rectifying- the Nitrate Bath. 

BY P. W. SPENCER. 

I have found the following an excellent 
treatment for the negative bath overcharged 
with iodides and weakened by the quantity 
of alcohol and ether dissolved therein. 

Having turned the bath into a glass jar, 
at least large enough to hold twice the vol- 
ume of the bath, add to it distilled water 
until the bath is reduced to 15 or 20 grains 
to the ounce; it will assume a milky color, 
but will clear up by being allowed to stand 
a few hours, after which filter closely into 
an evaporating dish, evaporate slowly over 
a water-bath until it is only about one- 
eighth its original volume (120 to 130 grains 
to the ounce), remove, cool, and add dis- 
tilled water until it is brought to the stand- 
ard of strength desired. Let it stand one 
day in the sunlight, when, after filtering 
closely, it will work charmingly, and pic- 
tures will not easily fog. 




I send you a sketch of a contrivance for 
a still. A is the condenser perforated 
with water flues ; B, the tank in which the 
condenser is immersed; C, the generator; 
G, the steam pipe: D, the receiver of dis- 
tilled water, and F, the supply cistern of 
cold water, which should be so placed that 
the water will fall upon the top of the con- 
denser ; E is the hot water waste taken out 
at H. 1 find this arrangement to work well. 



THE EXHIBITION 

OF THE 

National Photographic Association of the IT. S. 
The following circular has been printed 
in German, French, and English, and sent 
abroad to foreign photographers. That none 
may be missed we reprint it here again. 
Will our foreign exchanges who have not 
done so, please oblige us by copying the 
same, viz. : 

The National Photographic Association 
of the United States will hold its Second An- 
nual Exhibition in Cleveland, Ohio, beginning 
Tuesday, June 7th, 1870. 

You are cordially invited to expose examples 
of your work on that occasion. Ample space 
will be granted in the best light, free of charge,, 
to all foreign exhibitors. 

It is expected that a grant from Congress will 
allow the entrance and return of foreign speci- 
mens free of duty. * Parties who desire that what 
they send should be sold for their account and 
not returned, will receive the best attention to 
their wishes. In all cases, two itemized invoices 
should be sent to the Secretary, and notice as to 
date of shipment, name of steamer, &o. The 
freight must, in all cases, be prepaid. Packages 
should not be sent later than April 25th, and 
should be directed as follows : 

NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION. 

Care Edward L. Wilson. Secretary, 

Philadelphia, U. S. A. 
U~F" Via Steamer to Boston. 
The Cunard steamers sail from Liverpool, 
England, for Boston, every Tuesday ; those of the 
Inman Line every alternate Saturday. Further 
information cheerfully given on application. 

We hope you will respond to our invitation to 
join us in this grand Exhibition. 

f J. W. Black, 
I J. Cremer, 
Executive Committee, <j W. C North, 

1 J. F. Ryder, 

i 

^ D. Bendann. 

Edward L. Wilson, Secretary, 

Office Philadelphia Photographer, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

American photographers who intend to 

exhibit will find instructions fuller in this 

and in our next issue. Any American or 

Canadian photographer may exhibit freely, 

* This has since been done, so that all articles sent 
for exhibition will be admitted free of duty. 



100 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



whether a member of the Association or not. 
The Exhibition is a National one and all are 
invited to participate freely. Fuller details 
as soon as the Executive Committee and 
Local Secretary are able to complete their 
arrangements. The list of railroad compa- 
nies who commute for the benefit of pho- 
tographers will be given in our next. 
J. F. Ryder, 
Local Secretary. Cleveland, Ohio. 

A NEW STEREOSCOPIC CAMERA. 

Our readers will remember that Mr. G. 
"Washington Wilson, the world-renowned 
Scotch photographer, in the paper on land- 
scape photography he contributed to our 
pages some time ago, asserted that he pre- 
ferred a 5 x 8 camera for stereoscopic work, 
and he had it so arranged that the centre 
diaphragm could be taken out, the front 
changed, and with one tube, upright or 
horizontal, single views could be made with 
the same camera. An example of work 
made by Mr. Wilson in that way appeared 
in our last July issue. 

The American Optical Company, New 
York, with commendable enterprise, have 
manufactured these boxes to accommodate 
the approaching spring trade, and we ap- 
pend two drawings of them. 




The first represents the box as it is used 
for ordinary stereoscopic work. It is a per- 
fect piece of workmanship, beautiful, strung, 
and light, combining all the little neat parts 
that go to making up a fine piece of appa- 
ratus. Tin; platform is hinged so that it 



may fold up compactly; the bellows is rub- 
ber; the body of the camera slides on metal 
guides ; the focussing screws enable one to 
focus exactly and quickly; the swing-back, 
which is indispensable for landscape work, 
is attached; the front raises and lowers, and 
the holder is made to fit on pins, which is 
far preferable to a holder which slides. The 
ground-glass is hinged fast. The second 
figure represents the box turned over on its 




side, for the purpose of making an upright 
single view with one tube. The partition 
or diaphragm A (Fig. 1) is removed, so the 
plate is not obstructed or divided. C is a 
clasp which holds the holder in place when 
the exposure is being made, and at E is a 
clasp and screw, which keep the holder at a 
proper swing or angle when it is necessary 
to use the swing-back. G G are the metal 
guides ; D D screws which bind the plat- 
form to the box when in use; F the focus- 
sing screws. 

The American Optical Company make 
the very best of apparatus, and, as we know 
by experience, their boxes are a joy to work 
with. 

UNDER THE SKYLIGHT. 

BY ROLAND VANWEIKE. 

(Continued from page 76.) 
Now this young lady is not so easy to 
manage; all young ladies are not so, how- 
ever. It seems difficult to keep her in one 
place long enough to tell how she will look 
bost. She is a little nervous, but we will 
proceed coolly and quietly, and she will get 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



101 



over it. Care must be taken with such 
subjects as this, Focus, in vignette or bust 
pictures, to have the head properly balanced 
on the shoulders, and the direction of the 
eyes natural and easy. We often see heads 
lopped on one side, with a peculiar twist of 
the eyes as though the subject were trying 
to look at you round a corner. Avoid this, 
or any position that will tend to make your 
sitter look awkward or uneasy. Observe 
well the lines of your subject, having them 
harmonize and balance as much as possible. 
Angles or straight lines should be corrected 
as far as it is admissible to do so. With 
this elegant specimen of a young gent, how- 
ever, who lisps and parts his hair in the 
middle, wants a directly front view, so as 
to show both ears, and thinks he "can sit 
without that thing against his head," we 
need not trouble ourselves about angles or 
straight lines. But this young lady you 
see, her curl hangs down in front, in a 
straight line ; by simply carrying the bot- 
tom end a little to one side, we break it up 
into a graceful curve, which has a much 
more pleasing effect. But, Focus, you 
ought to come around behind this subject. 
Here's where a poser is at his wits' end, and 
concludes he is not the only poser in the 
case. Such a pack on the back of this lady's 
head! I call it a pack, because in size and 
shape, it reminds me of the packs I have 
seen carried on the backs of peddlers in the 
country. What can it be made of? Don't 
question anything about it; the matter be- 
fore us now is, where are we to put the 
head-rest ? Mr. Wilson and Mr. Sarony 
have done well for us, but human ingenuity 
could never have foreseen this. To get 
under it, around it, or over it, is impossible, 
so we will make a bolt into the midst of the 
huge mass and find a bearing somewhere. 
For this fair-complexioned lady, now the 
light has improved, from fifteen to twenty 
seconds' exposure will be sufficient. 

But here is a change of scene for us, 
Focus ; here comes a youngster. "I want 
him shtanin oop!" Of course, every child 
must be standing if it can stand alone, es- 
pecially of this class of customers. There 
are some good sensible people, however, 
that let us use our own judgment in the 
matter, and we are allowed to make that 



that will be best adapted to the child. It 
is not well to yield too much to people's 
whims when they bring their children, or 
they will demand impossible things of you, 
and damage your reputation if you under- 
take and don't perform them. A little 
firmness will enable you to have your own 
way, make such a picture as can be made 
best, and in the end please your custom- 
ers, and make them respect you all the 
more. But this little man seems well dis- 
posed ; we will stand him here. Get him 
to lean against the chair in an easy natu- 
ral position. That's very well. There's 
nothing can equal the ease and grace of 
children generally, and I do love them as 
photographic subjects, as well as otherwise, 
when they are at all manageable. Now 
this youngster only needs to be attracted by 
this toy, and he looks steadily eight or ten 
seconds, which is sufficient. 

Ah, here comes another ! a baby this 
time; a jolly soul too, I judge. Now, Focus, 
keep your eyes about you. We will sit him 
— ah, a girl is it — well we will sit her in 
this highback chair. Various styles of chairs 
have been invented and used for children, 
but after all there is nothing more success- 
fully used than a common parlor arm- 
chair of small size. Now, this is a nice 
baby ; just sit her so her head and back will 
rest against the chair. That's a splendid 
littlegirl — of course that pleases the mother. 
Oh, yes, you are very clever. Now it does 
not do to waste any time in getting a focus 
on this subject, only be sure you have it; 
and make every motion tell in getting your 
plate in its place. Draw back the curtains 
so as to get all the light we can ; that's it. 
Now for the grand flourish ! Bring on the- 
animals and the show will commence, all; 
for the benefit and edification of the baby.* 
Here we have barking-dogs, mewing-cats r 
singing-birds, jumping-jacks, watchmen's 
rattles, whistles, bugles, bells, etc., etc. ; 
and with some of these we will try and as- 
tonish her a little as well as amuse her. 
Now look here, bow-vow-vow rohr-r-r-r-r- 
r-r — buzz-z-z-z-z-z-z-z-z-z-z-z ! ! That's it. 

* In some cases it may be found necessary to 
be one of Lite animals yourself, and skill in gym- 
nastic exercises will prove of great advantage. 



102 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEK. 



Did very well. That's a good enough baby 
to deserve a kiss. This is hard, stern busi- 
ness, but then it pays to make it pleasant if 
we can. 

There, Focus, I am going to get through 
the rest of these without any further ex- 
planations to-day. When we have some 
different styles to make I will give you some 
further instructions. 



Enamel Photographs — Burnt-in 
Photographs. 

BY PROP. J. TOWLER, M.D. 

(Continued from page 70.) 
EXPOSURE. 

Place the glass positive first in the pres- 
sure frame, film side upwards, and the 
chromic plate just prepared with its film 
downwards, and in contact with the posi- 
tive film. Since the two plates are per- 
fectly flat, but very little pressure is re- 
quired to keep them in apposition. Close 
the back of the frame, and expose to the 
sun's rays for about a minute, or until the 
sky part of the landscape or the face of the 
portrait is covered with moisture eliminated 
by the action of the light on the parts be- 
neath. This is quite visible to the sight, a 
phenomenon due to the observations of 
Gey met and Alker. Of course a much 
longer exposure is necessary in different 
light, even as much as three or four min- 
utes. Much experience is required in hit- 
ting upon the right time ; and if the time is 
not right, it is not advisable to try to patch 
up a picture by forcing it; in fact it is no 
use to try to get any picture at all with an 
over-exposed plate ; for in this case the 
sensitive film has lost all its moisture in every 
part, so that the enamel adheres nowhere. 
But an under-exposed plate is still too moist 
all over, and attracts too much of the fine 
powder. This trouble can be slightly reme- 
died, it is true, by warming the plate 
slightly, when a portion of the powder 
drops off", or may be brushed oft'. 

DEVELOPING THE PICTURE. 

This operation is performed in the dark 
or yellow-room, as is customary with the 
ordinary collodion picture. The rule is this, 
in very dry weather: to allow the plate to 



get cool before exposure, and to wait two or 
three minutes before you proceed to devel- 
opment; on the contrary, if the weather is 
damp, the plate is exposed right away 
whilst still warm, and developed immedi- 
ately under the same conditions. Attending 
to these precautions develop accordingly. 
The developer is in reality an impalpable 
glass or enamel powder, perfectly dry. You 
use a large camel's hair pencil, also per- 
fectly dry. Dip the brush or pencil into the 
powder, and rub it round in the powder, 
and then transfer it to the exposed film. 
Pat the film with the pencil all over in a 
perpendicular direction, so as thus to trans- 
fer some of the powder to every part of the 
film, then rub the powder gently into the 
film by a circular motion, beginning at one 
corner and proceeding in small circles all 
over the film. It is well to have a light 
beneath the plate of glass, or a sheet of 
white paper, in order to watch the progress 
of the development. The powder (of any 
color you may desire), you will now observe 
to adhere in different parts and not in 
others, and thus to form the picture. The 
image thus formed must be very clear; it 
is not necessary, however, that the shades 
should be thick and heavy ; if the picture 
is only distinct, like a positive before it is 
intensified, or like a negative for solar work, 
it will come out all right when fused in the 
muffle. 

FIXING THE PICTURE. 

The picture is first coated with a film of 
plain collodion consisting of equal parts of 
ether and alcohol, and about eight grains of 
gun-cotton to the ounce of liquid. As soon 
as the collodion has set, that is, in about two 
or three minutes, the plate is immersed in 
a dish of clean water rendered acid either 
with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. This 
mixture soon removes all the free chromic 
solution in the film. Let the plate remain 
in the solution about ten minutes, and then 
take it out and with a sharp penknife cut 
all round the edges of the film near to the 
edges of the glass, and immerse the plate in 
another dish of clean water, in order to re- 
move the free acid left by the fixing solution. 

TRANSFERRING THE PICTURE. 

This immersion in water will cause the 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGPAPHER. 



103 



film to separate from the glass and to rise 
to the surface of the water. If the film re- 
fuses to separate easily, immerse it again 
in the acid water, but do not attempt to force 
the film to separate. Wash the film well so 
as to get rid of all the acid, and then trans- 
fer it to the following saccharine solution. 



W titer, 
Sugar, 



1 pint. 
2;} ounces. 



The transference is made from one vessel 
to another by placing a piece of paper be- 
neath the film and lifting it out. "With 
care there is no danger of injuring the film 
by this transference. Let the film remain 
in the sugar solution about five minutes. 
The sugar, like so much glue, is intended to 
cause the film to adhere to the enamel plate. 
The enamel plate requires no further prep- 
aration than simple cleaning. You slide 
the plate beneath the film, bring the upper 
edge of the latter in apposition with upper 
edge of the enamel (it inclines downwards), 
and then draw the plate gently from the 
fluid, letting the film fall gradually upon 
the plate. The enamel plate itself is sup- 
ported on a plate of glass, with an elevated 
ledge at the bottom, cemented on with 
shellac ; this plate of glass, in the form of 
a dipper, is bent at an obtuse angle, to allow 
the enamel plate to slide underneath the 
film ; it is held in the left hand, whilst the 
right hand is at liberty to guide the film, in 
order to bring the upper edge in apposition 
with the enamel, as before said. When 
the film is once in its place, let it drain, 
and afterwards place the plate on a piece 
of blotting-paper resting on a thick plate 
of glass. Above all things, before the plate 
leaves the sugar-water, see that there are 
not folds in the film ; and if such exist, 
remove them by gently pulling the edge of 
the film in the proper direction, but make 
no attempt to effect this by pressure. Very 
small inequalities can be removed by stretch- 
ing the film as it lies on the blotting-paper. 
When the surface is quite smooth, place 
over it a piece of tissue-paper, and bring it 
into contact by patting it with a piece of 
cotton-wool. See that the film adheres uni- 
formly, and that there are no bubbles. Ke- 
move the tissue-paper and put a dry piece 
in its place, using continually the tuft of 



cotton to produce uniform contact. After- 
wards set the plate aside to dry in the air, 
but not by artificial heat. 

REMOVAL OF THE COLLODION FILM. 

The next step is to remove the collodion, 
which is effected by immersing the enamel 
plate on the glass dipper in a dish of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. Without this pre- 
caution the collodion would peel off during 
the fusing operation, and carry with it some 
of the enamel powder. An immersion of 
ten minutes or a quarter of an hour will be 
sufficient time for this purpose; as soon as 
you perceive a reddish-brown fringe around 
the edges of the plate, slide the enamel plate 
gently out of the acid, and immediately 
afterwards into a dish of pure water. The 
utmost caution is necessary in performing 
this operation, as the powder at this stage 
is easily removed, and especially so in the 
washing operation, which is necessary to 
remove every trace of sulphuric acid. After 
washing, the plate is taken out of the water 
very carefully, and set aside to drain ; it is 
finally dried either by artificial heat or in 
the air. 

PREPARATION OF THE ENAMEL PLATES. 

This is an interesting part of the process, 
and yet it is one which the photographer 
would gladly dispense with ; it requires 
nicety in the operation, and entails consid- 
erable labor. Fortunately, however, enam- 
elled plates are in the market of various 
sizes and shapes. 

The plates themselves are made either of 
copper or gold ; they resemble the silvered 
plates we formerly used in the daguerreo- 
type process, from the fact that there is a 
fillet or ledge about one-sixteenth of an inch 
raised all round the plate, thus converting 
the plate into a dish. For photographic 
purposes we shall limit ourselves to copper. 
Begin your first operations with small plates, 
and as you advance towards perfection en- 
large your plates. C ut out a piece of sheet 
copper one inch and a half long by one inch 
wide, and remove all oxide from its surface 
either by dilute nitric acid or by mechani- 
cal means, such as grinding with emery or 
a flat piece of iron or stone ; then raise the 
ledge all round as just mentioned. In the 



104 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



daguerreotype process we had two or three 
instruments by which such ledges are easily 
and uniformly made, without in any way 
destroying the evenness and smoothness of 
the plate. 

We will suppose you want to make a 
tvhite enamel. All enamels consist of two 
parts, the silicious or basis, and the coloring 
material ; they are also distinguished as 
transparent and opaque. The white enamel, 
which is what we want, is opaque, and is 
formed, perhaps the most easily for begin- 
ners, by making a mixture of flint glass and 
calcine. 

CALCINE. 

Calcine is the double oxide of tin and lead, 
or as some denominate it,thestannate of lead. 
It is formed by fusing together at a low red 
heat an alloy of about 20 to 50 parts of tin 
with 100 parts of lead in an iron ladle or 
dish ; the oxide as it forms on the surface of 
the melted alloy, has to be skimmed off to 
one side; and this operation is continued 
until the whole of the metal is oxidized. 
Take care not to raise the temperature too 
high ; the lower the temperature the better, 
as long as oxidation is effected; the latter, 
too, must be as perfect as possible, that is, 
all metallic particles inclosed in the oxide 
must be picked out from, the scum and 
mixed with the melted alloy. As soon as 
sufficient of this oxide has been obtained, it 
is allowed to cool, it is then pulverized or 
ground up in a mill, and afterwards levi- 
gated with water on a marble or glass slab 
to a homogeneous or pasty mass ; it is then 
elutriated or washed, in order to remove all 
metallic particles, and the' larger particles 
of oxide. The fine sediment is then col- 
lected and dried ; this is the calcine. 

WHITE ENAMEL. 

Calcine, . . .1 drachm. 

Flint Glass, . . 2 drachms. 

Manganese, . .. 1 grain or more. 

Pulverise the glass to an impalpable 
powder in an agate mortar (by no means 
in an iron mortar) ; also the black oxide of 
manganese; finally, mix the ingredients 
together, and i^rind them together in a mor- 
tar ; after which the mixture is fused in a 
crucible, taking care to exclude all smoke 
and other impurities from getting into the 



crucible. The melted mass is poured into 
clean water, and afterwards again pulver- 
ized, levigated, and fused. 

ENAMEL PLATES. 

Take some of the enamel and pulverize 
it, and, whilst wet, place it with a spatula 
upon the prepared copper-plate until the lat- 
ter is uniformly covered. Absorb the moist- 
ure by blotting-paper, then dry the film of 
enamel powder, heat it gradually, and fi- 
nally placing the copper-plate on a piece of 
fire-clay, introduce it into the furnace, and 
fuse the enamel. Watch the operation and 
withdraw the fire-brick as soon as vitrifica- 
tion has taken place. Let the plate cool 
gradually, and, if necessary, repeat the 
operation with another layer of enamel ; 
finally grind the enamel surface with sand 
first and then with emery, and then submit 
once more to fusion, so as to give the pol- 
ished surface a vitreous gloss. Plates pre- 
pared in this way are for the reception of the 
chromic collodion film, as soon as the latter 
has been exposed, and already contains the 
picture in some colored enamel. This thin 
film is caused to adhere to the white enamel 
by means of a solution of sugar as already 
described. 

ENAMEL POWDER FOR THE CHROMIC 
COLLODION. 

In the first place, a very fusible, trans- 
parent flux or glass is required to hold the 
colored oxides. 

FLUX. 

Silica, 10' parts. 

Minium 40" 

Borax (Calcined), . .. 40 " 

Pulverize these ingredients, mix them 
intimately, then fuse. Pour the fused mass 
into water, again pulverize and fuse. This 
is a very fusible flux or basis for melting 
witli the coloring materials. 

BLACK ENAMEL. 

Flux, . . . . 2£ drachms. 

Oxide of Copper, . .10 grains. 

Oxide of Cobalt, . . 24 " 

Oxide of Iridium, . . 1 grain. 

Sienna (earth), . . 8 grains. 

These ingredients are thoroughly pulver- 
ized, intimately mixed, and fused. The 
operation is repeated; the black mass is 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



105 



taken from the water after fusion for the 
last time, and is pulverized in an agate 
mortar to the finest powder possible by 
this means ; it is then levigated on a large 
glass slab into the finest paste, until it is as 
homogeneous as a layer of so much Indian 
or Chinese ink. Finally it is washed and 
dried. This dry, impalpable black powder 
forms the developing powder (it must be 
perfectly dry and perfectly impalpable). 

VITRIFICATION OF THE PICTURE. 

To fuse the prepared film is, perhaps, the 
shortest part of the whole process, and the 
easiest, and, in fine, the most successful, 
supposing, of course, that all the prepara- 
tory work is correct. An assayer's furnace, 
that is, a cupel-furnace, is required for this 
operation. Such furnaces can be obtained 
of Wilson, Hood & Co., Philadelphia; of 
Bullock & Crenshaw, Philadelphia ; of J. 
P. Luhme & Co., New York, and else- 
where. 

The fire is lighted with charcoal, and 
then heaped up with mixed charcoal and 
coke of the size of horse-chestnuts, until 
the fuel is three or four inches above the 
muffle. By this means the muffle becomes 
red-hot. The prepared plates, previously 
well dried, are placed on pieces of baked 
fire-clay in the front of the muffle, in order 
to be heated gradually ;. finally they are 
pushed back to the hottest part, where the 
picture in a few minutes fuses. During 
this part of the process the mouth of the 
muffle is closed with twoor three pieces of 
charcoal, leaving space enough between to 
watch the operation. As soon as vitrifica- 
tion has taken place, the piece of fire-clay 
with the plate upon it is drawn again to 
the front, so as to cool gradually, and, 
when sufficiently cool, it is placed, upon the 
plate of an iron stove to cool still more, 
and finally it is set aside to cool com- 
pletely. 

These enamel pictures are the richest 
specimens of photography,, when properly, 
managed. 

In this article I merely give a sketch, of 
the whole proceeding,, in order to' draw 
the attention of photographers to this in- 
teresting branch, and to those who feel de- 
sirous of making it their special study, I 



would recommend the perusal of a small 
pamphlet on the subject, by Lucy Fassa- 
rieu, Paris, as also of the excellent work of 
Geymet & Alker, entitled " Emaux Pho- 
tographiques," both of which are practical 
treatises. Geymet & Alker supply all the 
materials, enamels, furnaces, muffles, a pe- 
culiar sort of photographic paper for pre- 
paring the positives, and, in fine, give 
instruction in this art, and guarantee suc- 
cess. We know, personally, that this 
branch is successful. 



THE "BERLIN PROCESS." 

" Was ist das? " inquires our friend, Dr. 
Yogel, in his excellent journal, the Photo. 
Mittheilungen for March, and " What is 
that?" many others will inquire, perhaps, 
so we propose to tell them now. One of 
oar advertising firms for four or five 
years back, has been importing carte pic- 
tures from Berlin of a very fine quality, 
which were sold to the trade at a low fig- 
ure, in order that they might be studied 
and imitated in this country. The effect 
has been very apparent. The softness, 
delicacy, beautiful half-tones, color, and 
vigor of the Berlin cartes excited the cu- 
pidity of our photographers, and they have 
tried in many ways to attain the same ex- 
cellence in their work. How the Berlin 
artists proceeded was not known at first, 
so the Yankee privilege of guessing was 
brought in to do service. Among other 
plans, Mr. Frank Kowell bethought him 
that if the negative was made on ground- 
glass, probably the coveted effects could be 
secured. He carried his thought into prac- 
tice, succeeded very well, and continued to 
reap the advantages of his thoughtfulness 
quietly and alone for a couple of years, 
when his secret was found out, and in a 
few weeks it was offered to the trade for a 
price, under the name of the "Berlin Pro- 
cess." Several impatient ones, who take 
this Journal, but who could not wait until 
it could find out all about the process and 
explain it, purchased, one gentleman hav- 
ing paid $250 for the sole right of a large 
city. He probably repents it now, but it 
is too late to help him. 



106 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



A few days ago we called upon Mr. Row- 
ell, and he generously gave us the details of 
his process with permission to publish, and 
made some negatives in our presence. The 
main thing is in making the negative on 
glass ground on one side, the film being on 
the smooth side.; and thus the prints are 
really made under or through ground- 
glass. The ground surface being a part of 
the negative, of course no " medium is inter- 
posed between the negative and the print," 
and no patent is "infringed." The nega- 
tive should be soft, thin, and full of detail, 
"but not intenset A negative made on 
plain glass that would require intensifying 
would not require it if made on the ground- 
glass. Otherwise, the manipulations are as 
usual. Mr. Kowell albumenizes his plates, 
and, as streaks of the .albumen run over 
on the ground side, they must be re- 
moved. This is done immediately after 
fixing and washing while the plate is still 
wet, by rubbing briskly with a large cork 
dipped in emery, until the stains are re- 
moved. In washing have a care that the 
emery does not get over on the film side. 
The coarser the glass used, .the more will 
the effect of stippling on the print be 
produced, and the choice of coarse or fine 
glass should be made according to the sub- 
ject. No doubt all stockdealers will fur- 
nish glass for the purpose. It should gen- 
erally be finely ground. For large busts 
.and heads it may be coarser. If it is de- 
sirable to increase the stippled effect, shade 
the negative from all side light by holding 
a bottomless box over it, thus forcing all 
light that strikes it to come from above. 
When the subject is much freckled or of 
very coarse complexion, Mr. Rowell re- 
touches the negative slightly. Some pic- 
tures he gave us are remarkably fine, and 
equal to the genuine Berlin. Mr. Kowell 
is very skilful in lighting his subjects, and 
to that fact also much of the beauty of his 
work is due. 



Never feel too wise to learn, and never 
refuse to communicate when you are ap- 
plied to for information. What can you 
possibly gain by withholding from a neigh- 
bor in trouble? 



ONE HUNDRED DAYS IN A FOG. 

BY ELBERT ANDERSON. 

[What follows under this title for the 
next few months will, no doubt, amuse, 
entertain, and instruct our readers, and we 
therefore give it place. Mr. Anderson is a 
gentleman of undoubted ability, and, like 
many of his class, is very frequently ap- 
plied to by those less skilled in the art than 
he, for information. Of course he cannot 
— no one can, whose time is their living — 
sit down and answer all such, and what he 
contributes to our pages he hopes to make 
answer for all. He has, doubtless, spent 
much labor in making his extracts, and it 
is astounding how "doctors will disagree," 
but we think the moral of the whole thing 
is, if we may be permitted to guess in the 
beginning, that if photographers have not 
the brains that will enable them to think, 
no matter how explicit their instructions, 
or how much "doctors disagree," either 
they cannot make good work, or, worse 
still, they cannot know good work from bad 
when they see it. But now for the " fog." 
It begins with that class of letters which 
daily blesses our sanctum.] — Ed. 

Milwaukee, Wis., March 10th, 1870. 
Mr. Elbert Anderson, 

Operator, Kurtz's Gallery, 872 Broadway, N. Y. 
Dear Sir : Flattering myself that I am some- 
thing of an artist, I have recently decided to 
combine photography with my profession. I 
have been now established several months, but 
I am sensible that my skill as a photographer 
rather detracts from my hitherto acknowledged 
talent as an artist. I have tried at least half a 
dozen operators, but I do not find that they help 
me out much, probably because they do not know 
anything as a general thing. In despair I visited 
Kurtz's gallery, and, after inspecting the work 
there, which I found of the very first order (in 
fact, just what mine would be if the operator 
only knew more of his part), I almost began to 
wish I had never meddled with photography, 
but at the same time it made me doubly anxious 
to see you and learn how you manage your 
chemicals. You appear to have such a press of 
business, however, that I found a personal inter- 
view out of the question. I have, therefore, 
taken this method of communicating with you, 
trusting that you will generously enlighten me, 
either by suggestions of your own or by recom- 
mending to me works on photography, whose 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



107 



authors are perfectly reliable. I find so much 
contradiction and variance in formulas, as far as 
I have read, that I am quite at sea. Hoping 
you will aid me out of such " a sea of troubles," 

I am, my dear Sir, very respectfully yours, 
A. B. Marshall. 

P. S. — I send with this a few negatives for 
your inspection. Please tell me what the trouble 
is, and why I cannot produce pictures that may 
at least be called a very poor imitation of 
Kurtz. A. B. M. 

New York. March 15th, 1870. 
Mr. A. B. Marshall. 

Dear Sir: Your very flattering letter of 1st 
instant and package of negatives are received. 
You ask me to tell you what the trouble is? 
The trouble is simply this : they are full of 
streaks and the shadows are excessively foggy ; 
they are, moreover, greatly underexposed and 
hopelessly intensified, but, with the trifling ex- 
ception of being perfectly lined with pin-holes, 
they do you credit. It is, however, a great pity 
that your operator, in focussing, should have 
got your sitters in such very ungainly positions. 

I showed your " Rembrandts '' to Mr. Kurtz, 
and I can assure you that he must have been 
greatly pleased with them, for he laughed 
heartily ; he is far too generous to envy you in 
this style of work. 

I shall at all times be most happy to afford you 
any information which my limited experience 
has taught me. 

You request me to recommend to you some 
books on photography, whose authors are relia- 
ble. I will do better than this, my dear sir; I 
will do much better, for I will forward you some 
extracts from the works of the very highest 
authority, when, perhaps, you may judge for 
yourself which to select. I entitle my little 
manuscript "Curiosities of Photographic Litera- 
ture ; or, One Hundred Days in a Fog," and, 
when you have waded through this wilderness 
of contradictions, which may afford' you con- 
siderable amusement and astonishment (for in- 
formation it cannot), you may ask me how I 
can conscientiously recommend any book or 
books for you to study. 

I would, however, advise you to subscribe to 
the Philadelphia Photographer (which is the 
official organ of the Photographic Association of 
the United States), the editor of which I am quite 
sure will at all times give you the information 
you appear to need so sadly. 

I am, my dear sir, with great respect, 
Very sincerely yours, 

Elbert Anderson, 
W. Kurtz's Gallery, 872 Broadway, N. Y. 



Curiosities of Photographic Litera- 
ture ; or, 
one hundred days in a tog. 

by elbert anderson, 
Operator, W. Kurtz's Gallery. 

First day. — Do not move the plate after 
immersion into the bath, otherwise streaks 
will inevitably be formed. (From Le 
Moniteur de la Photographic) 

Second day. — Immerse the plate into the 
bath, and continue to agitate it by moving 
it about in order to avoid streaks. (Silver 
Sunbeam, 7th edition, page 11.) 

Third day. — Many adopt the plan of leav- 
ing the plate in the bath for five minutes, 
and then taking it out without any move- 
ment. (Hardwich's Chemistry, 7th edition, 
page 417.) 

Fourth day. — After the plate is immersed 
move it upward, downward, and sidewise, 
to prevent streaks. (Devine' s Practice, page 
27.) 

Fifth day. — Should your bath streak 
your plates, add a little nitric acid thereto. 
(E. L. Wilson, Mosaics, 1867, page 141.) 

Sixth day. — Nitric acid is of all things 
the most objectionable in a new bath. (Ali- 
quis, Mosaics, 18G9, page 115.) 

Seventh day. — Never use acetic acid in 
your bath ; use nitric. (E. L. Wilson, Mo- 
saics, 1870, page 143.) 

Eighth day. — This solution (the nitrate 
bath) is the same as for positives, acetic 
acid, however, being used instead of nitric. 
(Hardwich's Chemistry, 7th edition, page 
399.) 

Ninth day — If you prefer your bath acid 
add a few drops of nitric acid, C. P. (E. L. 
Wilson, Mosaics, 1870, page 105.) 

Tenth day. — It is preferable to add glacial 
acetic acid to the bath instead of nitric. 
(Towler's Almanac, 1865.) 

Eleventh day. — Some photographers use 
acetic acid in the bath, but this must by no 
means be done to make the bath acid. 
(George H. Eennemore, Mosaics, 1870, page 
25.) 

Twelfth day. — The bath, if neutral, will 
require a few drops of acetic acid ; add, 
therefore, 10 or 12 drops of nitric acid. 
[Towler's Almanac, 1865.) 



108 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPEEE. 



Thirteenth day. — Chemically-pure nitric 
acid must be added to the bath. (George 
H. Fennemore, Mosaics, 1870, page 25.) 

Fourteenth day. — Even when first made, 
no acid should be added to the bath. (Ali- 
quis, Mosaics, 1869, page 115.) 

Fifteenth day. — Remember, however, the 
less nitric acid you use the more sensitive 
your bath will be. [Lea's Manual of Pho- 
tography, page 26.) 

Sixteenth day. — A small proportion of ni- 
tric acid in the bath, on the other hand, ma- 
terially increases its sensitiveness. (Hard- 
wich's Chemistry, 7th edition, page 278.) 

Seventeenth day. — The nearer the bath to 
neutrality the more sensitive it is. (Hand- 
book of Photography, page 216.) 

Eighteenth day. — An impression is not 
uncommonly entertained, that any acid in 
the bath will greatly diminish the sensi- 
tiveness. The writer does not find this to 
be the case. (Ha?*divich , s Chemistry, 7th edi- 
tion, page 276.) 

Nineteenth day. — A strongly-acid bath 
gives harder negatives than a neutral one. 
(Aliquis, Mosaics, 1869, page 118.) 

Twentieth day. — A very acid bath never 
yields an intense negative. (Mosaics, page 
28.) 

Twenty-first day. — Excess of contrast is 
caused by too much acid in the bath. (Silver- 
Sunbeam, page 332.) 

Twenty-second day. — Want of intensity is 
caused from acidity of the silver solution. 
( Waldack's Treatise, page 113.) 

Twenty-third day. — The object of acid in 
the bath is to prevent the reduction of the 
silver solution that has not been exposed. 
(Towler, Philadelphia Photographer, page 
330.) 

Twenty-fourth day. — If the picture is 
foggy drop in a little more acid. The use 
of acid is to dissolve organic matter. (De- 
vine's Practice, page 33.) 

Twenty-fifth day. — Silver bath : water, 64 
ounces; nitrate of silver, 7J (!) ounces. 
Acidulate with 2 drachms (!) of pure glacial 
acetic acid. (Towler' s Almanac, 1866.) 

(To be continued.) 



AN EXPLANATION. 

New York, March 17th, 1870. 
Edward L. Wilson, 

Editor Philadelphia Photographer. 

In your Journal for this month 1 find 
myself " pitched into" by an "old photog- 
rapher," seconded by your able corres- 
pondent, G. Wharton Simpson, Esq., and 
also, in the British Journal of Photography, 
for the following, which, by the way, I 
never uttered : "It has become a generally 
understood fact that the Old World usually 
claim as their own whatever happens to be 
produced in the New." 

Now as to what I did say. 

Mr. Chapman claimed that Mr. England 
had rediscovered his plan of boiling the 
bath to purify it; to sustain which, and to 
fix its date of publication by him, he quoted 
authorities, etc., all of which I reported in 
the January number of the Philadelphia 
Photographer. 

Mr. Chapman was not pleased to have 
Mr. England "steal his thunder," and said 
so. 

I stated subsequently in a jocular way 
that it was not the first time John Bull 
had claimed that which did not belong to 
him, and gave one instance as a proof of my 
position, as follows : 

In the latter part of 1859, I published in 
the American Journal of Photography , with a 
drawing, a full description of an automatic 
washing trough ; it was copied, drawing 
and all, by the British Journal, Oct. 15th, 
1860; in 1863 one J. T. Bull invented it all 
over again, and it received from said British 
Journal a first class notice as to value, etc., 
August 1st, 1863. When invented by me 
four years prior, said Journal said it would 
not work ; that the foot of the syphon needed 
a "frame-balance valve," etc., etc. Octo- 
ber 30th, 1863, G. Wharton Simpson gave 
friend Bull's invention a "puff" in the 
News. 

In your Journal, August, 1867, I with 
other matters again called attention to my 
washing trough here, but Bull's when you 
go u 'tother side." I have no excuse for 
being so particular as to dates ; except that 
1 fear "an old photographer," for he is 
quite a dangerous man, inasmuch as ho does 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GPAPHEE. 



109 



not come out into the broad light of day, 
that all may see him, but hides himself 
behind anybody's title or name. I have 
stated the spirit of my remarks, if not the 
exact words, and have given my reason for 
being so disrespectful to my ancestor. 

Now a word as to boiling the bath. Mr. 
Hugh O'Neil, partner in the well-known 
house of C. D. Fredericks & Co., photog- 
raphers of this city, assured me that he has 
always boiled his baths since 1855. I first 
made his acquaintance in 1858, and I know 
that he so operated at that time. 

Charles Wager Hull. 



THE WHITE MOUNTAINS IN 
WINTER. 

An explanation is probably due to corre- 
spondents of our unusual delay, during the 
past month, in answering their communica- 
tions. We find it necessary once in awhile, 
to "flee to the mountains," or somewhere 
else, to rest and recuperate awhile, and 
our last trip was extended to some ten or 
twelve days, — and three hours, — the latter 
beingcausedby Mr. Shaw, the" waste" man. 
Our jaunt was to the White Mountains, and 
was made with Thomas Hill, Esq., of Bos- 
ton, the eminent landscape painter, whose 
great painting of the Yosemite Valley* will 
render him immortal fame, and our es- 
teemed friend. Mr. B. W. Kilburn, of the 
well-known stereoscopic publishing firm of 
Kilburn Bros., Littleton, 1ST. H. Our space 
this month will not allow us to render an 
account of ourselves during that enjoyable 
ten days, and we will spare our readers the 
infliction until our next. We had a grand 
time, however, in the sleigh, on snow-shoes, 
and clambering .over, on and among the 
glorious White Hills, as you shall know, and 
are returned in good time for your service. 
We saw much that Mr. Kilburn cannot 
master with his camera, Mr. Hill paint with 
his masterly brush, or we describe with our 
pen ; but we all stored away material for 
future use. Mr. Hill we found to be one of 
the few artists willing to accord to photog- 
raphy the place it deserves among the arts, 

* Chroiao-lithographed by L. Prang & Co., 
Boston. 



and also willing to acknowledge it as a 
great helper to those of his profession. This 
fact made him a congenial companion. He 
is just finishing an admirable picture of 
the scene of the great Willey Slide, that oc- 
curred in the Crawford Notch in 1825, and 
destroyed the whole Willey family and much 
property. It is grand in conception, draw- 
ing, and color, and we shall soon see it fin- 
ished ; after which more of it and the tal- 
ented artist producing it. 



NEW PATENTS. 

The production of photographs by me- 
chanical means, seems to suit the American 
taste better than any other, and hence, 
we have quite a long list of patents to an- 
nounce, some of which we shall probably 
describe more fully hereafter. What we 
have to record now, are the following : 

By Mr. F. Peabody, a camera-screen, 
which is a contrivance for the making and 
closing of the exposure of the plate, by 
means of a screen in the body of the camera- 
box, thus making it invisible and prevent- 
ing the sitter from knowing when the ex- 
posure is made. 

By Alexander Beckers, New York, sev- 
eral improvements in revolving stereo- 
scopes. 

By Peter Murphy, a new porcelain print- 
ing-frame. 

By A. Krus, a magic lantern. 

By H. M. Heddon, for chocolate-tinted 
ferrotype plates. 

By I. H. Stoddard, an improvement in 
cameras, by which the ground-glass is 
pushed back by means of springs, etc., when 
the holder is inserted to take its place. 

By J. A. Anderson, a method of mount- 
ing backgrounds of difl'erent patterns on 
one frame, by which several backgrounds 
may be used and take the space of but one. 

By Isaac Kehn, for improvement in print- 
ing photolithographs ; and, 

By D. H. Cross, for a new photographic 
dipper. 

We regret that we have not space to give 
more details concerning them now, but this 
will show our readers what is going on. 



110 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEK. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting was held 
on Wednesday evening, March 2d, 1870. 
The President, Mr. Frederic Graff, in the 
chair. The minutes of the last meeting 
were read and approved. 

A large number of glass positives were 
exhibited in the magic lantern by the Sec- 
retary, from negatives made by Messrs. 
Davids, Moran, and Browne. 

Mr. John Moran made some remarks on 
the subject of photo-enamels and the pro- 
cess of M. Lafon de Camarsac. While ad- 
mitting M. de Camarsac's claim to excel- 
lence in general effects, sweetness of color, 
and preservation of the half tones of his 
pictures, Mr. Moran urged the point, that 
these desirable qualities were due quite as 
much to Mr. Camarsac's skill in retouching 
as to the chemical means employed in pro- 
ducing them. Upon close examination, Mr. 
Moran found, in a majority of cases, the 
deepest shadows on the drapery, hair, vel- 
vet, etc., etc., and high lights generally, 
had all been put on by the brush. 

As the result of a chemical process they 
are not equal to their reputation, although 
as pictures their merits are undeniable. 

Mr. Moran exhibited a number of pictu- 
resque transparencies for the lantern, toned 
by the various salts of gold, palladium, 
platinum, and potash. Of the different 
tones produced, that due to the use of the 
permanganate of potash was considered the 
most pleasing. 

Mr. Moran, in connection with the sub- 
ject of transparencies, adverted to the er- 
roneous idea generally prevalent, as to the 
proper strength of the negative to be used 
in making glass positives. In his opinion, 
a thin negative produced always a flat pos- 
itive; whereas, a negative of good strength 
and density gave a positive which, when 
thrown upon the screen, was characterized 
by boldness, vigor, and relief, the depth of 
shadow giving proper value to the bril- 
liancy of the lights. 

On motion, adjourned. 

John C. Browne, 

Recording Secretary. 



FEPvROTYPEPvS' ASSOCIATION 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting of the 
Ferrotypers' Association of Philadelphia 
was held at C. M. Gilbert's gallery, on 
Tuesday evening, March 1st, 1870. 

The President, Mr. A. K. P. Trask, in 
the chair. 

After roll call, the minutes of last meet- 
ing were read and adopted. 

The resolution, laid over from the meet- 
ing in January last, viz., " That a commit- 
tee be appointed to examine into the manner 
of conducting business, and style of sky- 
lights used at the different galleries in the 
city," was considered and adopted, and 
Messrs. A. K. P. Trask, D. Lothrop, and 
C. Nay lor were appointed to constitute that 
committee. 

On motion, it was resolved that the Sec- 
retary purchase an album for the use of the 
Society, in which to keep the best ferro- 
types brought into the meetings at different 
times. 

On motion of Mr. D. Lothrop, it was re- 
solved that each member bring to the next 
meeting a group picture of two or more 
persons, for examination and opinion of the 
Society. 

On motion of Mr. A. K. P. Trask, it was 
resolved th-it the Society purchase a gold 
medal, have it properly engraved, and of a 
suitable size to wear on a watch-chain as a 
charm ; to be given, at the expiration of the 
year, to the member who shall in the mean- 
time produce and bring into the meetings 
the best ferrotypes the greatest number of 
times. 

On motion, it was resolved that the Presi- 
dent attend to the getting up of the medal. 

During the evening, several fine album- 
sized ferrotypes large heads were exhibited, 
made by Messrs. E. F. Warrington and 
A. K. P. Trask, on the chocolate-tinted 
plates. 

Adjourned. 

The next meeting will bo held at Mr. 
Thomas Brooks's gallery, 630 Arch Street, 
on Tuesday evening, April 5th, 1870. 
D. Lothrop, 

Secretary. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



Ill 



THE GERMAN PHOTOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY OF NEW YORK. 

The German Photographic Society in 
New York, which is a branch of the Cen- 
tral Photographic Society in Berlin, hold 
their meetings every Thursday evening, at 
28 Stanton Street, New York. 

This association, which numbers now 
thirty-six members, is progressing and pros- 
pering in every respect. They have a very 
substantial library, and specimens of photo- 
graphs from all quarters, which they are 
always ready to improve by new works, for 
the benefit and the accommodation of their 
members, 

Last week, the second anniversary of the 
association was held at the meeting-rooms. 
It was well attended, and gave full satis- 
faction to every visitor. But the most in- 
teresting and gratifying of all was an exhi- 
bition of photographic works of all bran- 
ches ; stereoscopes ; landscapes, of larger 
size ; portrait heads and combination pic- 
tures ; carbon prints, heliographs, and light 
prints (Lichtdruck von Ohm & Grossmann), 
and a very fine collection of photographs, 
from the early days of photography up to 
the latest time, so showing the different 
gradations of improvement from the child- 
hood of the art up to the so much admired 
Kembrandts. 

There were also several stereoscopic cam- 
eras, and larger ones, etc., exhibited. I 
must also mention the self-constructed dark- 
tent of Mr. O. Lewin. This very ingeni- 
ous contrivance consists of a square black 
walnut box, 24 inches long, 15 inches high, 



and 6 inches wide. It is made in two parts, 
and shuts up like a small valise. 

The top part or cover is 4 inches wide, 
so as to provide ample room for bottles for 
negatives, baths, collodion, developer, etc. 



The bottom part is 2 inches wide, and 
contains the two side-pieces, which consist 
of a wooden sash with orange-yellow stained 
glass, the front cloth, and a tray for water. 
These two parts are kept together by four 
bracket-hinges, which keep the top from 
falling over when fastening the side-pieces. 
The sides rest on slats, glued and screwed 
on each side of the two parts, and kept firm 
by small hooks and screw-eyes. 




The covering of the box consists of water- 
proof cloth, lined with orange-colored mus- 
lin, which is also in two pieces ; the top piece 
is nailed inside of the cover of the box ; it is 
wide enough to allow about 1 or 1J inches 
of the cloth to lap over the side of the box. 

The front of the cloth is tacked on a rod, 
which keeps the sides of the box in their 
proper places, and stretches the cloth at the 
same time; it is fastened by a hook and 
screw on each side; in the centre of the top 
cloth is a square hole, about 4| by 2| inches, 
in which is a stereoscope-hood-shaped box, 
with a piece of stained glass in it to look 
through when operating. 




The front cloth is nailed inside the front 
of the box, also leaving 1 or 2 inches to 
lap over the sides; it has two sleeves long 



112 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



enough to allow the hands to reach any por- 
tion of the box ; this front cloth is buttoned 
on the top and sides; the whole rests on a 
tripod, fastened at the bottom of the box 
by means of a screw, same as a camera. 

This dark-room box gives plenty of room 
to work stereoscopes and 4-4 plates, is dur- 
able, free from dust, and not very heavy ; it 
weighs with contents about 20 pounds. 

Inclosed I send you some photographs 
of the same for the better understanding. 

Mr. Lewin presented to the Association 
some fine views of Niagara Falls, Central 
Park, and New York Navy Yard, which 
were accepted with pleasure and the thanks 
of the Association. 

Mr. Krueger produced some photographs 
which had red patches in the less dense parts, 
as background draperies, etc., like those 
of a bad albumen paper. He said that they 
originated from fuming with a bad sample 
of ammonia, for as soon as he tried some 
other ammonia they ceased to occur. 

At a recent meeting the following gen- 
tlemen were elected officers for the ensuing 
year : President, Henry Merz ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Otto Lewin ; Secretary, Charles Kut- 
scher ; Treasurer, George Eichler ; Libra- 
rian, Otto Loehr. 

As often as I find an opportunity to com- 
municate anything of interest, I will let 
you hear of us again. 

Charles Kutscher, 

Secretary. 
28 Stanton Street. 



NEW ENGLAND PHOTOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY. 

The regular monthly meeting of the So- 
ciety was held at Mr. Black's studio, No. 
173 Washington Street, March 1st, 1870. 

The meeting was called to order by Presi- 
dent Loomis. 

Records of the last meeting were read, 
amended, and approved. 

The committee appointed at our Decem- 
ber meeting to procure the celebrated pho- 
tograph published by Messrs. Robinson & 
Cherrill, of England, called " Kitte wakes," 



reported that they had procured the pic- 
ture through Mr. E. L. Wilson, of Phila- 
delphia, and it was now ready for the in- 
spection of the Society. 

The election of officers for the ensuing 
year then followed. 

Messrs. H. William Tupper, E. T. Smith, 
and C. H. Danforth were appointed as tell- 
ers, and reported the following officers 
elected: President, Mr. E. L. Allen; Vice- 
President, Mr. J. W. Black ; Secretary. 
Mr. H. William Tupper ; Treasurer, Mr. 
A. S. Southworth; Executive Committee, 
Gr. H. Loomis, E. L. Allen, and J. W. 
Black. 

After the election of officers, Mr. Loomis, 
the retiring President, in some valedictory 
remarks, reviewed the year's labor, and 
congratulated the fraternity on their aus- 
picious beginning and promising future. 
He referred to the important results achieved 
by personal and associated effort, and hoped 
that every member would feel an individual 
interest in elevating the art. He regretted 
that ill health had prevented his presence 
at some of the meetings, but assured the 
members that his interest in the success of 
the association was unabated. He predicted 
a fine display at the Cleveland exhibition, in 
June next, and hoped that Boston would be 
well represented. 

Mr. Southworth then offered the follow- 
ing resolution: That the thanks of this As- 
sociation be tendered to the past officers 
thereof for the very able and faithful per- 
formance of their respective duties as offi- 
cers of this Association during the past year; 
and it was unanimously adopted. 

The following gentlemen were elected 
members: Messrs. D. C. Osborn, Assabet, 
Mass.; E. W. Johnson, Nashua, N. H; 
E. Day, Waltham, Mass.; T. N. Phillipps, 
West Lynn, Mass. ; W. T. Bowers, Lynn, 
Mass. ; and D. S. Mitchell, Boston, Mass. 

Mr. A. S. Southworth said he wished to 
call the attention of the Association to a per- 
sonal matter which he hoped they would 
excuse. 

He had seen it stated once or twice in the 
Photographer, that the case, Southworth & 
Wing v- Schoonmaker, would probably be 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



113 



tried the present month. Also, that the 
plaintiff had tried to postpone the case.* 

The latter statement Avas not true, as Mr. 
Wing and himself were very anxious that 
the case should be tried at the very earliest 
time possible. 

"When it would be tried, they could not 
tell. They thought they should know as 
soon as any one, and had written to their 
lawyer in Washington, and asked him the 
question. He has just answered, that " he 
could not tell, as he did not know. The 
case is number 259 on the docket of the 
United States Supreme Court. Case 59 is 
now being tried." 

The Secretary stated that, since the last 
meeting, he had received a communication 
and a fine lot of pictures from the St. Louis 
Photographic Society for this Association. 
Unfortunately they had lain in the Boston 
post office for nearly two months, his post 
office being at East Cambridge, and he, not 
expecting mail matter to be sent to him 
thus, had neglected to inquire there. 

The communication was then read, and, 
on motion, it was placed on file ; and the 
thanks of the Association extended to the 
St. Louis Photographic Association for 
their valuable contribution to our album, 
and for their pleasant and friendly letter. 

A committee of three was appointed by 
the Chair to collect photographs, to be sent 
to the St. Louis Society. 

Messrs. W. T. Bowers, of Lynn ; E. T. 
Smith and T. R. Burnham, of Boston; were 
appointed that committee. 

'There being so few pictures presented for 
competition, it was decided to defer the 
vote on them till the next meeting. 

Adjourned. 

Frederick C. Low, 

Secretary. 

* Mr. Southworth is in error here. We stated 
that we understood that the case would probably 
come up during March, and so we did, from Mr. 
Schoonmakers counsel. He is liable to err, how- 
ever. Mr. Southworth has never seen it stated 
in this Journal "that the plaintiff had tried to 
postpone the case," for no such assertion has 
been made herein, and we have no doubt it will 
be quite as great relief to the plaintiff as to the 
photographers, to have the case decided one way 
or the other. — Ed. 



THE EXHIBITION. 

We desire to keep our readers alive on 
this subject, and it is delightful to know 
that many of them are alive on it. We 
have had letters from hundreds who declare 
they mean to go "if alive,' 7 and although 
the Boston exhibition was overwhelming, 
we anticipate that the one in Cleveland will 
eclipse it entirely. The efficient local Sec- 
retary, Mr. J. F. Ryder, is doing his utmost, 
and will announce his arrangements fully 
in our next issue. The railroad companies 
in all directions are being appealed to, to 
reduce their fares, and several have as- 
sented. Effort is being made to secure this 
favor for all, North, South, East, and West. 
Let us all prepare to go, then, who can and 
have examples of our work there. Space 
will be ample, light fine, and our friend, 
Mr. Ryder, will gladly attend to all. Let 
us join hands and interests there in great 
numbers, and make our influence felt. 
There is no art that has grown as rapidly 
as photography, and there is none as little 
respected, as little protected, and as little 
elevated as it. This must not be so. We 
want to be incorporated ; we want a copy- 
right law that gives a photographer a right 
to enjoy the full privileges of his labor and 
skill without its being pillaged by engravers, 
lithographers, and others. We want our 
profession and its usefulness acknowledged 
and felt, and better prices for our work. 
We will get it too if you will rise, join 
hands, drop your malice and jealousy, meet 
together and devise and discuss the means. 
Come. It will pay you for any sacrifice, and 
we warrant you shall go home cheered, 
strengthened, bettered, and wiser. All 
photographers, whether members of the 
Association or not, are welcome to exhibit 
and be present. Join the Association, 
though, if you can afford it, now. 

Pour dollars will make a photographer a 
member and prepay his dues from June 
last for a year, and two dollars will do the 
same for an employee. Send to us, and 
certificates are waiting for you. Bring all 
your bad and curious negatives with you. 
Examples of failures, and all such, will add 
interest to the discussions. Let all ihenovel- 
ties be there, and above all, be there your- 
self. 



114 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



Articles for exhibition will probably not 
be required to be in Cleveland before May 
25th, any way, but be getting ready and 
send the best you can produce. Arrange 
with your express companies to return your 
packages free, as no general arrangements 
can be made with them. The West will 
not forget to help Cleveland. Full list of 
the railroads granting commutation tickets 
and local Secretary's instructions in our 
next, which we shall endeavor to issue ear- 
lier than usual. 



HINTS FOR A NEW DARK-TENT. 

BY A. E. LE MERLE. 

Now that the season for outdoor work 
will soon be here, and our fellow-craftsmen 
wending their way fieldwards, perhaps a 
description of a new dark-tent may not 
be amiss. Although the dark-box for field 
work has almost entirely superseded the 
tent, there are a few who still adhere to 
the latter, and to such these few hints are 
addressed. 




The reference letters refer to like parts in 
all the figures. A is a flat, triangular piece 



of wood, having attached to its under side at 
each angle by a metallic or even wooden leg 
a (or an ordinary hinge may be substituted), 
an arm B extending outwards and down- 
wards at any convenient angle. At the 
outer end of each arm is a peculiar hinge b, 
so constructed as to allow the upper half of 
the leg C, which it embraces, to slide freely 
up and down through it. To prevent the 
leg from entirely coming out it is provided 
near the top with a small pin or stop x. 
Each leg, at about the centre, is cut half- 
way through diagonally from opposite sides, 
and the inner ends of the cuts joined in the 
direction of its length, through the centre, 
as shown at c. The two halves thus made 
are joined on the inside by an ordinary 
hinge, and when extended are made rigid 
by a slide d ) after the manner of an old- 
fashioned parasol-handle. The legs are ta- 
pered at the bottom and shod with metal. 

In order to pitch the tent the operator in- 
serts his hand inside the cover, unfolds one 
of the legs, locks it with the slide d, and 
thrusts it a short distance into the ground. 
The next leg is operated in the same manner, 
carrying it as far as the covering will per- 
mit, and when these two are fixed they will 
define the position for the third. The top, 
owing to the bevel at the top of the legs, 
will naturally fall into its proper position. 
The folding is performed by a reverse ope- 
ration, with the tent lying on its side. The 
manner in which the legs fold will at once 
be understood by an inspection of the figures. 
The framework is covered in the usual man- 
ner with black and yellow calico. All the 
metallic parts can be easily made of stout 
sheet-metal. 

It now remains to describe the means of 
ventilation. In one side of the top a trian- 
gular opening is cut. This opening is closed 
by a valve composed of several thicknesses 
of calico, slightly larger than the opening, 
and of the same shape, stitched to and be- 
tween the layers of the cover at the lower 
edge. At the upper angle of this valve are 
attached two cords; one passing upwards 
between the cloth layers for a short distance 
and thence downwards into the interior of 
the tent through an eyelet-hole, the other 
in a reverse direction, over the top of the 
valve, between the layers of cover and into 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



115 



the interior in the same manner. It is evi- 
dent that by pulling one cord the ventila- 
tor will be opened, and, from its shape, as 
readily closed by pulling the other. To 
any one who has worked in the old style 
tent in July or August, the advantage of 
the above will be apparent. If necessary, 
another ventilator, of the same pattern, 
may be placed in one of the sides near the 
bottom, which will also give the operator 
white light when he needs it without the 
necessity of going outside. The cut below 
represents the tent set up for use. 




gaggle 
A great advantage of a tent constructed 
on this plan is roominess when open, com- 
bined with compactness when folded. One 
with sides six feet wide and six feet high, 
will fold into a bundle about eight or nine 
inches in diameter by a little over three feet 
in length. I hope that I have made the 
above clearly understood, and that some one 
may think it worth while to try it (any one 
with a moderate share of mechanical skill 
and leisure can easily construct one for him- 
self), and give the result of his experience 
and improvements to the fraternity through 
the pages of the Photographer. 



SOMETHING ABOUT WORDS. 

BY GEORGE B. AYRES, 
Author of '■ How to Paint Photographs," &c. 

" Read the literature of your profession," 
but (it may be well to add) endeavor to have 
a " literature " in all respects worthy of 
being "read" and studied. Is this condi- 
tion of things to be attained by the adop- 
tion of a questionable phraseology and the 
constant use of art-terms manifestly inap- 
propriate and improper ? That is what I 
propose herewith to consider. 



The technical language of our profession 
is brief indeed. The philosophical terms 
appertaining to light and the camera; the 
names of chemical substances used, together 
with their properties, combinations, and re- 
sults ; and a few words which escape to us 
from the realm of legitimate art, can scarcely 
be considered, in a true sense, as belonging 
to photography ; most of them seeming to 
belong to an "ancient" language when 
compared to our newly discovered art. 
"Why, therefore, should not the limited de- 
mand for new terms beget care in their 
selection or manufacture? 

We presume that the most important 
characteristic of any word used, coined, or 
imported, ought to be its susceptibility of 
being understood. Nor is it unjust to the 
majority of readers to assume that imsci- 
entific language is the most acceptable; that 
our own vernacular with its one hundred 
and fourteen thousand words is always to 
be preferred ; and much credit is due Mr. 
David Duncan for his recent chapter An- 
glicizing the chemical nomenclature of the 
dark-room. 

Above all, save us from that disposition 
which aims at a magnificent mysticism by 
the application of high-sounding words, to 
"split the ears of the groundlings" with 
incomprehensible names of quite compre- 
hensible things. As Professor Towler inti- 
mated in his Boston address, this is nothing 
else than " photographic quackery !" It is 
to be regretted that our fraternity is not 
wanting in those, and occasionally among 
the so-called " first class " men, who cannot 
refrain from such charlatanism ; and who, 
by means of ridiculously-worded advertise- 
ments and grotesque names for pictures, aim 
to gull the public and make money. 

This debasement, when practised among 
the eminent representatives of our art, will, 
of course, be followed by the less informed 
brethren ; and in such manner errors and 
absurdities will creep in, taking the place of 
better, and proper, words and phrases. 

Foremost among the objectionables now 
current, I will instance the word genre. 
This importation from the French exceeds 
almost everything else in misapprehension. 
The word itself is a common one, signifying 
genus, kind, sort, gender, species; and of such 



116 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



gener-al application that its use for a partic- 
ular thing only creates a misnomer. 

A few examples of its legitimate use may 
prove its misappropriation as a photographic 
adjective: Le genre humain (human kind, 
mankind), Le genre sublime (the sublime 
manner or style), Un genre de vie (a course 
or way of life), Le genre d' animal (the genus 
or species of animal). Suppose, therefore, 
we give it a parallel adoption, Le genre de la 
photographie, what have we gained ? Only 
a poor phrase which might possibly cause 
the ignorant to wonder at something they 
do not understand ; and if this be the grand 
object, why not complete the mysticism by 
spelling it as pronounced, Zhong-r-r ! 

Genre, one of the oldest terms of art, 
especially of painting, is used to designate 
that class of pictures whose subjects cannot 
be included in any of the specific depart 
ments — such as historical, portrait, land- 
scape, marine, animal, fruit, flower, &c. It 
is more com monly applied to scenes of every- 
day life, whether grave or comic, anecdoti- 
cal subjects, and national character as re- 
vealed by domestic manners. 

Although it would seem to refer mostly 
to vulgar life, a genre painter is not neces- 
sarily a painter of low subjects. The Dutch 
are the most conspicuous in genre, and among 
the English, Hogarth and Wilkie are famil- 
iar names. In America, Eastman Johnson 
is very prominent. 

Now does it follow from these facts that 
the word genre is, in any sense whatever, 
applicable to photography ? The old story 
says that, when Adam ran short of names, 
he called "the rest of mankind" Smith. 
It is plain that "Smith " is the genre word, 
designating the family; what is the differ- 
ence then between a Smith-man and a 
genre-photograph, in the matter of specifi- 
cation ? No difference ; because it remains 
to say which " Smith " the man is, and what 
is the name or title of the photograph. 

If a photographer would call in a lot of 
ragged bootblacks and pose them in charac- 
teristic attitudes expressing an idea; or with 
a few children and proper accessories com- 
posed something like a sewing-bee or a tea- 
party, without reference, however, to ob- 
taining any of the faces a.s portraits — then 
he might class the pictures as uknkk; al- 



though it would yet remain to say what 
scene or idea the picture represented. Ap- 
ropos of this, Mr. Notman's " Discussing 
a Sketch," in the Photographer of April, 
1868, is a genre photograph truly ; but he 
supposes we all know that! and gives it a 
title. Mr. Griswold's beautiful specimen 
in the February Photographer should be 
named "Blowing Soap-bubbles;" it is "a 
genre photograph," of course! 

But, behold! a photographer displays at 
his door or hangs on his wall A portrait 
of perhaps the most conspicuous or distin- 
guished citizen of his town, and labels it 
"Genre Photograph."* Would it be im- 
pertinent to ask such a one whether he 
was in his right senses; or, if so, that he 
should vouchsafe to tell us how a French 
word, applicable to everything else than 
anything in particular, can be tacked to a 
positive and unmistakable portrait of a dis- 
tinct and specific individual! Then, of 
course, a head of Csesar, or Napoleon, or 
Washington, or Lincoln, is a "ge?ire" pic- 
ture ! Eh ? 

But, excuse me, Mr. Editor, I have al- 
ready exceeded my space for this time. I 
hope I have said enough to induce the fra- 
ternity to throw this " Jonah " overboard ; 
or at least to set them to thinking about its 
proper and improper use. 



Burgess & Lenzi's Patent "Light- 
ning- Print-Cutting-. Table." 

The trimming of photographic prints is 
attended with a good deal of labor, and it is 
very important that it should be neatly done. 
One great annoyance experienced in trim- 
ming them by the use of a glass or metal 
shape (held by the hand) as a guide and then 
using a knife, is the sudden slipping of the 
guide or shape from the fingers. That again 
causes the knife to slip, and very often de- 
stroys the print. This is particularly the 
case when the print is to be trimmed oval 
or elliptic. This accident we have known 
to occur at most aggravating times, for ex- 
ample when you are trying to finish up an 
oval while the customer waits for it, or with 



* Not an imaginary case. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



117 



the last print needed to fill an order, thus 
throwing you hack one or two days at least, 
causing you loss and disappointing your 
patron. 




These troubles may now he entirely 
avoided, and much dispatch secured in trim- 
ming the prints before or after the toning, 
by the use of the little apparatus represented 
by the cut above. It is the joint production 
of Mr. George A. Lenzi, an old practised 
photographer, and Mr. Burgess, a practical 
machinist 

The drawing almost explains it. It con- 
sists mainly of a turn-table on which the 
print and glass form are laid, and by means 
of the treadle below, a spring lever is 
brought down upon the glass and holds it 
firmly in place. The hands are then free, 
one to turn the table around on its centre as 
the print is trimmed, and the other to use 
the knife. The end of the clamp brought 
down upon the glass is rubber, and the rod 
attached is fitted with a cone-spiral spring, 
which thus enables the rubber pad auto- 
matically to adjust itself to the centre of 
the turn-table when in motion. It is a most 
complete little affair, handsomely and well 
made, and by its use prints may be trimmed 
in about one-fourth the time usually re- 
quired, and without accident. 

It is for sale by all dealers. It may be 
fitted to any table, box, or shelf. Wilson, 
Hood & Co. are the manufacturers' agents. 



To the Members of the National Pho- 
tographic Association, 

And the Photographers of the United States. 

The Shaw & Wilcox Co. hold a patent 
from the United States for a device for sav- 
ing silver by precipitating, and have sued 
Mr. Lovejoy, of Stepney Depot, Conn., for 
" infringement." They hope to get a judg- 
ment against him, and will then put an in- 
junction on every one coming within their 
claim. Are we willing to submit to this ? 
We all know their claim is worthless in fact, 
as we can prove beyond a doubt, it is not 
new. 

Mr. Lovejoy is a poor man, having lost 
an arm and an eye in the service of his 
country, and a judgment against him is 
equivalent to an injunction against us all. 
He must be helped in his defence with money 
as well as evidence. Let us all respond 
promptly, as we are all interested. Mr. E. 
Y. Bell, 43 Wall Street, is his lawyer. 

Funds sent to H. T. Anthony, Esq., Treas- 
urer of the National Photographic Associa- 
tion, or to E. L. Wilson, Secretary, will be 
used to help Mr. Lovejoy test this unjust 
claim. 

The patentees have insulted the whole 
profession by arresting Mr. Wilson for " li- 
bel," because he gave his opinion of their 
patent in the last number of the Philadelphia 
Photographer. 

A pretty claim to be sure. " I must not 
save my own property." These men must 
save it for me at their own price, or I must 
let it go down the sink. 

The end is not yet. 

Abraham Bogardus, 

President of the 

National Photographic Association 



The New Atelier of Loescher & Petsch 
in Berlin. 

(Continued from page 90.) 
To the supports of the roof corner-irons 
e (Fig. 2) | in. by f in , are riveted, and these 
carry the frames. The irons have three 
grooves, in each of which a frame can be 
moved without touching the other one. 
Placed side by side, they cover the glazed 
three-quarters of the roof compieteW; placed 
one above the other, and pushed under the 



118 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHER. 



covered quarter of the roof, the glazed part 
is unobstructed. See the two cuts below: 

rig. 2. 




Fig. 4 will show this arrangement — cross 
section. 

H is the rear wall ; A a wooden covering 
for the roof; r, r' ', r /// , are the frames 
which move in the guides as shown in the 
figures above. Each frame has two small 
hooks, x', x // , x /// , etc. The frames are 
moved by cords, which at H and V pass 
over rollers, and which at V are fastened to 
the first frame. In admitting light, r / will 
move backwards, first the hook x / will 
catch the corresponding hook x ,f of frame 
r' , and take the second frame along, and 
so all the frames will be caught in succes- 
sion. Friction is partially overcome by 
strips of wood, h, Fig. 2, which are covered 
with plumbago, and placed under the 
frames; so also are the hooks F, Fig. 2, 
covered with felt to avoid jarring. 

The movement of the frames is easy and 
certain, and the exclusion of the light com- 
plete. 

Fig. 4. 



sliding of the frames; s p, are the rollers 
for the cords ; n, rivets for the corner-irons ; 
W, water-course; soh, washboards. 

Fig. 5. 








The side-light is regulated in a similar 
manner.* Instead of throe frames, two only 
are needed. They run in a wide groove, and 
can be pushed partially below the floor of 
the studio. (See Fig. 5.) r r, are the frames ; 
(j (j, large plate glass windows, a, masonry; 
b p, patent floor; //, the guides for the 
frames; r k, spring clamps, to prevent the 



The distribution and character of the 
backgrounds and furniture, were made with 
due regard to the tendencies of the times, 
which in costume and everything else, 
inclines to the Kococo and Renaissance 
styles. With this end in view, one side 
of the studio was provided with furniture 
and drapery of the former style, and the 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



119 



other side, with accessories corresponding 
with the latter taste. 

The ground-plan of the studio, Fig. 6, 
will show the arrangement m, representing 
different pieces of furniture; 
s s s are the rails for the 
backgrounds d; It, supports 
for the roof; t' t\ supports 
for the side wall, open is the 
stove. The backgrounds are 
2£ and 4 feet from the wall. 
This distance was necessary 
so as to enable the operator 
to store away furniture not 
in use from one day to an- 
other. (See also ground plan 
on page 89, last issue P. P.) 

Fig. 7. 



has not been changed, excepting an arrange- 
ment by which the background can be placed 
obliquely to the light. The light and shade 
effects are partially regulated by screens 







v r- - 


Fig 


.6. 








P 


1 1 


i 1 1 


^f-ti-f 


T 


NB 


1 


| 


1 1 




K 




m\ ' 

J. 


\t \t 

s 1 


! !" i 


1 ' 

i " 1* 
i 


«. 


2 




1 1 

1 ! 


l | A 


! ! 1 1 


J 


DK 


~ id 

n 1 


d 1 1 

1 

1 1 


i 


OPEN 


i 


a ~ 




L°2°_ 


O ^ 


1 DOOR | 






The old and practical way of moving the 
backgrounds on rollers and horizontal rails 



and reflectors. The color of the furniture 
is a mixture of burnt umber and chalk, 
not so dark that black cloth will not show 
upon it. 

The size of the background is 7 feet wide 
and 8 feet high, and as the studio is 17 
feet wide, two backgrounds can be placed 
side bj r side. 

In the room for negative retouching, which 
adjoins the studio (see Pig 6, NB), there 
are three desks side by side. Each desk 
has a ground-glass window (Z / , Fig. 7), 1J 
feet square; the front part, of the desk 
k can be raised or lowered, so as to admit 
of moving the easel st nearer to or further 
from the window. At night a lamp I is 
used. The lamps are provided with Argand 
burners, and parabolic reflectors of polished 
metal. The back part of the reflector being 
cut away, the direct light passes through, 
while, at the same time, the side rays also 
are thrown on the negative. 

The other localities are not much differ- 
ent from those of similar establishments. A 
room facing south, underneath the studio, 
is used for printing, toning, and washing 
the prints. In this room the paper is also 
sensitized. 

In the reception rooms, the aim has been 
rather to please by a tasty simplicity than 
to dazzle the eye with gaudy splendor. 

The dark-room, as well as several other 
localities, are heated with hot air. Above 
the flue in the dark-room, is a wire ar- 
rangement, on which the negatives are 
placed to facilitate their drying. 



120 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



The arrangement for washing the pic- 
tures consists of two large tin boxes. The 
water is introduced through many small 
holes, and when it has reached a certain 
height, two syphons empty the boxes, and 
the process begins anew. 

Finally, it may not be amiss to say, that 
it is not claimed that the above arrange- 
ments are perfect, but the aim has been to 
go a step forward in the construction of a 
first-class studio. 



EXTRACTS FROM OUR NEW 
BOOKS. 

From Photographic Mosaics. 

"In albumenizing plates, -beginners are 
apt to fall into the error of using the albu- 
men too thick." 

"Old red collodion maybe restored by 
making an equal bulk of new collodion 
iodized with iodide and bromide of cad- 
mium only. Mix the two, and set aside for 
a few days before using." 

" One of the frequent causes of failures 
in photographic views is, that the exposure 
has been too little." 

" Is your lens a corrected lens ? 

Tou ' don't know.' 

Are your shields all in order, and your 
camera right? 

Tou 'don't know.' 

Then make the experiments, and see." 

" By substituting glacial acetic acid for 
liq. amm. in the albumen solution for coat- 
ing glass plates, an advantage is gained." 

"Dirt is a chronic disease — a sickness 
with which many photographers are af- 
flicted." 

One hundred and forty-four pages of just 
such matter are found in Mosaics for 1870, 
all for half a dollar. 

From How to Paint Photographs. Second 
edition. 

" No book ever made a painter, or ever 
will. Neither can art bo taught practically 
by books; but the written experience of 
others may lend important assistance to the 
student who undertakes the task of self- 
tuition." 

" Be particular to obtain good brushes." 



" In coloring, the light should fall upon 
the work from the left hand, and rather to 
the rear than front." 

"The eyes, cheeks, ears, lips, chin, arms, 
hands, neck, and bosom, all require differ- 
ent treatment, and the instructions should 
be studied carefully." 

' ' Porcelain pictures intended for coloring 
are best on ground-glass." 

" ' 3 H,' ' 1 H,' and ' 6 B ' Faber's Siberian 
pencils all come in play for retouching the 
negative." 

" Care should be had in applying the 
pencil " 

" In a weak, flat negative — as for instance 
a copy of a ferrotype — a fine stump and 
powdered lead will do great service." 

" In a negative where the sitter has 
moved, thus causing blurring, a few judi- 
cious touches with the lead pencil will have 
a wonderful effect in removing these blem- 
ishes." 

Mr. Ayres's book teaches fully all the 
details of coloring photographs, and re- 
touching negatives of all classes. 

From Professor Pepper's Cyclopaedic Science 
Exemplified. 

"The principle of the achromatic lens is 
not difficult to understand. Given a lens 
made of a certain kind of glass, and pro- 
jecting among other colors a ring of red 
light, what color projected from another 
lens is required to neutralize it? The an- 
swer is obvious. Any color which, together 
with the red light, would form white light. 
That color must be green, because it con- 
tains yellow and blue; and red, yellow, and 
blue form white light. In the adjustment 
of the two lenses forming an achromatic 
combination, it is so arranged that the colors 
which would be separately produced by such 
lens shall, when combined, by their un- 
equal dispersion fall together at the same 
spot and unite together, and thus form 
white light." 

" The stereoscope was invented by Prof. 
Whcatstone, and subsequently modified by 
Sir David Brewster." 

" Most of our daily food contains salts of 
potassium." 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



121 



" Without sodium much of our daily food 
would be tasteless." 

" Lithium abounds in tobacco ashes." 

"Ammonium is found in thousands of 
nature's works." 

"Calcium abounds in limestone, marble, 
chalk, gypsum, marls, and various soils." 

"Strontium decomposes water." 

"Magnesium is derived from the sea and 
springs." 

" Cadmium from zinc ore." 

Prof. Pepper's book contains nearly 700 
pages, and over 600 illustrations. A fine 
work for the photographic student and 
reader. 

From Pictorial Effect in Photography. 

"Long experience will show that the two 
sides of every face differ. This is very evi- 
dent in many faces; and in all, however 
regular the eyes may seem, or however 
straight the nose may appear, close obser- 
vation will discover that one side is better 
than the other. 

In photographic portraiture the face 
should, as a general rule, be turned away 
from the light. If the face is turned to the 
light, however delicate the half-tones may 
be, the line of the nose will be partly lost 
in equal light on the cheek behind it. 

A single figure should be complete in it- 
self; it should not appear as though it had 
been cut out of a group, and it should be 
incapable of having another figure added to 
it without injury. The head being the chief 
object, every line should be composed in 
relation to it, and the student will find the 
rules of pyramidal compositon invaluable 
to him here. 

The action of the figure should be that 
which is most common to the individual ; 
such a position as shows it to the best ad- 
vantage. No violent action should be al- 
lowed ; no appearance of strain. 

It cannot be too strongly impressed on the 
student that the possibilities of the figure 
must be considered before the attitude is 
chosen ; every figure will not allow of every 
attitude, any more than a decrepit old man 
of eighty or ninety could perform the feats 
of a skilful acrobat. 

The student will do well to observe atti- 



tudes assumed in every-day life, and adapt 
them to his art. When he sees a beautiful 
attitude, let him speculate upon the cause 
of its being beautiful, and he will find that 
it depends for its effect on its consistency 
with the rules of composition. 

A vignette head, when nothing more than 
the head and shoulders is seen, should never 
convey the impression that the sitter was 
lounging in a chair or leaning on a table ; 
the reason being, that as the table or chair 
is not visible, the figure would appear out 
of shape and deformed. As a general rule, 
the shoulders should appear level, as though 
the subject was standing. 

Make it a constant practice before remov- 
ing the cap from the lens, to first give a 
rapid glance at the sitter, to see whether 
the outline of the figure composes well, that 
the light and shade is massive and round, 
and that there appears some indication of 
the expression you desire on the face of the 
sitter. If there is a lack of either of these 
qualities, do not waste your plate until you 
have got them before your lens." 

We here bring these books to notice 
again, for now is the season when our read- 
ers have the opportunity, and when they 
should inform themselves by reading, on 
all that may be of value to them in their 
business and profession. 

Those who study faiow, and those who 
know, produce the best work and secure the 
best pay. Mr. Lea's excellent manual has 
been so often alluded to, we need not ex- 
tract from it here. Our books supply all a 
photographer needs in that line. 



PERMANGANATE OF POTASH 
IN THE NITRATE BATH. 

Perhaps the following facts in the ex- 
perience of an every-day worker may be of 
interest to the practical craft, and the theory 
derived therefrom may possibly be new to 
some of our more scientific friends. 

A bath of 140 oz., which had been reduced 
to a 30 grain condition of leanness by over- 
work and lack of proper food, was filled up 
tol60oz. (its standard bulk). This resulted 
in precipitating the excess of iodide which 
was filtered out. Being tested, it was found 



122 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



decidedly acid. One drachm saturated so- 
lution of permanganate of potash was added, 
the bath exposed to direct sunlight three 
hours, in which time it changed from bright 
cherry color to a faint greenish-yellow tinge, 
but nearly clear. It was now carefully fil- 
tered, enough pure crystals of silver added 
to make it a strength of 45 grains to the 
ounce, poured into a thoroughly clean bath- 
cup, and stood over night. In the morning 
it was tested and found to be neutral, no 
trace of acid being present ! Query. — What 
became of the acid ? 

The crystals added must have been neu- 
tral or faintly acid. They could by no pos- 
sibility have been alkaline. No alkali was 
introduced at any time, yet a large bath (160 
ounces) decidedly acid, was completely neu- 
tralized! Not only this, but it was completely 
purified, changing from pin-holes, streaks, 
and sich, at 2 o'clock one day, to clean, clear, 
perfect films at 9 o'clock the next morning. 

Theory (if chemically faulty, it is practi- 
cally feasible). — Nitric acid holds in solu- 
tion (and consequently suspension) organic 
matter. Sunlight will have but little effect 
in correcting a disordered bath while nitric 
acid is present in it. Manganic acid, on 
the contrary, coagulates (and consequently 
precipitates) organic matter. Permanga- 
nate of potash, when introduced into an acid 
solution, acts as an absorbent of free nitric 
acid, takes it up, as it were, forming man- 
ganic acid, which at once, by its reaction, 
shows a very different character from nitric 
acid. The organic matter formerly held in 
solution at once begins to coagulate, and in 
a very short time falls to the bottom in the 
form of a dark brown or black sediment. 
"Matter in the wrong place" (dirt) is 
speedily removed. 

Briefly, nitric acid is taken up by man- 
ganese. Manganic acid thus formed is taken 
up in coagulating and precipitating the or- 
ganic matter present, the bath is neutralized 
and purified.* The process is simple, the 

# The theory is wrong. Organic matter in 
a neutral solution of nitrate of silver exposed 
to the action of sunlight ia decomposed, and an 
oxide of silver precipitated ; this cannot take 
place when an acid is present. The permanga- 
nate of potash, which always contains an excess 



results obtained entirely satisfactory, and to 
accomplish them, the oldest and wisest 
heads have been puzzled occasionally for lo, 
these many years. 

Moral. — Leave soda, and cyanide, and 
caloric alone (in treating your bath), and 
try permanganate, and sunlight, and filters, 
and clean fingers ! 

J. Lee Knight. 

Topeka, Kansas, January, 1870. 

The "ounce of prevention," which was 
said to be " better than u pound of cure," 
has been photographically ascertained to be 
eight clean fingers, which are better (and 
cheaper) than the pound of silver necessary 
to make a new bath ! 



NOTES IN AND OUT OF THE 
STUDIO. 

BY G. WHARTON SIMPSON, M.A., F.S.A. 

New Mounting Material — Reproducing Nega- 
tives — Development of Dry Plates — Im- 
proving Foliage in Negatives — American 
Photos of Eclipse — Retouching Negatives. 

New Mounting Material to Prevent Cock- 
ling. — One of the serious incidental troubles 
which beset photographers, is the difficulty 
of mounting albumenized prints on thin 
cards, or on plate-paper, without causing 
unsightly cockling of the margin. For the 
portfolio or framing, the mounting-board 
may be sufficiently stout to obviate this dif- 
ficulty ; but where photographs are used for 
book illustration, the use of extremely thin 
boards or even of a stout paper for mounting 
purposes is imperative. The only mounting 
material hitherto in use, by which all risk 
of cockling is avoided, is India rubber in 
solution, but unfortunately it is altogether 
untrustworthy ; sooner or later the prints 
are sure to leave the mounts. 

The cause of cockling in prints mounted 
on thin boards is, of course, well known. 
A print treated with starch-paste, gum, or 
any adhesive preparation of which water 
forms a large part, absorbs the water and 
swells or stretches. If, in this condition, it 

of alkali, neutralizes the acid contained in a 
bath, and hastens also the action of the sun by 
its own decomposing properties. — Ed. P. P. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPH EE. 



123 



is attached to a dry board, it contracts again 
as the water evaporates, and necessarily 
drags the board to which it is attached out of 
shape, causing cockling or buckling. The 
point to be secured, then, is an adhesive 
substance containing little or no water. 
India rubber solution answers this con- 
dition; but, as I have shown, it fails in other 
respects. I am about to describe another 
preparation which also answers this condi- 
tion, without the disadvantages of India 
rubber. 

A preparation for mounting, the nature 
of which has been kept a profound secret, 
has for some time been used by certain 
large firms in this country, has been under- 
stood to meet all the necessary requirements. 
Somehintsofitsconstitution having recently 
reached me, I have been induced to make 
some experiments which have issued very 
successfully. The new preparation practi- 
cally consists of a solution of gelatine or 
glue in alcohol. This, at first sight, seems 
to be an impossibility, since, under ordinary 
circumstances, gelatine is not soluble in al- 
cohol, but is. on the contrary, precipitated 
from an aqueous solution by the addition of 
alcohol. My first attempt to make the prep- 
aration was as follows, but was a failure; I 
describe the failure that it may be avoided. 
I took gelatine and soaked it in water for 
twenty-four hours, until it was well swollen, 
and then draining off" the water, added al- 
cohol, and placing the jar, which was cov- 
ered up, in a pan of water, placed it on the 
fire to simmer. After the lapse of thirty or 
forty minutes, the gelatine was softened and 
melted ; but it was but very imperfectly 
mixed with the alcohol. On adding a little 
more alcohol, to supply the loss b}' evapo- 
ration, the slight degree of mixture which 
bad taken place was at once destroyed, the 
gelatine being precipitated as a tough, vis- 
cous mass at the bottom of the jar, and no 
subsequent amount of heat or stirring with 
a glass rod secured even an approximate 
degree of solution or mixture. This was 
clearly a failure, and I began again. As 
I finally met with success, I will describe 
precisely what is to be done, giving the pro- 
portions of my own experiment, which can 
of course be easily increased for working 
on a large scale. 



Take half an ounce of gelatine and cover 
it with water; leave it in soak for say twen- 
ty-four hours, in which time it will become 
thoroughly swollen. Now pour off all the 
superfluous water, except two or three 
drachms; place the gelatine with this trace 
of water in a glue-pot, and place it on the 
fire. "When it is melted, add six ounces of 
alcohol — that which I used had a specific 
gravity of .820. A most important point, 
however, is the mode of mixture; the alco- 
hol must be added a little at a time, stirring 
steadily with a glass rod, and maintaining 
a moderately high temperature. By pro- 
ceeding carefully in this way, perfect mix- 
ture is secured, and the solution is then 
poured into a wide-mouthed bottle, corked 
or stoppered, and set aside for use. It is 
well to rub a little of a solution of wax or 
parafline round the stopper, to prevent its 
becoming fixed by the gelatine in the bottle. 
When cool, the solution slightly gelatinizes, 
but a very slight degree of warmth makes 
it fluid for use. This, applied to the print, 
causes a scarcely appreciable degree of ex- 
pansion, and no appreciable subsequent 
cockling. Its adhesive qualities are perfect* 
and the preparation keeps well. To prevent 
the rigid hardness which characterizes good 
gelatine, I added from one to two drachms 
of glycerine to the preparation, which is, I 
think, an improvement. It is probable that 
any good sample of glue would answer the 
purpose, and for extensive use would, of 
course, be more economical. At first sight, 
the use of alcohol, for mounting purposes, 
seems- costly ; but as a little of the prepara- 
tion will mount many prints, the expense 
need not be very serious. For mounting 
photographic book illustrations, I think this 
will be found especially valuable. 

Reproducing Negatives. — A method of 
multiplying negatives is coming into use 
in this country, which is simple, and seems 
to possess many advantages. It consists in 
printing by superposition on collodio-chlor- 
ide of silver, instead of using the usual 
method of camera printing on wet collodion. 
One of our stockdealers, Mr. Solomon, has 
introduced the method. I may here men- 
tion, by the way, as a novelty in the busi- 
ness of a stockdealer, that Mr. Solomon has 
recently made arrangements to give lessons 



124 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



for a moderate fee, in certain unfamiliar 
processes, such as reproducing negatives, 
producing photographic enamels, enlarging, 
etc. The method of reproducing negatives 
is as follows : A sample of collodio-chloride 
paper is prepared with an express view to 
the final removal of the film from the paper. 
It is something like the Obernetter enam- 
elled paper, the collodio-chloride of silver 
heing applied to a paper having an enamelled 
surface consisting of some white pigment 
and gelatine. Upon this the negative is 
printed very deeply. The image may be 
toned and fixed in the usual manner; but 
simple fixation in a hyposulphite solution 
is, I think, best, as a fine, non-actinic color 
is so secured. The print is washed, and then 
placed in a dish of hot water, which loosens 
thefilm but does notdetachitfrom thepaper. 
The print is then placed, face down, on a 
plate of glass, and the paper is lifted away, 
leaving the film on the glass. A broad cam- 
el 's-hair brush dipped in warm water is used 
to remove all the traces of the white pig- 
ment, etc., from the film. This done, a piece 
of paper is laid upon it, one edge of the film 
turned over, and the whole is then lifted up 
together in order to place the film on its 
final resting-place. This is another plate 
of glass to which a coating of a very weak 
solution of gelatine has been applied and 
dried. It is placed for a moment in cold 
water to moisten the gelatine, and the film 
containing the image is applied to it, and 
pressed down with a small elastic scraper of 
vulcanized India rubber, called a "squee- 
gee." The paper which had assisted in the 
transport of the film is now lifted away, and 
the transparency is left to dry. 

To reproduce the negative precisely, the 
same operations are repeated, printing on 
a piece of the same paper from the transpar- 
ency, and transferring in a similar manner. 
By this means, very excellent reproduced 
negatives^ may be obtained, the fixed but 
untoned silver image being of an excellent 
printing color. 

It is worthy of remark, that even if the 
paper be very old and much discolored, 
it answers perfectly well, for it is found 
that this discoloration is confined to the 
paper, and does not affect the color of the 
collodio-chloride image itself. 



Besides its use in the reproduction of neg- 
atives, this paper is used for producing fine 
transparencies. Messrs. Geyniet & Alker 
prefer the transparencies obtained in this 
way, for use in their mode of enamelling, a 
better result being obtained from them than 
from transparencies obtained the usual way. 
The transfer paper in question (of which I 
inclose a sample), is I believe prepared by 
the French firm, named expressly for ob- 
taining the transparencies which serve as 
cliches in their enamel process. 

Development of Dry Plates. — The alkaline 
method of developing dry plates, especially 
those in which a bromide only, or a large 
proportion of a bromide is employed, ap- 
pears to be largely superseding acid pyro- 
gallic solutions, and silver. I have recently 
had an opportunity of examining some ex- 
ceedingly fine photographs of Athens, and 
its classic environs by a countryman of 
your own, Mr. W. J. Stillman, American 
Consul at Crete. These are taken on col- 
lodio-bromide plates, supplied commercially 
by the Liverpool Dry Plate Company ; and 
as the results are unusually excellent, a 
brief description of the method of develop- 
ing, which is a modification of existing 
alkaline methods, may be interesting. Mr. 
Stillman says: 

" I commence with pyrogallic acid alone, 
three or four grains to the ounce of water 
(a preliminary application of alcohol and 
water being indispensable), and let the film 
get thoroughly saturated with it. If at 
this stage any sign of image appears, I 
drop one drop of dilute ammonia (five per 
cent ) into the developing glass, and pour 
the pyrogallic back into it: returning, I 
leave it on till the detail begins to appear 
in the shadows, when I drop in four to 
eight drops of ammonia, and one drop of 
bromide of potassium (five grains to the 
ounce), and continue. If the shadows show 
any sign of fog, I immediately add six to 
eight drops of bromide, and then drop in 
ammonia drop by drop till I get the re- 
quired intensity. If, on the other hand, no 
image appears from the pyrogallic, I drop 
in ammonia drop by drop, at intervals of 
ten or fifteen seconds, until all the details 
appear, without any necessity of adding 
bromide; but if, when all detail is out, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



125 



there is not sufficient intensity, I add the 
ammonia and bromide solution in equal 
quantities." 

Mr. Stillman speaks very highly of the 
keeping qualities of these plates, both in 
hot and cold climates, and in all sorts of 
weather. 

As I have said, the examples I have seen 
are most admirable, some of them equal to 
the best wet collodion pictures. 

Improving Foliage in Negatives. — 7 ~~iay 
mention a good suggestion of another cor- 
respondent. It consists in the use of the 
lead pencil, for giving vigor and crispness 
to detail in foliage, where some lack of 
these qualities may be apparent. The cor- 
respondent says : 

"A good deal has been said in favor of 
lead pencil or working up negatives, but I 
do not think the following has been men- 
tion. If a negative in which foliage is too 
weak to print well is varnished bright and 
hard, a BB or BBB pencil can be rubbed 
vigorously over it in all directions, and 
will bring it up in due gradation with- 
out fogging the shades, or showing the 
touches." 

It will readily be seen that the principle 
upon which this mode of improvement is 
based, is found in the fact that the lights of 
the foliage, having received more silver 
than the shadows, will possess a slight de- 
gree of relief, and the black lead thus rub- 
bed will adhere to the prominent points, 
and not to the small interstices of shadow, 
and so increase the printing vigor of the 
lighter parts. 

American Photographs of the Late 
Eclipse. — I have just received from the 
United States Naval Observatory, at Wash- 
ington, the complete report, and from the 
Surgeon General's Office, photographs and 
illustrations of the eclipse of August last. 
I have no hesitation in saying, that to- 
gether they make the most complete and 
valuable, and the most perfect and hand- 
some report, which has ever been issued of 
a photograph eclipse. It must be as gratify- 
ing as it is creditable to every person con- 
cerned, both in securing the photographs 
and issuing the report. 

Retouching Negatives. — Mr. G. Crougton, 
a skilful artist, who has shown me some of 



the finest results I have seen produced by 
retouched negatives, in speaking with the 
constant experience in this work of several 
years says, speaking of the most suitable 
materials : 

" The materials I use are blacklead pen- 
cils, blacklead in powder, a stump, sable 
pencils, and water-color. The lead pencils 
I have found be~t for retouching are Faber's; 
I find them less powdery than others. I 
use three sorts : F, F B, and B. But the 
lead, both in powder and pencils, I can 
only use for very large heads. For all heads 
under one inch I use color. A very good 
color for the purpose is Payne's gray, or a 
gray made by mixing Indian red with co- 
balt blue; but I prefer a color made from 
the negative film ; it is some little trouble 
to prepare, but it is much the best for use, 
as it matches the color of the negative, and 
your only care need be to keep the true gra- 
dations. It might not, perhaps, be so much 
trouble to prepare if I had the proper appli- 
ances to do it with, but my mode of procedure 
is very primitive : I get the films of several 
negatives (they must have been intensified 
and fixed, but not varnished) ; these are 
dried and pounded in a mortar, and then 
ground upon a piece of glass with a little 
weak gum water. It is this grinding that 
I find the greatest trouble, for it must be 
very fine indeed, or it will work lumpy. 
The brushes I use are the ordinary sables 
used for water-color painting; but before 
using a new brush I pass it through the 
flame of a taper to get rid of the fine flue at 
the tip. 

It is a good thing, to prepare the surface 
of the negative to take the lead. This is 
done by rubbing some prepared chalk over 
it with a soft linen rag, rubbing with a cir- 
cular motion all over the parts to be touched 
(I may here remark that I have all nega- 
tives varnished before I work upon them, 
either in water-color or lead) ; this takes 
the brightness oft* the varnish, and gives a 
fine tooth that takes the pencil beautifully. 

The powder lead I use principally for fill- 
ing up accidental markings, such as streaks, 
etc. ; I sometimes use it to lighten heavy 
shadows under the eyebrows, and for putting 
in a light on a dark background a la Salo- 
mon. It is put on with the stump. I make 



126 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



my own stumps, for the leather ones sold 
for crayon work are too hard for the pur- 
pose. I paste several thicknesses of fine 
blotting-paper together with starch paste, 
then paste all over the inside, and roll up 
into a stick ; when dry, it is cut to a point. 
This makes a much better stump for the 
purpose than any you can buy." 

Reference to retouching recalls to my 
mind that I have just examined the very 
admirable little work you have recently 
issued, entitled How to Paint Photographs, 
by Mr. Ayres, and am much pleased with 
its essentially practical character, both in 
reference to the retouching of negatives 
and the various modes of finishing prints. 
The practical hints of a practical man are 
manifest throughout the book, and render 
it most valuable aid to the student. 



NEGATIVE RETOUCHING. 

BY W. J. BAKER. 

Now that the retouched negative is fairly 
before the photographers of this country, 
and seems acknowledged on all sides to be 
a good thing, it 'is of moment to consider 
how we shall wisely "use this new power, 
which is capable, in so great a degree, of 
modifying, even altering, the character of 
our negatives. 

Few who can obtain 'the facilities for this 
method will need urging to its use, as they 
will be driven thereto by ever increasing 
competition. The first to adopt this plan 
will naturally be the most ambitious, those 
wbo already are looked upon, both by the 
public and the fraternity, as leaders, and 
what they set forth is always likely to be 
admired by the one and followed by the 
other. 

What not. to do, becomes then of impor- 
tance, lest a meretricious style be foisted 
upon us, by a demand from the public that 
we do something mechanical and inartistic, 
because some one of metropolitan location 
and continental fame does the same. 

That this is no imaginary bugaboo the 
experience of many of us will attest, who 
have been asked to imitate the worst points 
of objectionable productions, as far as we 
could see, simply because the back bore a 
celebrated address. But of this further on. 



The first point to consider is, that the 
process in one respect is radically different 
from touching on the print. There every 
stroke reduces the lights, while on the nega- 
tive every mark makes them more intense. 
The one lowers the lights, the other works 
up the shadows. 

This indicates that special care should be 
■taken to keep those negatives intended for 
retouching soft, and thus allow for the in- 
tensity added by the pencil. Most of the 
-prints, from retouched negatives, done in 
this country, exhibit this fault in a glaring 
•degree. An originally opaque negative is 
worked till, instead of a picture, it gives only 
a map (note the difference) of the face, by 
all but total obliteration of the modelling. 

Did I say this country? I will not so 
limit myself. In my collection of a few 
foreign photographs there is a vignette of a 
lady with not ungraceful features. She is 
dressed in immense style. The face of this 
picture is so white that it almost shames 
the unshaded paper margin. Among some 
of the best photographs from abroad, this 
at once rivets attention. 

"Who is that lady? Is she not lovely?" 

" I do not know, madam ; this is a Paris 
photograph " 

"Oh! Paris! How elegant! how per- 
fectly clear! Why is it that we can't get 
such photographs in this country ?" And 
then considerately, as if in deference to a 
wounded vanity: "I suppose they have 
such a clear air there." And because this 
photograph, not a solitary exception, has 
the prestige of a foreign name, and is poor 
enough to meet an ignorant taste, nothing 
will convince three out of five, but that 
their photographs are inferior in those very 
points in which their excellence consists. 

Let us then guard against too much of 
this kind of clearness, lest we revert to the 
evil days when we ignorantly thought a 
negative must be as opaque as a brick, to 
print at all on albumen. 

A lesser degree of this same fault is almost 
universal on retouched work, by which parts 
of the negative being rendered too intense, 
what artists call the " keeping" is destroyed. 
This is a defect but little obvious to the un- 
cultivated eye, and would among artists 
be much more readily detected by a sculp- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGR APHEK. 



127 



tor or painter than by a photographer. 
Being a matter that must be perceived to be 
understood, it is somewhat difficult to ex- 
plain verbally. In a photograph the fault 
might exist thus. The line of the cheek- 
bone being prominent, would at a certain 
angle catch too much light, become too 
white and glistening, and thus have an un- 
due projection in the proof, seeming to start 
out beyond the rest of the picture. In a 
profile, the nostril, or rather the base of the 
nose next the cheek, is almost sure to ex- 
hibit this appearance. In a front or three- 
quarter view, the flattening of the light 
down the front of the nose often makes that 
organ seem too broad and thick. Inversely 
an exaggerated shadow may retire a part 
too much, as the eye, under a very project- 
ing brow or a hollow cheek, when too much 
top-light is used. In these and many other 
ways the features are thrown out of keep- 
ing and the face distorted, in plain photo- 
graphs, and examples in plenty lie before 
me to show that the busy pencil can mag- 
nify and improve these occasions to the 
point almost of the grotesque. 

Such cheeks, chins, and noses, never be- 
longed to any human face, as are seen on 
some foreign cartes. 

A third defect, hardly different from the 
last in result, is in the obliteration of detail, 
that follows the pencilling. The modula- 
tions of a good plain photograph are infi- 
nite; no point so small but has its grada- 
tions, finer in an exquisite degree than the 
pencil's point can follow. The fine texture 
of the skin, and the delicate grading of 
shape, cannot be approached by the regular 
stipple of handwork, which only destroys 
them and introduces in their stead conven- 
tionalities, and a mechanical finish, more 
allied to the polish of cabinetware than to 
art. 

Here is our greatest danger, here is the 
snare, into which some photographers of 
the old world have already fallen. The 
public is pleased and tickled with this for- 
mal, smooth prettiness. It is the next best 
thing to " clearness," apparently, but what 
a degraded remove from that truth which 
lies within our power. 

The last danger I shall venture to point 
out is that of leaning too much on the 



pencil for effect; of merging the photogra- 
pher in the retoucher ; of saying "that will 
do if it is touched up a little." A true 
pride in our art will doubtless preserve 
most of us from this error. 

There are cases, as of short exposure of 
children, where it may not only be allow- 
able, but very praiseworthy, to be able 
to work up a negative that, untouched, 
would be useless. 

But shall the use of the pencil be limited 
to such exceptional instances ? By no means. 
It does not follow that because of some sub- 
jects a photograph can be obtained present- 
ing the truth in a form, lovely almost as 
nature's self, that this is always or usually 
possible. 

There is yet another consideration. Peo- 
ple see their friends at home and them- 
selves in the glass, by a very different di- 
rection of light than the photographer uses. 
At home the light is from windows low at 
the side, from many apertures, rather than 
from one, and is soft, diffused front-light, 
for when we want to have a good look at 
our friends, we get between them and the 
window. 

This light penetrates the hollows and 
recesses of the features, and shows them 
shadowless; removing in a measure the 
haggard look from a thin face, and hardly 
revealing the lines of care and age. 

To obtain rotundity, many artists so light 
that the face is burlesqued rather than rep- 
resented. This relief of the face is by no 
means the artistically desirable thing that 
might be supposed. The cultivated eye re- 
quires the subject to be represented, not 
imitated ; and revolts at being deceived into 
the idea, that what is known to be a flat 
surface, can paradoxically have projections. 
However suitable the stereoscope may be to 
give us topographical notions of things and 
places we have not visited, or to remind us 
of those we have, it is but an optical toy, 
and its illusions create wonder rather than 
artistic joy. If the production of the ro- 
tundity of life was the apex of art, then a 
wax figure might be a very noble thing, and 
a colored wax figure the highest effort of 
genius ; whereas the nearer such a work is 
done to life, the more disgusting it is. 

But this is rather aside from my object, 



128 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



which was to show that by forcing the re- 
lief of a picture, the usual and homelike 
expression of the face is neglected. On 
seeing themselves so portrayed, many per- 
sons exclaim, with the little old woman, 
of whose somnolence our nursery rhymes 
tell us, that the peddler Stout had taken a 
base advantage, "This is none o' I," and 
their friends confirm the verdict, not being 
accustomed to seeing the features so illumi- 
nated, and feeling that the most objection- 
able parts of the physiognomy have been 
exaggerated. 

Ruskin says that " every good picture 
has a certain flatness," though he does not 
mean a map-like flatness, but a quiet re- 
tiring etfect, harmonious, and implying the 
best of modelling. In almost the same pas- 
sage he warns against painting so that an 
arm, limb, or feature starts out from the 
canvas, simulating the reality of life. 

Much more can be done to modify the 
defects of disagreeable features than many 
suppose. By perfect harmony in the chemi- 
cals, placing the sitter in a diffused light, 
full timing, and avoiding much intensity, 
glaring imperfections are reduced to a min- 
imum, and then, but not till then, when all 
the resources of the photographer have been 
exhausted, and you can conscientiously say, 
" I can do no more," call in the pencil, to 
remove, as far as may be, the unavoidable 
exaggerations of the negative. 

The skin-spots, freckles, warts and moles, 
chemically too intense, the wrinkles seen 
with the broad eye of the camera, the sha- 
dows under the brows, nose, and chin, and 
the hollow cheeks, all weak points in our 
art, by reason of the tendency of the chemi- 
cals to overdo the lights, before the shadows 
are out, all these may be carefully stippled 
to a more normal condition. 

Nor is this all; an intractably stupid or 
surly expression may be made rather pleas- 
ing, by obliterating the puckers in the fore- 
head, and the wrinkles between the brows, 
separating these latter a little, and arching 
them slightly, more sweetness given to the 
mouth by altering the curve of the lips; 
tin! eye rendered vivacious, when it is too 
dark, by touching in a catch-light at the 
top, and a softer transmitted light under- 
neath. In these, and other ways, a correct 



observer of physiognomy can do much, 
without departing from nature, for we must 
be careful to conform to the action of those 
muscles that give a lively expression, in 
order to represent the subject, not, indeed, 
as at the unhappy moment of the agonized 
sitting, but more as he or she appears at 
home among cheerful friends. 

The argument some operators consider as 
exhaustive, "Well, that is just as you looked 
when you sat," is seldom convincing to the 
customer, and is founded on a limited view 
of the aim of portraiture, and the capabili- 
ties of our profession. 

It is, of course, impossible to indicate 
what may or may not be done in every in- 
dividual case, in softening asperities of the 
negative. This must be left to what good 
taste each operator can exercise. 

The writer will feel satisfied if he has 
protested against the evil of formality, to 
which the profession seems in danger of 
being driven, in time to open the eyes of the ■ 
more earnest and inquiring among us, and 
thus hinder the abuse of the opportunity for 
license now afforded us. 

Most — and the writer sees the danger 
clearly, from having here one of these — most 
will at first glance deem the highly finished 
mechanism of the pencil, its pretty surface, 
superior to plain work; and perhaps it is 
better in many instances, but on the other 
hand, few of us know what can be done 
with the camera and chemicals alone, of 
which the works of Adam Salomon are un- 
doubtedly the highest exponent. This truly 
great artist obtains his highest effects from 
the plain negative, and those who have had 
the opportunity of studying his produc- 
tions, will return lovingly to them with 
satisfied eyes, long after they have detected 
and wearied of the hypocritical convention- 
alities, that at first seemed so beautifully 
" smooth and clear." 



Anderson's Patent Background 
Frame. 

Improvement has been made in all pho- 
tographic furniture and apparatus except 
the background screen, which is still in its 
primitive state, viz., a frame with canvas 
tacked on; and every photographer knows 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



129 



the inconvenience of having several of these 
in an operating-room, being as a general 
thing unsightly in themselves, and taking 
up a great deal of valuable room, or limit- 
ing the photographer to the use of a very 
few, which, if scenic, gives a sameness to 
the work. To obviate this, the invention 
we describe below is so constructed, as to 
use any number of backgrounds on one 
frame, holding fifty equally as well as two. 
It is set upon castors, and can easily be 
moved to any part of the operating-room, 
is easily adjusted from one scene to another, 
and so contrived as to lighten the cloth 
top, bottom, and sides, making a perfectly 
smooth surface. 

Another method of using this invention 
is as a moving background, by having two 
or three plain backgrounds of different 
shades after each other, and then winding 
on one of the middle rollers, it may be 
moved either up or down, producing a per- 
fectly smooth and uniform tint from the 
roughest background. The frame can be 
made in any style of architecture, and of 
any wood or combination of woods, thus 
making a very ornamental piece of fur- 
niture, or may be made plain and cheap, 
and just as useful. For the better under- 
standing of the working and construction, 
reference may be had to the cut. The cloth 




is continuous, and may be used of any 
length. The frame consists of four rollers, 
at A B C D, C being placed at top, and B 
at the bottom of the frame. A D is the 



middle roller set a little farther back, upon 
which the canvas is wound. By winding 
on to one of the rollers A D, it unwinds 
from the other and exposes change of scene. 
Upon the ends of the rollers A D are rachet- 
wheels, whose teeth point in different direc- 
tions, provided with pawls, which are so 
constructed as to keep the rollers A D in 
any position, by which the canvas is tight- 
ened lengthwise; said pawls can be raised 
and lowered at pleasure. 

By applying the crank at E, the canvas 
can be tightened sideways to suit, thus mak- 
ing the cloth securely fastened on all sides. 

For further particulars address 

J. A. Anderson, 
212 Illinois St., Chicago, 111. 



GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. 

Lenses for Large Heads — The Effect of Dis- 
tance and Wide Angle in Landscape and 
Portrait Photography — On Failures in 
Group Pictures — The effect of Large Aper- 
ture — Potato Noses — Genre Pictures. 

In a previous letter I discussed the effect 
of distance in portrait photography, and 
demonstrated how the same person, taken at 
longer or shorter distance, will appear stouter 
or more slender. The article has given rise 
to considerable argument in Berlin, and I 
am glad to say that practical photogra- 
phers have already taken advantage of my 
suggestions, particularly in taking the large 
heads which are now so much in fashion. 
For heads in normal proportions, a distance 
of 90 inches is correct, and a carte-de-visite 
lens of 2J inches diameter, and from 6 to 
7 inches back focus, is most suitable. For a 
stout figure, which is to appear more slender, 
I would recommend a carte-de-visite lens of 
If inches diameter, 3 J to 4 inches back focus, 
and a distance of 60 inches. For a small 
figure which is to appear larger, a cabinet 
lens of 3 inches diameter, about 10 inches 
back focus and a distance of 130 inches, will 
answer the best. If this does not give ful- 
ness enough to the figure, then a 4-inch lens 
with 15 inches focus will do better, but a 
skilful operator will get along very well 
with the first three lenses. I must not ne- 



130 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



gleet, however, to remark that the effect on 
hollow bodies is just the reverse. 

Take, for instance, a hollow box with in- 
clined sides, A, B, C, D. A person standing 

B 




, ■;* VL 



at P will see nothing of the inclined sides, 
but, when he approaches closer they will 
become visible, and, as a consequence, the 
box will appear to be broader. This is strik- 
ingly illustrated by street views taken at 
short or long distances. When we go too 
close, the foreground will appear very 
broad, almost unnatural. The same thing 
happens in portraiture, not only with bust 
but also with full-length figures. Let C, 
D, for instance, be the foot of a figure, A, 
C, and you will see that the foot, as well as 
the floor underneath, will appear larger at 
a short distance, and, vice versa. Something 
similar will take place with the lap of a sit- 
ting person. I will give you an illustration. 



Fig. 33. 



Fig. 34. 





Fig. 33 was taken at short distance and Fig. 
34 at long distance. In both instances the 
apparatus was placed exactly vertical. The 
floor in Fig. 33 appears so strongly inclined 
as hardly to afford a safe foothold, and the 
chair looks crooked. The pictures were 
made with non-distorting lenses. There 
are, however, other curious errors, which 



make themselves particularly felt when we 
work with wide-angle lenses. 

I have mentioned to you in a former cor- 
respondence, a picture of a church here. 
The church has two 
cupolas, and the pic- 
ture was made with 
— .—_ T a Globe lens. The 

""""" building appeared 

correct and perfectly 
perpendicular, while 
the two steeples 
seemed to incline one against the other. The 
cause was m uch discussed, and generally con- 
sidered as a fault of the lens, but this is not 
the case, the fault lies in the central perspec- 
tive, and, to give a striking illustration of 
this, I would call your attention to Fig. 
28, aphotograph of five balls made with a lens 
free from distortion. You will observe 
that the ball C only is perfectly round ; 
all the others are more or less oval. No- 
body would believe that they were all pho- 
tographs of the same-sized balls, and yet 
the thing is perfectly natural ; take, for in- 
stance, three balls, A, B, C, Fig. 29. Each 
ball will send a cone of rays on the optical 
centre, O, of the camera, K. These cones 
are cut by the ground-glass at 
different angles. Seed c,f g, hi. 
In the latter instance the inter- 
sections must, of course, form an 
ellipse. 

I also wrote to you about the 
picture of a castle with a row of 
statues in front, which, towards 
the corner of the plate, became 
stouter. The case is exactly the 
same as the balls. Figs. 31 and 32 
will give you two such figures, 
which 1 have cut from two differ- 
ent pictures of a relief. Fig. 32 
is taken at short distance, Fig. 
31 at long distance. The head 
of Fig. 32 looks as if it had wa- 
ter on the brain, inclines forward, and the 
left foot is turned outward. Perhaps it 
will be objected that the nearness and dis- 
tance in taking these pictures have been 
exaggerated, but this is not the case. For 
the balls B and D the angle of vision is 
only 35°; for the balls A and E, 64£°. It 
is no uncommon thing, in taking groups in 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



131 



Fig. 29. 




the studio under an 
angle of 40°, and in 
landscapes and arch- 
itectural objects we 
do not hesitate to 
employ an angle of 
90°. Hence, the im- 
probabilities and ap- 
parent distortions 
in so many photo- 
graphs, and which 
must be avoided 
when we desire to 
produce a pleasing 
picture. 
Lately a photographer, Mr. Oldenberg, 
,ve me an instance which shows what 
an important part the above observations 
play in- the taking of groups. He made 
a picture of a company of soldiers at a dis- 
tance of about 100 feet. The picture was 
taken in the open air. He afterwards took 
the same company in his studio, when the 
men to the right and left complained that 
they looked too broad, and they preferred, 
the, in other respects, inferior group taken 
in the open air, in which the proportions 
were correct. Finally, Mr. Oldenberg cut 
out the broad figures at the edges, and re- 
placed them by the well-proportioned ones 
that had been taken in the open air. 

From the above we draw the conclusion 
that, in a group, the marginal and central 
figures are different. "When we go nearer 
to the group the central figures will become 
more slender, exactly as in the Apollo bust 
in your February issue, while the marginal 
figures will become broader as in the an- 
nexed Figs. 31 and 32, and we draw the prac- 
tical rule that in groups we should place 
the stout persons in the centre, the slender 
ones at the margin, and not make the dis- 
tance too short. The next thing to be con- 
sidered is the aperture of the lens. Many 
a practical man must have noted the pe- 
culiar plastic appearance of the head on the 
ground-glass of the camera ; this is particu- 
larly the case with statues, and partly at 
least this effect must be transferred to the 
negative. Lenses with small openings do 
not show this plastic effect, and hence it is 
connected with the size of the aperture. 
Take a lens of 2£ inches aperture ; the dia- 
metrical opposite points are as far removed 



132 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



from one another as the eyes in our head. 
As our right eye sees a little more of the 
right side and our left eye a little more of 
the left side of the sitter, so the right and 
left side of the lens will take in more on 
either side, and hence produce an almost 
stereoscopic picture on the ground-glass, f 

That this is no illusion, is easily demon- 
strated by experiment. If we take a plate 
of opal glass, place the same exactly verti- 
cal, so that the plate will face with its sharp 
edge towards a large portrait lens ; if we 
now focus this edge we will find that not 
only the edge will appear on the ground- 
glass, but also to the right and left of it a 
bright line will appear, which proves that 
the lens not only sees the edge but also on 
either side parts of the surface of the plate. 
"When we cover the right side of the lens 
the bright line will disappear on the right 
side, and vice versa, and, unless we have 
focussed very exactly, the sharp edge will 
appear blurred and the margins confused. 

Unfortunately we have a similar object 
with a sharp edge in our faces, called nose, 
and it is no unfrequent occurrence that simi- 
lar appearances take place with this mem- 
ber of our face. When the camera is far re- 
moved from thesitter itdoes not make much 
difference. When the camera is very near, 
and we focus with a large lens sharp on the 
eyes, the outlines of the ridge of the nose 
will often appear blurred and without sharp- 
ness. The nose will appear thick and clumsy ; 
we call such noses here potato noses. This 
will take place most frequently with lenses 
of large aperture and short focus (3 to 6 
inches), and, in order to avoid it, it is best 
to take a three-quarter face. 

I received, a short time ago, your Feb- 
ruary No. I was glad to see that genre 
pictures receive more attention in America. 
Not long ago our Society for the Advance- 
ment of Photography received from Mr. H. 
Merz, of* New York, a collection of these 
charming pictures as a present. I have no 
doubt that the stereoscopes of Loescher & 
Petsch have given the first impulse in this 
direction. 

Similar attempts to produce genre pic- 
tures have been made here; however, the 
thing is not so easy as it appears. An origi- 
nal case came recently under my own no- 



tice. Perhaps you know the pretty pic- 
tures called " Motherlove." A young 
mother in modern costume sits reading in 
a fauteuil ; her little son approaches from 
behind, and, standing on a chair, embraces 
her. Surprised and delighted, the mother 
drops her book and kisses the child. 

A photographer tried to imitate this pic- 
ture from life. A young lady for the char- 
acter of the mother was easilj' found ; she 
took her position very gracefully and made 
a very affectionate face, but the boy who 
should represent the son was not so easily 
managed ; he seemed to have no inclination 
to embrace his pseudo mother ; he made a 
strong opposition, and only a sound thrash- 
ing brought him finally to terms. This, of 
course, had fatigued the lady, and finally 
the result was, that the boy looked as if 
he would choke his mother, and the moth- 
er's face had the expression of a reproach 
for being interrupted in her reading. 

This is only one instance, but Loescher 
& Petsch and Milster can give hundreds of 
instances where a beautiful idea had to be 
abandoned on this account. 

Yours truly, 

Dr. H. Vogel. 



THE SOLAR NEGATIVE PRIZE. 

The judges selected by Mr. Moore to ex- 
amine the negatives sent to compete for the 
gold medal offered by him for the best solar 
negative, were Messrs. J. C. Browne, A. 
J. De Morat, and A. Hemple, none of 
whom were competitors. According to the 
offer and conditions of Mr. Moore, the 
judges proceeded to select from the thirty- 
three negatives sent, the five they consid- 
ered best, and from that five, the one to 
merit the award. The following persons' 
negatives were then selected : 

1. F. W. Horton, New York City. 

2. 0. B. De Morat, Philadelphia. 

3. Thomas M. Saurman, Norristown, Pa. 

4. Charles Stafford, Norwich, N. Y. 

5. P. B. Jones, Davenport, Iowa. 
Prints were then made from each of tho 

above by Mr. Moore, with equal care, and 
submitted to the judges, when they awarded 
the prize to Mr. F. W. llorton, Brady's 
Gallery, New York City, and so reported to 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



133 



Mr. Moore. Mr. Horton has our best con- 
gratulations. His picture is a very beauti- 
ful one of a little girl. The other four are 
also fine. The decision was made just as 
we were going to press. We haven't space 
to say more about them now. 

At the Cleveland exhibition, Mr. Moore 
will exhibit prints from the five chosen 
negatives, and the negatives also. He 
will exhibit also prints from several of 
the other competing negatives. A print 
from the prize negative will soon be for- 
warded to the five parties chosen, and then 
others who want points from the prize, or 
any of the competing negatives, may obtain 
them of Mr. Moore, on conditions named 
in his card in Specialties this month. Some 
of the subjects chosen are very good, and 
the work choice for specimens. The com- 
mittee will probably have something to say 
in our next on the subject of making solar 
negatives, that will be useful to all who 
make that class of work. 



GATHERED FRAGMENTS. 

BY DAVID DUNCAN. 

Casting my mites from time to time into 
the treasury of photographic knowledge, I 
feel inclined to swerve from the beaten 
track of formulas for collodions, developers, 
etc., being thoroughly imbued with the con- 
viction that the best results are obtained by 
the simplest means. It would not be wise 
on my part, however, to say we have col- 
lodions enough, developers enough, inten- 
sifiers enough; for, doubtless, there is gold 
remaining in the old lode yet. But to the 
point. I generally jot down any fragments 
of information I come across, which I think 
may be of service to the photographic art. 
I here give a few of them from various 
sources, hoping they may be useful (sine 
die) to the reader who is unacquainted with 
them. 

1. I am indebted to a gentleman named 
Wright, an ingenious member of our pro- 
fession, for the following simple but prac- 
tical idea. Many photographers, when mak- 
ing albumen solutions, either for coating 
glass plates, dry plate work, collodio-chlo- 



ride, etc., spend much time in effecting a 
combination between the white of egg and 
water by beating the whole to a froth. Mr. 
Wright's plan is to put some broken pieces 
of glass into a clean bottle with the albu- 
men and water, shake a few minutes, and 
filter. The broken glass speedily " cuts up" 
the albumen, thus rendering the modus 
operandi simple and effective. 

2. Chloride of copper completely removes 
even from colored woven cotton tissues, 
stains occasioned by nitrate of silver. They 
require, however, to be washed afterwards 
in a solution of hyposulphite of soda. From 
white calico or linen, nitrate stains are more 
readily and effectively removed by apply- 
ing a dilute solution and rinsing in plenty 
of fresh water. By the above means, cya- 
nide of potassium, so highly poisonous, is 
rendered unnecessary, and, let me add, may 
possibly be a good substitute for cleansing 
the hands from nitrate stains. 

3. By adding a few drops of liquid car- 
bolic acid to iodine tincture the latter does 
not stain. 

4. The following makes a rapid drying 
cement, and may be useful in the labora- 
tory: 

Amber, .... 1 part. 
Bisulphide of Carbon, . H parts. 

5. An indelible and good black ink is of 
service to the photographer; the foregoing 
is excellent. Grind aniline black with a 
mixture of sixty drops of concentrated 
hydrochloric acid, and one and a half ounces 
of alcohol, the resulting liquid to be diluted 
with a hot solution of one andahalf drachms 
of gum arabic in six ounces of water. If 
one and a half ounces of shellac, dissolved 
in six ounces of alcohol, be substituted for 
the gum, the composition is suitable for 
blacking leather, wood, brass, etc. 

6. Prof. Scheerrer, of Frieberg, Saxony, 
suggests a simple method for purifying 
water. It is based upon the property that 
a neutral solution of sulphate or peroxide 
of iron has for decomposing organic mat- 
ters. It is thereby converted into a basic 
insoluble salt, which carries the impurities 
with it to the bottom. This suggestion may 
be. of use to the photographic chemist, and 
therefore not out of place in this journal. 



134 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGR APHER. 



On the Source of the Difficulties Pre- 
sented by 
The Collodio-Bromide Process. 

BY M. CAREY LEA. 

Some years ago, whilst experimenting with 
various dry processes, I recognized in the 
collodio-hromide a capacity for giving a cer- 
tain indescribable harmony of effect that no 
other dry plates seemed to yield. I do not 
think that the nature of this action has ever 
been truly described ; it is commonly said 
that bromide of silver does not easily solar- 
ize ; but that is only a part of its merits. The 
truth is, that the effect of light upon bromide 
of silver seems to spend itself, if I may so 
express it. After a time, its action proceeds 
at a slower rate. If it solarized, then the 
highest lights would be less dense than those 
just not solarized. If the action stopped 
short after a certain extent, then the lighter 
half-tones would overtake the high lights, 
and so greatly injure the general effect. But 
the gradual slackening of the action without 
cessation of it, enables the collodio-bromide 
process, when well managed, to render con- 
trasts in a way that no other dry process 
that I have ever used is capable of doing. 

This priceless advantage has caused me to 
adhere steadfastly to this one process, of 
which I have tried innumerable variations. 
Like all those who have tried it, I have been 
annoyed at times by the plates failing, and 
when one plate has done so, generally the 
whole batch did likewise ; this seemed to 
point to some essential error in the received 
method of working the process. 

In the introduction of a chloride into the 
collodion, I found a material gain. Since 
I wrote the paper in which I described that 
innovation, and which was published about 
ten weeks ago, I have carried on an unin- 
terrupted series of experiments. At last I 
have reached the secret of the whole diffi- 
culty, and have found its complete cure. To 
make the collodio-bromide process work 
with regular success, it is necessary to add 
an acid, preferably a strong mineral acid, 
to the collodion. 

This may seem at first an extraordinary 
proposition, but upon examination it will be 
found right, theoretically as well as practi- 
cally. In the wet process wc have often 



acid in every stage of the work. The collo- 
dion is acid, or at least contains free iodine, 
which is virtually the same thing ; the bath 
is generally acidified, and the development 
is usually acid also. Now it is well known 
that bromide of silver bears acid very much 
better than iodide, that is to say, that the 
introduction of a bromide into the ordinary 
collodion for the wet process, enables the 
bath to be acidulated without loss of sensi- 
tiveness, which was not the case when simply 
iodized collodions were used. With the 
total exclusion of iodide of silver of course 
the capacity to bear acid is increased, and 
yet we have committed the absurdity of try- 
ing to work the collodio-bromide process 
with purely neutral materials, thus making 
it a solitary exception in the whole range 
of collodion methods. Even in the bromide 
process with a bath, acid is used, and very 
liberally ; in fact, more so than in any other 
process, wet or dry. 

The negatives afforded by the acidified 
collodio-bromide process are remarkably 
beautiful in appearance. They are beauti- 
fully clean, show the details even in the high 
lights when viewed as positives by reflected 
light, held before a dark background. Yery 
deep shadow, such as an open window, is 
represented by clean glass. The high lights, 
when the plate is looked at by reflected day- 
light, have a peculiar metallized coppery 
look. The back of the film, as seen through 
the glass, is just as clean and brilliant as the 
front. 

The acid which I use in preference is aqua 
regia in its active state. It is only necessary 
to mix in a stoppered vial, an ounce of ordi- 
nary nitric acid and two ounces of ordinary 
hydrochloric acid, and to gently warm the 
bottle until the acids react upon each other 
and the mixture passes into its active state 
by formation of chloronitrous acid. This is 
indicated by the liquid becoming orange 
color, and by the formation of small bubbles 
of gas in it. The stopper is then put in, and 
the bottle set aside for use. A convenient 
way to apply the heat is simply to set the 
vial on a stove. The proper proportion is 
one to two drops to the ounce of collodion. 
A considerable amount of experience will 
be necessary to decide which is best ; at pres- 
ent I incline to one drop to the ounce, but 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



135 



have at times used two very satisfactorily. 
The best way to apply the acid is to drop it 
into a very small porcelain capsule, and then 
turn into the collodion bottle as much as 
will run off. To get the rest in, pour a 
drachm or two of the collodion into the 
capsule and back again ; at first there will 
be a gelatinous drop formed, but by repeating 
the pouring six or eight times, this will re- 
dissolve, and the whole of the acid be trans- 
ferred. The time of acidifying seems not 
to be very important ; I have sometimes 
added the acid immediately before sensitiz- 
ing, and sometimes a month before ; in both 
cases with good results. 

The effect of the acidifying is extremely 
marked. The excess of nitrate of silver, 
which before could not be brought into 
actual solution without fogging, has no 
longer any such tendency. This I have 
tested critically by dissolving the whole of 
the nitrate of silver beforehand, and then 
keeping the materials for a day, or even 
two days, in contact with frequent shaking. 
Even with this treatment the negatives 
came out perfectly clear and bright, with- 
out the use of bromide in the development. 
Indeed, it is doubtful if that agent will ever 
be necessary ; at least, so far in my numer- 
ous experimental plates, I have never em- 
ployed it. 

It seems proper here to guard against a 
very obvious mistake which, nevertheless, 
occurred on a previous occasion. I do not 
suppose that the use of acid would be of the 
slightest benefit to those who work the col- 
lodio-bromide process with excess of bromide, 
nor was the chloride of copper intended to 
be so used. 

In order to measure the value of this new 
method, I have carefully tested it against, 
1st, My former process ; 2d, Mr. Dawson's 
process; 3d, Major Russell's rapid bromide 
process. 

1. Compared with my former process, this 
possesses almost if not quite the same sensi- 
bility, gives clearer negatives, and is more 
certain. 

2. Compared with Mr. Dawson's, its sen- 
sitiveness is materially greater than that of 
plates prepared by his method. These last 
are bright and clean, but the acidified col- 
lodion gives plates still brighter and cleaner. 



The difference in the amount of manipula- 
tion is also very important. Mr. Dawson 
is obliged to wash out the excess of bromide 
with extreme care to attain only a moderate 
sensitiveness. In my new process as in my 
former, leaving the plate for ten minutes in 
a pan of water is quite sufficient. Nor is 
distilled water needed ; but common river 
water or spring water answer every purpose. 

3. Compared with Russell's rapid dry pro- 
cess, the new method gives clearer and 
brighter plates with a sensitiveness nearly 
equal. Here the difference of manipulation 
is enormous. I think I am within the mark 
in saying that in any given time, at least 
three times as many plates can be made by 
my process as by the " rapid bromide," and 
plate for plate, I prefer the collodio-bro- 
mide. 

The following are the manipulations : 
collodion. • 
Ether, . . 20 fl. ounces. 

Alcohol, ... 12 " 
Intense Pyroxyline, . 162 grains. 
Bromide of Cadmium, . 320 " 
" Ammonium, 64 " 

Add half the alcohol to all the ether and 
shake up with the pyroxyline. Throw the 
salts into a flask with the rest of the alcohol, 
and heat till dissolved. Add to the other 
portion, shake up well, and place in a warm, 
light place for three weeks. It will be bet- 
ter still in two or three months. 

This collodion will require 16 grains to 
the ounce of nitrate of silver to sensitize it. 
I prefer, and always use, fused nitrate, and 
recommend it for all collodio-bromide work 
as much preferable to the crystallized. 

Having measured out the quantity of col- 
lodion to be sensitized, weigh out 16 grains 
of very finely-powdered nitrate of silver to 
each ounce, throw it into a test-tube or flask, 
and pour over it alcohol of 95 per cent, in the 
proportion of 1 drachm to each 8 grains of ni- 
trate, boil for a few minutes and the nitrate 
will dissolve. Pour it now in successive 
portions into the collodion, shaking up well 
after each. Shake about five minutes after 
the last portion is added, and every few 
times thereafter. Use twenty-four hours 
after sensitizing. 

I have, at various times during the past 
years, used this method of introducing the 



136 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



whole of the nitrate in actual solution. In 
the collodio-bromide process, as originally 
described by Messrs. Sayce and Bolton, it 
is not appropriate, because in that process 
the whole of the silver must not be in actual 
solution. But in this present acidified pro- 
cess it is desirable to have the silver alto- 
gether in solution : in fact this point makes 
an extremely wide difference between this 
process and any other that has been hitherto 
described. 

In twenty or twenty-four hours after sen- 
sitizing, the mixture will be in condition to 
use. The difference of a few hours will not 
be important, but it is best not to exceed 
twenty-four. If kept too long there will be 
a disposition to fog in the shadows and a 
want of brilliancy in the whole picture. The 
high lights also will not have their details 
well marked. The filtering is best done by 
putting a piece,of soft, clean sponge in the 
neck of a funnel, and cutting a small circu- 
lar filter of close-woven linen. The linen 
used for making these filters should be boiled 
for an hour with very weak caustic potash 
or soda, then well washed in hot water (of 
course without soap) and dried. This plan 
of filtering will be found excellent for all 
sorts of photographic collodions. Before fil- 
tering, the collodio-bromide mixture should 
rest quiet for two or three hours after its 
last shaking. 

For the preservative bath I recommend 
exclusively the two following, either of which 
give good results : 

LITMUS PRESERVATIVE. 

Cover a quarter of a pound of good litmus 
with hot water. Set a basin or plate over 
the bowl and put in a warm place for a day. 
Throw the paste upon a filter and pour on 
hot water till the filtrate amounts to a quart 
(the filtration is slow). Add a drachm of 
carbolic acid and the litmus solution keeps 
good indefinitely. 

Litmus Solution, . . ]J ounce. 
Water, .... 6 ounces. 
Gum Arabic, . . .90 grains. 
Sugnr (Fine White), . . 90 " 

Acetic Acid (No. 8, or 

Beaufoy's), . . . 25 minims. 

The above quantity makes a convenient 
bath for a 6$ x 8J plate. 



Throw the collodio-bromized plate into 
a pan of water until the greasy marks are 
gone, and then pass it into this bath, where 
it will remain, with occasional agitation, 
about ten minutes. The time is not import- 
ant ; five minutes will be sufficient ; fifteen 
will do no harm. 

TANNIN PRESERVATIVE. 

I have lately got good results with tannin 
by reducing the proportion greatly below 
what is ordinarily recommended ; by so re- 
ducing it I retain the beautiful variety of 
half-tint which is characteristic of gum, and 
which is greatly injured by using the ordi- 
nary quantity of tannin. I take — 



Water, 


. 7£ ounces. 


Gum Arabic, 


90 grains. 


Sugar, 


. 90 " 


Tannin, . 


. 15 " 



The tannin is here used 2 grains to the 
ounce. The washing of the plate is the 
same as above. 

The litmus gives the softest and most sen- 
sitive plates, but needs an intenser cotton. 
The latter of the two preservatives will 
work well with a wider range of pyroxylines 
than the former, and give a brighter pic- 
ture. The tannin is the easiest to succeed 
with, but the litmus, when well managed, 
undoubtedly gives the best negatives. In 
either case the negatives are very beautiful : 
better looking or better printing negatives 
cannot be got with the wet process. 

DEVELOPMENT. 

Prepare a 60-grain alcoholic solution of 
pyrogallic acid and a 40-grain solution of 
ordinary carbonate of ammonia in water. 

To 5 ounces of water add half a drachm 
of the pyrogallic solution and a drachm of 
the carbonate ammonia. Agitate the pan 
to mix them well, raise one end and put in 
the plate in the ordinary way. No washing 
or application of alcohol is needed. When 
the image is pretty well out, but thin, add 
another drachm of the ammonia solution, 
and density will quickly come. 

Bromide of potassium in the developer I 
have so far found wholly unnecessarj'. Nor 
will a redevelopment with silver be neces- 
sary unless, perhaps, when some great mis- 
take has been made in the exposure, which, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHER. 



137 



with a good light, will be the same as for 
the wet process, hut where the light is poor, 
or the contrasts great, the exposure will 
need to he prolonged. 

The above directions will probably be 
found sufficient for working the process. I 
am still endeavoring to improve it, if pos- 
sible : I judge that the method of keeping 
the residues over, which I have always 
found useful in the other modifications of 
collodio-bromide, in order to obtain deiise 
opaque films, will be also valuable here, but 
have not as yet sufficiently tried it. I am 
also about to examine the applicability of 
hydrobromic acid with or without nitric acid, 
to the collodion, instead of hydrochloric. 
I scarcely expect, however, that it will prove 
advantageous, as the introduction of chloride 
of silver into the sensitive film is a decided 
advantage, as I have already proved in the 
case of chloride of copper. The aqua regia 
here recommended may be used either as a 
substitute for the chloride of copper before 
proposed by me, or in conjunction with it. 
Either way has given me excellent results. 

In conclusion I may say that I have never 
found any photographic process so pleasant 
to work as this. The tedious washings after 
coating the plate, which consume so much 
time in some other processes, are here done 
away with, the plates are made easily, 
rapidly, and with great regularity. The two 
conditions of success are, to use a very in- 
tense cotton, and at the same time one 
which will make a very easy flowing collo- 
dion, for want of which latter quality, 
mottled skies may result. The plates should 
be fixed in very weak hyposulphite, never 
in cyanide. 

Philadelphia, March 12th, 1870. 



THE WOODBURY PROCESS IN 
FRANCE. 

The great interest taken by many of our 
readers in the Woodbury process, a beauti- 
ful print by which appeared in our January 
issue, prompts us to make the following ex- 
tracts from a letter by Mr. H. Baden Pritch- 
ard to the Photographic Journal, concerning 
the workings of the process in France. 



The establishment located at Asnieres, is 
under the direction of M . Eousselon (to whose 
courtesy I am much indebted), and at pres- 
ent capable of turning out 500,000 impres- 
sions per month. The various operations, 
with the exception of those relating to the 
preparation and exposure to light of the 
gelatine, are carried on in one vast and lofty 
workshop, partitioned off into inclosures. 
In the printing department five circular 
tables are fitted up, each furnished with six 
presses; one workman is sufficient for each 
table-, who by causing the latter to revolve 
the sixth part of a circle, brings each press 
successively under his hands. A quantity 
of warm gelatinous ink is poured over the 
engraved plate, the paper is placed upon 
the ink, and the lid of the press is then shut 
down upon the paper. A short time is 
necessary to allow the ink to set ; and by 
arranging half a dozen presses in the man- 
ner described, an interval elapses between 
the application of the ink and the removal 
of the finished print. Most of the presses 
employed are fitted with a hinged lid, fas- 
tened by means of a hasp ; but Mr. Eousse- 
lon states the pressure exerted by this de- 
scription of press is not always perfectly 
equal, and he contemplates, therefore, adopt- 
ing a screw press, of which he has already 
some half dozen under trial. Moreover, so 
much work has he at present in hand that 
five more tables are required to be fitted up 
at once. In the majority of the presses two 
pictures, about cabinet-size, are printed at 
one operation, while the largest impression 
thrown off appeared to measure about a foot 
in length. The size of pictures to be pro- 
duced depends solely upon the amount of 
pressure at one's disposal in pressing the 
gelatine matrix against the metal plate, and 
upon the size and evenness of the latter. 

The obtaining of a perfectly uniform im- 
pression upon the metal plate is an opera- 
tion of some difficulty, and has only been 
arrived at after great study. The metal 
used is an alloy of lead and antimony, or 
one might say, lead hardened with one per 
cent, of antimony. The gelatine mould is 
laid upon a steel plate, and the sheet of 
alloy placed thereon, the latter being con- 
fined on all sides so as to be incapable of 
spreading out and thus distorting and other- 



138 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



wise injuring the engraving. Hydraulic 
pressure is then applied, and an impression 
obtained upon the alloy. M. Eousselon be- 
lieves that an improvement will be effected 
by using a press recently invented by a 
French engineer, M. Deugoffe, in which 
the last squeezing action is developed by 
the introduction (by means of a fine screw) 
of a piston into a reservoir of oil, and the 
latter, being thus displaced, exerts a steady 
and uniform pressure. The operation of 
pumping, in the ordinary hydraulic ma- 
chine, causes the latter to move by jerks; 
and particles of the metal becoming affected 
thereby after continual employment, un- 
even pressure is the result. The machine 
of M. Deugoffe is capable of exerting a 
pressure of 1000 kilogrammes on a surface 
two centimetres square, and is now em- 
ployed in the Imperial Arsenals for the 
testing of cannon. 

According to M. Kousselon's experience, 
the gelatine matrix will serve for the pro- 
duction of twelve engraved plates if care be 
exercised in their preparation. 

The inks employed may be of any tint; 
but in making up the neutral colors it was 
found necessary to add always a slight 
quantity of blue pigment to counteract the 
yellowish tinge imparted by the other in- 
gredients. There is now, however, no diffi- 
culty experienced in regard to the supply 
of the various tints. Sometimes a sepia 
tint is used, sometimes bistre, sometimes 
neutral ; but in all cases, the more it is 
worked (that is to say, the more frequently 
the parings and droppings are employed), 
the better the material becomes. 

The pictures produced by Messrs. Goupil 
& Co. are for the most part reproductions 
from paintings and cartons, more especially 
the former. The pictures are of small size, 
and, when mounted and finished, sent into 
the market to compete with ordinary photo- 
graphs, without any special attention being 
called to the manner in which they have 
been produced; they simply bear the word 
" photoglyptique," and are sold entirely on 
their own apparent merits. No portraits 
were being executed ; but that was simply, 
said Mr. Kousselon, because no order for 
that class of photograph was at present 
in hand. At my request, however, some 



large heads were shown, displaying the va- 
rious degrees of depth and vigor to be ob- 
tained ; and these were, without exception, 
of the most promising character. 

As regards the preparation of the gela- 
tine mould, or matrix, but little difficulty is 
now experienced. Printing by means of di- 
rect rays only is necessary, the exposure re- 
quired being generally about the same as that 
of a silver print. The gelatine employed 
must be of a certain quality and prepared 
with care. No photometer of any kind is 
employed, as the operators prefer to depend 
entirely upon their own judgment; and the 
subsequent operations of washing and hard- 
ening the film are so simple as hardly to 
necessitate special instruction in the matter. 

In one division of the workshop, near the 
hydraulic presses, are stationed other ma- 
chines used in facilitating the various man- 
ipulations. A small steam-engine, always 
ready to be set going, and capable of driving 
a shaft running along the workroom, is 
used for various purposes. A circular saw 
for cutting and trimming the engraved 
plate to the exact dimensions of the press, 
a lathe for turning purposes, and a large 
magneto-electric machine are all set in 
motion by this steam shaft. The electric 
machine is of the same description as those 
at present employed on the large Atlantic 
steamers for signaling purposes, and at 
forty centimetres distance gives a light 
about a fifth part as strong as that of the 
sun. By its aid engravings and paint- 
ings are frequently copied; but the pose 
is necessarily a somewhat lengthy one. 
Near to this machine was a powerful elec- 
trotyping apparatus, capable of furnishing 
in half an hour a copper deposit, or sheet, 
of considerable thickness, which, unlike in 
nature to the greater number of rapidly 
precipitated electrotypes, was of exceed- 
ingly fine quality and quite free from all 
trace of coarseness ; this apparatus was em- 
ployed by M. Kousselon in perfecting a 
modification of the Woodburytype, of which 
I will now say a few words before closing. 

That gentleman's endeavors are directed 
to transforming, if possible, a photographic 
portrait into a copper-plate engraving 
capable of being printed by ordinary cop- 
per-plate printers with greasy ink; and this 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



139 



aim he is sanguine of fulfilling with the aid 
of Woodburytype. A gelatine matrix is 
obtained in the ordinary manner; and to 
this is then imparted, by a secret method, 
a species of grain which is afterwards con- 
veyed to a metal-plate. "Woodburytype, 
c'est la pression," said M. Kousselon, thus 
broadly defining the process; "and this I 
chiefly employ in elaborating my method." 
The specimens shown did not profess to be 
more than mere outlines, but they were still 
sufficient to warrant a continuation of the 
experimental research to which M. Rous- 
selon has devoted himself. 

Before leaving, the complete series of 
manipulations, with the exception of that 
of washing the gelatine, were successfully 
demonstrated. The negative, the gelatine 
matrix, the impressing of the image upon 
metal, the trimming and fitting up of the 
plate, the adjustment of the evenly polished 
surfaces in the press, the actual printing, 
the fixing, mounting, and finishing of the 
pictures, were all shown one after another ; 
but of all these the most marvellous was 
certainly the conversion of the flat dull 
metal surface into an engraved plate of ex- 
quisite delicacy and finish, a proceeding 
which, here accomplished in minutes, in 
the ordinary course is often a matter of 
years. 



OTJR PICTURE. 

The beautiful view in Central Park, New 
York, which we present with our current 
number, is from negatives made by H. J. 
Newton, Esq., an amateur photographer of 
much note, and whose name is well known 
as one of our occasional contributors, by his 
Tea Dry Process, which he has already pub- 
lished herein, and with all late improve- 
ments, in Photographic Mosaics for 1870, 
page 103, to which please refer. 

The negatives were made with a 6-inch 
Hemispherical Lens; time, with smallest 
opening, usually 1J minutes, using the de- 
veloper half the strength published. "When 
the full strength is used the time is one- 
half. The negatives were all made on the 
shadow side, which makes the sensitiveness 
of the plates the more remarkable. 



The prints are made on Scovill Manu- 
facturing Company's "Pearl" paper, and 
verify the excellence of that well-known 
and popular brand of paper. It has become 
a national stand-by, and well deserves it, 
for care is always had in its preparation. 

Mr. A. II. Atwood, with Mr. J. LoefBer, 
932 Broadway, New York, made the prints, 
and to his skill and good taste we are much 
indebted, for he was obliged to hurry them 
through all sorts of weather. He used Mr. 
Newton's sensitizing and toning solutions, 
which, although published before, we give 
below, as received from Mr. Atwood. 

SENSITIZING SOLUTION. 



Nitrate of 


Silver, . 


. 6 ounces. 


" 


Magnesium, 


. 4 " 


" 


Ammonium, 


. 3 " 


" 


Lead, 


| ounce. 


Water, . 




. 80 ounces. 


Liq. Amm 


onia Cone, 


. 1| drachms. 



The hydrometer test for this should be 
from 58 to 65 grains, and varies with differ- 
ent samples of the nitrates. The strength 
may be easily maintained if you know 
where you start from, as very little of the 
nitrates are taken up except the silver. 
When the first test is made, mark what 
the strength is on the hydrometer. After 
sensitizing your paper test again, and you 
will know whatsilver has been used and how 
much to add until the original strength is 
attained. Mr. Atwood advises not to allow 
the solution to be used more than 10 grains 
less than the original strength. Another 
solution, mixed the same as the first, should 
be kept as a stock-solution from which to 
strengthen the one in use. Every two or 
three days add a few drops of liq. am- 
monia, in order to keep the solution alka- 
line. Fume with ammonia from 15 to 20 
minutes in cold weather, and 5 in hot. 

The ordinary hypo fixing bath is used, 
except that to each gallon of fixing solution 
add half an ounce of sal ammoniac. It 
gives more clearness to the prints. 

The toning bath (Mr. Newton's) used was 
published in our last September issue, cor- 
rectly and fully, except the last paragraph , 
which should read, viz. : If the tones are 
too warm, add borax to the stock-bottle 
No. 3 until the purple is dark enough to 



140 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



suit the taste. Or, if a very warm reddish 
tone be preferred, increase the proportion 
of tungstate in stock-bottle No. 3. This 
toning bath should never be thrown away, 
as it improves by age. Mr. Newton has 
practised the above for three or four years, 
and says he could not be induced to change. 
Of his negatives Mr. Atwood says : " In all 
kinds of weather they print with remarka- 
bleevenness, and in thestrongest light there 
is no danger of over-printing the shadows. 
The detail is as fine in one part as in the 
other, and I must say that, in ten years'' ex- 
perience in printing, I never had a finer 
lot of negatives to print from." 

"We have ourselves frequently been shown 
his negatives by Mr. Newton, and can testi- 
fy to their excellence and uniform quality. 
This is the first dry-plate picture we have 
ever published, and certainly commends 
Mr. Newton's process, which he has worked 
■at so industriously, very highly. 



VOICES FROM THE CRAFT. 

Sermon's TEsrPLE of Art, 
914 Arch Street. 

Mr. Editor: Having read your late edi- 
torial on Sarony's Photo-crayon Process, I 
immediately invested $25 in it, and am 
glad to say that the process, purchased from 
the Messrs. Sarony Lambert, is all and even 
more than they really claim. 

The results are beautiful in the extreme, 
and I consider it a great improvement in 
the art. Most artistic pictures can be gotten 
up at very small cost by this process. 

From the printed modus operandi, and 
general formulas and general information 
sent me, with the fifty splendidly crayon- 
ized sheets, I experienced no trouble in 
producing the most artistic effects with 
ridiculously simple means. 

Hoping* that photographers working this 
beautiful remunerative process will take 
your advice, and keep the price of these 
pictures up, 

I remain yours, (respectfully, 

W. L. Germon. 

P. S. By this process I have made a 
11 x 14 from a carte negative, and finished 
the same in twenty seconds without solar 



camera, and at the small cost of 50 cents. 
I send you this 11 x 14 for examination. G. 

The print Mr. Germon sends us is cer- 
tainly an exquisite production, and looks 
like a finely worked-up crayon drawing. 
It is a great credit, both to Mr. Germon 
and the process. — Ed. P. P. 

Editor Philadelphia Photographer: I 
find a very simple and good plan of giving a 
tooth to varnished negatives, for the purpose 
of retouching with a pencil, in applying 
rosin with the finger ; pulverize the rosin 
very fine, and rub on the parts to be worked. 
Should there be an excess of pencilling, it can 
be softened by going over the surface again 
and reworking. 

To our meeting in June, come all. The 
craft will find our green and airy little For- 
est City on the lakes, to be a goodly spot for 
relaxation and brotherly confab. 

I expect to see a large attendance, and 

hope to take them in — a group. 

Photographically yours, 

Thomas T. Sweeny. 
Cleveland, 0. 



WRINKLES AND DODGES. 

I see no end of plans to purify the print- 
ing bath, from both sides of the Atlantic. 
Now I am not troubled with this more than 
perhaps three times in a year; my bath is 
always clear and works well, and it seems 
strange why other baths should not do so too. 

I use 50 grs. silver per oz., dissolve half 
in ammonia, and in making 20 oz. I take 
15 water and 5 alcohol 95°, floating from 20 
seconds to 40 seconds. If the bath gets dirty 
from carelessness in not adding silver, say 
an ounce for each quire, I use either Con- 
die's fluid or the pure permanganate of pot- 
ash, a few drops of a 10-grain solution and 
filter ; this will make a red bath clear in a 
very short time, and not injure it. The 
batli I now am using was first made in 1864, 
only renewed in bulk ever since. It is such 
a bother to have a dirty bath after every 
sensitizing. A. Henderson. 

If you find the following simple way of 
producing a yellow light in the dark-room 
worthy of notice, please let the craft have it : 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



141 



Get a tube of chrome yellow No. 2, a little 
drying oil, and an artist's brush, and give 
your lamp chimney a coat of this paint from 
the bottom to the middle, where it com- 
mences to narrow ; when this is done, stipple 
it all over with the end of the brush. Light 
your lamp, and the paint will soon dry. If 
necessary, you can repeat the painting. I 
have used such a chimney for several months 
and it answers admirably. 

A. Falkenshield. 

A very simple way to clean glass (new) 
or old negatives, is to use the nitric acid 
strong and no water. Afterwards wash well 
and set up to dry. Before using, polish with 
a piece of buckskin. No alcohol or rotten- 
stone required. This method I have found 
to be the easiest and best, but do not give it 
as new. T. P. Varley. 

Not long since I had my solar camera 
catch fire from the lens and my building 
also came near being burned down. My 
condenser was broken as was the tube also, 
and nearly all my solar camera was de- 
stroyed. To prevent the repetition of such 
officiousness on the part of old Sol, I had a 
cone of sheet iron made which I placed 
under the condensing lens (see figure), so 




that the sun could not get through sideways. 
I had a cover over the lens outside, but the 
wind blew it off". About 3 p.m., the sun 
got in position to do mischief and did it. I 
fortunately heard the fire in time to save 
losing my rooms entire. 

A. E. TURNBULL. 

To Eemove Silver Stains from the 
Fingers. — Wash the fingers with a solu- 
tion of sulphate or chloride of zinc, made 
as saturated as possible and slightly acidu- 
lated. While the fingers are in the solu- 
tion, rub the blackest parts with a rod of 
zinc, to facilitate the reduction. After the 
stains have disappeared, rinse them in plain 
water, and then wash well with soap and 



water. By this plan the hands are made 
entirely clean, and no trace of poison left 
in the skin. — Abbk Fortin in Les Mondes. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC WORLD. 

The Mittheilungen, News, &c. , call atten- 
tion to the Cleveland exhibition, and re- 
quest photographers to send specimens. 

Small medallion photographs are now 
used on note paper in conjunction with the 
monogram. 

An exhibition was held in Calcutta, India, 
in January; one in Manchester, England, 
last month ; one begins in Paris, May 1st, 
and one in Cleveland, O., June 1st. Be 
getting ready for the latter. 

" R.," the well-known photographer, 
took the cars for home the other night, and, 
wearied with a long day's work in posing 
hard subjects for pictures, fell into a gentle 
doze. At the first station a lady entered, and 
stopping at the vacant seat by " R.'s " side, 
said: " Can I sit here, sir?" 

"Yes'm," said the half-aroused artist. 
"Full length or bust?" 

In England they are about establishing a 
national gallery of the photographs of all 
rogues that come to the hands of the police. 
Also, it is proposed to photograph all 
habitual drunkards, and supply each beer 
house with a copy, with a warning not to 
sell such any more liquor. 

The Mittheilungen says about the Mosaics 
for 1870 and How to Paint Photographs in 
Water Colors, by Ayres : 

"Short, plain, and practical, these have 
the characteristics of most English and Am- 
erican works. The former is a worthy com- 
panion of Simpson's work, while the latter 
gives special and very lucidly written di- 
rections how to color photographs in water 
colors." 

Professor Yon Monckhoven's new 
process, for making enlargements with arti- 
ficial light, is making the rounds of the 
Continental periodicals; it is everywhere 
highly spoken of, and seems in every respect 
a success. M. Romain Talbot advertises a 
complete apparatus for making these en- 
largements for frs. 550 to frs. GOO. 



142 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



Dr. Duchenne, of Boulogne, has made 
great use of photography in securing the 
expression of his subjects when under the 
influence of the galvanic battery. About 
fifty portraits are given in the Journal of 
Psychological Medicine for January, and are 



very curious, indeed. "Were it not for our 
useful art, none but those present, when 
the experiments were made, could see the 
eifect of the treatment, but now any one 
can see and study them. Thus our art 
creeps up. 



To Cleveland. — The Secretaries are actively 
engaged in trying to secure reduced fares for 
those going to Cleveland, and have succeeded 
with several. Buy a Railroad Guide, and study 
out your route, then write for your order for a 
ticket. See list of Roads in our next issue. 



Our readers will observe that we print sixteen 
pages more than usual this month, and give them 
a splendid variety of interesting matter. Yet 
we have to lay over several articles. Please 
read all carefully, and consult our advertise- 
ments old and new. 



Mr. D. H. Cussons, Southport. England, has 
favored us with copies of his " Pocket Almanac 
for Photographers," for 1870, which is very 
handy and neatly printed. 



Robinson's Pictorial Effect in Photogra- 
phy. — "It is the best work of the kind a pho- 
tographer could have and study." — F. Ulrich, 
N. Y. 

Signor A. Montagna will please accept our 
thanks for a copy of his little manual on carbon- 
printing and burning in enamels. 



" Helios " is the title of the new photographic 
journal at Dresden, making the sixth in G-er- 
many. Herr Hermon Krone is the editor. 



Mr. N. W. Pease, North Conway, N. H , has 
placed us under obligations for a number of 
very beautiful White Mountain stereographs. 
They are mainly chosen well as views, and the 
photography is also excellent. 



Tne first premium for Eclipse photographs 
(with a medal), was awarded by the American 
Institute of New York to Prof. Morton, as head 
and representative of the Philadelphia party. 

Photographic Crayons. — At least in our 
city, the Sarony photographic crayons seem des- 
tined to become very popular. All of our emi- 
nent men are working away at them, endeavor- 
ing to produce them well. Messrs Suddards & 
Fennemore, 822 Arch Street, make a fine display 



of them. Mr. Fennemore was the first to take 
hold of them here, and his pictures show what 
excellent hands can do with excellent means. 
They are sharp, bright, vigorous, and yet very 
soft and beautiful. No doubt the photographic 
crayons will come in for a share of the rivalry at 
the Cleveland Exhibition. 

The Exhibition Building. — We have received 
from the Local Secretary, Mr. J. F. Ryder, Cleve- 
land, two 12 x 16 views of the interior of the 
new Central Skating Rink, where it is proposed 
to hold our exhibition. The negatives were 
made by Mr. Thomas H. Johnson, and are very 
fine for interiors. The place chosen by Mr. 
Ryder will be a grand one for the Exhibition, 
and will afford every convenience of light, hall 
for meeting, committee rooms, etc., etc. It is 
large. Let it be filled. 



From Messrs. J. B. Lippincott & Co., pub- 
lishers, Philadelphia, we have received copies of 
Good Words and The Sunday Magazine, 
two excellent monthly magazines reprinted from 
the English. Not only are they profusely il- 
lustrated with pictures, which are always inter- 
esting as studies, but each issue contains more 
or less of life pictures, which enable us to know 
naore of the men whom we come in contact with. 
For example, in Good Words we have contribu- 
tions concerning "Our Working People, and 
How They Live," " Devoted Lives," " A Visit 
to the Country of the Vaudois," etc., etc., and 
in the other, "Episodes in an Obscure Life," 
" Dealings with Samaritans,'' " The Italians in 
London," "The Struggle in Ferrara," etc., etc. 
Both magazines are ably edited, high-toned, and 
worthy. Good Words is $2.75 and The Sunday 
Magazine $.'5.50 per annum. 



We regret to learn that Mr. George Barker, 
of Niagara Falls, New York, was burned out on 
the 7th of February. His entire establishment 
was destroyed, though he succeeded in saving 
the most of his excellent and valuable stereo- 
scopic negatives of the Falls. Phoenix-like, he 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



143 



hopes soon to be under way again, though his 
losses were heavy. 

Mr. Burnhatn, of Portland, Maine, was also 
burned out early in the year, and intends locat- 
ing South we believe. We ought to have a pho- 
tographer's insurance company, for nearly every 
photographer we hear of being burned out had 
little or no insurance. It is improvident and 
inexcusable. 

Received from Mr. F. W. Hardy, Bangor, 
Me., some very excellent carte and cabinet pho- 
tographs, displaying skill and taste. From Mr. 
W. H. Sipperly, Mechanicsville, N. Y., some 
snow forest views. From H. H. Bennett, Kil- 
bourn City, Wis., some admirable stereographs 
of the " Dells of the Wisconsin River,'' and 
"Devil's Lake." From C. S. Cooper, Wi- 
nooski Falls, Vt., views of factories, stores, Ac, 
which are clean and good. From J. L. Knight, 
Topeka, Kansas, a large "photo-monogram" of 
the members of the State government. From 
F. Thorp, Bucyrus, Ohio, a genre, picture, 
" Bringing Home the Apples," and others. 



Received. — From C. Alfred Garret, West 
Chester, excellent cartes from retouched nega- 
tives ; from W. L. Germon, Philadelphia, his 
business card, the letters of which are composed 
of the heads of his "subjects;" from Mr. A. 
Bogardus, New York, several fine cabinet-size 
photographs of great merit ; from Mons. Romain 
Talbot, Paris, France, a translation in French, 
by himself, of "Mr. Sutton's Alkaline Process." 
In noticing, in Feb. number, a picture from Mr. 
W. H. Rhoads, Philadelphia, we said it was of a 
rock ; it was of a horse which stood as still as a 
rock. " No Place Like Home," is the title of a 
cabinet-size genre picture by Mr. W. E. Bow- 
man, Ottawa, 111. The subject is a very demure- 
looking old gentleman, sitting under the shade 
of his "own vine and fig-tree," trying to catch 
flies, the aforesaid old gentleman being a toad, 
the aforesaid "vine," etc., being a toad-stool, 
and the catching instrument the tongue of the 
aforesaid toad. 

Messrs. Wilson, Hood & Co., Philadelphia, 
have favored us, and every photographer whose 
address they can obtain, with a copy of The 
Photographer's Reference Table, which enables 
one to find : 1st. The distance required between 
the camera and the subject. 2d. The equivalent 
focus of a suitable lens. 3d. The measure of the 
image on the focussing screen. 4th. The angle 
measured by the included subject ; which makes 
it a very useful thing to have. The table was 
got up by Mr. L. G. Bensa, in England, where it 



is sold for two shillings. Messrs. Wilson, Hood 
& Co., present it free, and, if any have been 
missed, they will be glad to supply those desir- 
ing them, until their stock is exhausted. 



We have received the following: A carte of 
the late George Peabody, from G. G. Johnson, 
Cleveland, 0., the last one taken ; some excellent 
cartes, enamelled, from Ross&Ormsby, Petaluma, 
Cal. ; carte of Master Simpson (13 years old, 
30 inches high), from Mr. Knowlton, Cumber- 
land, Ohio; some fine cabinets from W. Watson, 
Detroit ; cabinets from D S. Camp, Hartford, 
Conn. ; W. J. Baker, Buffalo , N. Y., and cartes 
and cabinets from Mr. E. L. Allen, 24 Temple 
Place, Boston. The latter are, most of then^ 
from retouched negatives, very carefully done. 
Some of Mr. Allen's work attracted so much at- 
tention in Berlin that he received orders for 1000 
copies from a dealer there. 

We also have stereo slides from Mr. H. A. 
Kimball, Concord, N. H., that are very fine 
some of them; others from S. J. Morrow, Yank- 
ton, Dakotah Territory ; and views of the in- 
terior of the Peabody Funeral Car, from Mr. G. 
K. Proctor, Salem, Mass. 



Received from Messrs. Prescott & White, 
Hartford, Conn., a fine cabinet of a lady, a land- 
scape ^avenue of trees), and an interior view, all 
excellent. From Mr. T. T- Sweeney, Cleveland, 
O., several instantaneous lake views that are fine, 
and some whole plate pictures of rocks and reflec- 
tions that are very pretty. From E. R. Curtiss, 
Madison, Wis., photographs of the State Senate 
group. From G. W. Carter, Lowville, N. Y., 
several very excellent carte and cabinet prints. 

Mr. Jno. A. Scholten, St. Louis, Mo., has 
favored us with a number of carte and cabinet 
photographs, that are remarkably and unusually 
fine. Mr. Scholten is master of a most excellent 
light, which he uses with wonderful effect. Some 
of his negatives are skilfully retouched. The 
whole lot is as fine a one as we have seen for 
many a day. His pictures of children are won- 
derful, and his posing artistic. The chemical 
and mechanical effects are also worthy of praise, 
and of being proud of. 



Messrs. Notman & Fraser, Toronto, Canada, 
have favored us with a number of Cabinet pho- 
tographs, which, in the posing and lighting of 
the model, show exquisite taste and artistic skill. 
Moreover, the master-touches of Mr. Fraser's 
pencil here and there, not only in the flesh, but 
in the high lights, draperies, and even the back- 
grounds, add greatly to their charm. They are 
capital studies, and make one think and wonder. 



144 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



We have a copy of our first volume for sale ; 
or a full set from the beginning. 

Me. L. G. Frost, photographer, Sherburne, 
N. Y., died February 14th. 

Mr. Chas. Stafford, Norwich, N. Y., lost 
his entire gallery, etc., by fire, March 9th. 

One of our Salomon negatives has been broken, 
which will delay our promised picture until M. 
Salomon favors us with another negative. 

The Mercantile Library Company have favored 
us with a complimentary ticket for the year 1870. 

We have seen Mr. Lothrop's prize ferrotype, 
and it is an admirable example of work. The 
result of the Ferrotypers' Association is better 
work all around. 

Mr. W. F. Osler, Chestnut Street, Philadel- 
phia, has favored us with an admirable 11 x 14 
Rembranplt photograph of Rev. J. F. Berg. D.D. 
It was made with a Steinheil lens. It is very 
effective and striking. 

Mr. F. Thorp, Bucyrus, 0., practises the very 
commendable plan of presenting each new year 
an example of some improvement in photography. 
This year the present was a print from a retouched 
negative. 

In Mr. Allen's formula for collodion, in our 
last, our correspondent neglected to mention a 
very important ingredient. No. 1 is right. No. 
2 should be 320 grains of bromide of ammonium 
in 16 oz. of 95 per cent, alcohol, and when dis- 
solved, add 800 grains of iodide of ammonium. 
When alj is dissolved, add to No. 1, etc., etc. 
Mr. Allen says their Boston Society is doing a 
good work, and breaking down all old jealous 
feelings. 



Answers to Correspondents. 
W. P. B. — We are glad your " old sore " has 
healed, and that you have "made up your 
mind" to take our Journal again. True, we 
did advise you to settle with the "bromide 
folks," but, had we not done so, we could not 
have fought the extension of the patent for you. 
Our advice against it, at the time, would have 
ruined our cause, and, instead of having to pay 
for it for two or three years, you would 'have had 
to pay for seven. 

E. G. Mairie. — White lac, bleached lac, and 
white gum shellac are. "all the same," though 
samples vary in quality. Good filtering paper 
will answer for filtering varnish, but the process 
is slow. Best plan is to make a lot a month 
beforehand, and give it plenty of time to filter 
and settle. If your varnish is "milky,'' proba- 
bly your alcohol is not good. 



"C" (Marietta, 0.) — Fusing a bath does 
not remove iodo-nitrate of silver, and when you 
again iodized it, you over-saturated the solution. 
Consequently the surplus crystallized as you 
mention. Remedy: Dilute the bath with water 
to one-half its strength, and then evaporate it to 
its wonted strength. 

H. Besoncon. — A plate of glass in the shield 
at the back of theferro plate generally straightens 
it. The "Phenix" brand we know to be good. 

Robinson & Shaw. — The reticulation or lines 
in your films are caused by using too much water 
to dissolve your bromides, and probably dirty 
water at that. 

G. & R. — You will find several articles on 
printing on canvas in our Vol. V and last volume. 
See pages 190 and 194. Vol. V, and 22, 42, and 
337, last volume; also on "Lantern Slides," 
page 276, last volume. 

Ingraham Bros., in trying Mr. O'Neil's 
printing bath, found it precipitate considerably. 
This is right. Use the clear solution, and save 
the precipitate (chlor. of silver) to add when the 
solution needs clearing. 

"J. W. D." — 1. We will serve you as gladly 
as if you got our magazine directly from us. 2. 
AVe much prefer Roettger's. 

E. D. Ormsby. — Very fair for an early effort. 
You will improve as you go on. 

Jno. C. Gray. — 1. Mr. Newton's tea process 
is good. See example herein. 2. Nitric acid will 
remove the image from ground porcelain glass, 
aided by scrubbing with a stiff tooth-brush. 

C. W. Brown. — Neither Prof. Towler or Mr. 
Carbutt have patented their tents, and you are 
welcome to make either. Your suggestions are 
good. Decision has not been given in Shaw & 
Wilcox case. 

E. A. Wilson. — If your collodion makes good 
negatives, adding a grain of bromide of cadmium 
to each ounce, and diluting it about one-third 
with ether and alcohol, will render it good for 
ferrotypes. 

L. W. Keen. — Probably your collodion is too 
neutral for your bath. Add tincture of iodine 
to it until it is a faint rose color, and your trou- 
ble will doubtless end. 

J. B. L. — After a bath has been boiled down, 
the lines you describe are apt to appear on the 
plates for a day or 'two. Remedy: Move the 
plate about in a circular motion when first dipped. 

Geo. B. Speoule. — Water, lampblack, whit- 
ing, and glue size, mixed a proper shade, will an- 
swer for backgrounds. 



THE 




%&U%nyitt. 



Vol. VII. 



MAY, 1870. 



No. 7 7. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, 

By BENERMAN & WILSON, 

In the Clerk's office of the District Court ofthe Uuited States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



THE EXHIBITION. 

The Executive Committee of the Na- 
tional Photographic Association ask the 
attention of exhibitors to the following 
rules, which are substantially the same as 
those of last year : 

The Exhibition will open Tuesday, June 
7th, 1870, at the Central Skating Rink, 
Cleveland, 0. It is unnecessary to apply 
for space, as there will be ample for all. 

The name and address of the exhibitor 
should be on every picture ; and, if for sale, 
the price may be attached. 

A list of articles must accompany each 
lot, and a duplicate list be sent per mail to 
the Local Secretary, stating number of 
packages. 

All articles will be submitted to a jury 
for admission. 

No articles shall be withdrawn until the 
close of the Exhibition. 

Where there are several in one city or 
town who exhibit, it is suggested that when 
convenient they unite and put their articles 
in one package. It may be optional, how-- 
ever. 

"While there will be ample space, and it 
is desirable to cover it, care should be given 
to the quality of work sent. Send your best. 

The following instructions by the Local 
Secretary will be insisted upon for the pur- 
pose of insuring system and good order : 



Directions to Exhibitors. 

Be liberal in quantity of pictures. We 
have a very large place for exhibition room 
and can accommodate all. 

Take particular care in putting up your 
pictures; attach them with stieking-paper 
to the mats or passepartouts, that they do 
not get displaced in transportation. Much 
trouble will be avoided by that precaution. 

Use good boxes for packing, and remem- 
ber that the same boxes must be used for re- 
packing. 

Fasten your frames into the boxes with 
screws and screw the covers on, that all 
may be taken apart without injury. 

Affix to each picture or frame of pictures 
your name and address. 

Have holes made for screw-eyes, and pack 
screw-eyes and cord with your pictures. 

Very large frames may be sent without 
glass, and proper care will be taken to keep 
pictures clean and from injury. 

Express or freight charges must be pre- 
paid. 

Photographs and all articles for exhibi- 
bition will-- be .'received from June 1st to 
7th; would ^prefer, however, to receive 3d 
and 4th , if shippers can so arrange. Mark : 

Photogbaphic Exhibition, 

Care J. F. Eyder, 
Central Rink, Cleveland, O. 

Send good photographs! Send a laeqe 



10 



146 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



LOT OF GOOD PHOTOGRAPHS ! ! COME 

YOURSELVES ! ! ! 

J. F. Ryder, 

Local Secretary. 

Arrangements have been effected with 
several railroad companies for excursion 
tickets at reduced rates, and also with ex- 
press companies for the carriage of articles 
for exhibition. Full instructions are given 
on this score on another page, which those 
interested would do well to consult. Let 
every live photographer do as much as he 
can to contribute' in giving success to the 

undertaking. 

f J. W. Black, 



Executive Committee, • 



J. Cremer, 
D. Bendann, 
W. C. North, 
J. F. Ryder, 
. E. L. Wilson. 



Griswold's Adjustable Concave 
Reflector. 




I send photographs of a reflector which 
I have contrived, and am so well pleased 
with it that I thought I would submit it to 
your criticism, and make an item for the 
Journal. The reflector is concave, thirty- 
six inches in diameter, and made of one 
sheet of tin hammered into shape and after- 
wards planished. It swings on pivots within 
a frame just large enough to admit of ad- 
justing it to any angle. This frame, carry- 



ing the reflector, runs up and down like a 
window-sash, within another frame about 
six feet high, which stands on legs like any 
background-frame, thus enabling one to 
throw the light up or down as the case may 
be. On the back of the outer frame I have 
a black curtain of calico which can be 
drawn across the outer frame to cut off all 
reflection except from the reflector itself. 
When the light is strong I hang a piece of 
tarleton or other gauzy material over the 
face of the reflector to soften the light. 

You would be surprised, upon using this 
contrivance, at the pretty effects that can 
be produced by it. I am working here by 
a small sky and side-light, and I find it in- 
dispensable. There are many useful effects 
which can be produced by it by using dif- 
ferent colored gauze over the reflector. For 
instance, for a round, smooth light face and 
light hair, a buff color gives pretty shades, 
greater strength or contrast in the negative. 
For sharp features, sallow or tanned, a blue 
color is useful, etc., etc. (I will say that 




this implement, if manufactured for sale, 
would be used by every operator that wished 
to improve his work, and especially by 
country oporators having only small lights.) 
I forgot to say that the inner frame can be 
fastened at any point desired. 



Yours, truly, 

M. M. Griswold. 



Lancaster, 0. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



147 



Collodio-Bromide Manipulations. 

BY M. CAREV LEA. 

Sensitizi?ig the Collodion. — I showed, in 
my remarks a month since, that it is possi- 
ble to introduce the whole of the silver into 
the collodion in a state of solution ; this has 
often been spoken of as a very desirable 
thing, but one, unfortunately, not practi- 
cable. It is, however, not only practicable 
but easy. 16 or 18 grains of nitrate of sil- 
ver finely powdered will easily dissolve in 
a £ of an ounce of boiling alcohol of .815, 
and such alcohol is strong enough for the 
collodion. Of course, if the operator desires 
to use a still stronger alcohol for making 
the collodion, there is nothing to prevent 
him from doing so. In my own case, I use 
only alcohol of .815. 

I take a large test-tube capable of hold- 
ing several ounces, large enough, at least, 
that the alcohol shall only fill it about a 
third. I introduce the silver nitrate in fine 
powder and the alcohol. If the quantity 
is at all considerable, I put in all the ni- 
trate and half the alcohol, boil it ; as soon 
as it boils remove it from the flame, shake 
it well by a lateral movement, which, while 
it mixes up well, does not cause drops to 
spurt out; let settle for a few moments, and 
pour off the whole liquid into the collodion 
at once, leaving some undissolved nitrate 
at bottom. As soon as the hot solution is 
in the collodion, I shake up well for about 
a minute; I then add the rest of the alcohol 
to the residue in the tube, and repeat the 
operation. This time the remains of ni- 
trate dissolve completely. This separating 
the alcohol into two parts is only for conve- 
nience ; it is not necessary. In making ex- 
perimental trials with quantities of an ounce 
or two of collodion, I do not divide the 
alcohol, but dissolve the whole of the ni- 
trate by one boiling. • 

Management of the Mixture — Dense Films. 
— In the directions which I gave in my pre- 
vious paper, I recommended to sensitize the 
collodion with 16 grains of nitrate of silver 
to the ounce, dissolved as already explained, 
and to use at the end of twenty-four hours. 
This mode of proceeding gave very trans- 
parent films, and, as these are never as sen- 
sitive as opaque ones, I have been studying 



the conditions under which the latter can be 
obtained. 

I have got much better results by increas- 
ing the proportion of silver to 18 grains. 
Large as this excess is, and all in actual 
solution when introduced into the collo- 
dion, the controlling power of the aqua 
regia is so remarkable that there is not the 
slightest tendency to fog. When this 
quantity of nitrate of silver is used, the 
time may also be considerably reduced. At 
the end of six or seven hours, if the mix- 
ture be vigorously shaken at intervals, a 
moderately dense film is got, but the condi- 
tion of the mixture decidedly improves by 
keeping up to twelve or fifteen hours. 
From twelve to fifteen hours is what I 
recommend most. With 18 grains of ni- 
trate of silver, 2 drops to the ounce, of aqua 
regia will be proper. 

In a careful comparative trial between 
a film made with a collodion sensitized 
with 16 grains of nitrate of silver and kept 
twenty-four hours, and one sensitized with 
18 grains and kept fifteen hours, it was 
judged that the latter was at least twice as 
sensitive. With equal exposure the de- 
velopment of the latter was effected in one- 
third or less time, and gave more detail by 
a good deal in the deep shadows. In fact, 
though there is no doubt that good pictures 
may be developed upon transparent collodio- 
bromide films, yet these latter are always 
greatly inferior in sensitiveness ; this is 
another of the many points of advantage 
which the process here described has over 
that in which bromides are used in excess. 

The mixture, after sensitizing, will re- 
quire to be shaken well about four times at 
intervals before using, each shaking lasting 
from three to five minutes. After the last 
shaking the mixture should rest about an 
hour before filtering. It is a mistake to let 
it rest two or three hours after the last 
shaking and before using ; such a course 
will sometimes lead to slight irregularities 
of the film, visible after the plate has set, 
by holding up to the light and examining 
closely. And in the last plates of the 
batch this may get to the extent of produc- 
ing mottled films, the effect of which will 
be visible in the skies of the developed 
plates. 



148 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEE. 



The best method of filtering is to put 
clean, fine sponge into the neck of the fun- 
nel, and to cut filters of fine, close linen 
stuff, freed from dressing or size by boiling 
with soda, either washing soda or very di- 
lute caustic soda, and then washing thor- 
oughly out. 

The pouring off of the plate should never 
be returned to the same bottle, or, after a 
few plates, motes and knots will be found 
in the film. The best manipulation is as 
follows : provide two clean vials, filter the 
collodion mixture into one, then transfer the 
funnel and its filter to the other, and after 
coating the plate pour off into the funnel. 
The pourings off will thus filter into the 
second vial, and will be ready for use when 
the first vial is exhausted. If the contents 
of this second vial, when used for coating, 
show a tendency to mottle, thin them a lit- 
tle with concentrated ether. One source 
of mottling is the use of a too watery alco- 
hol or ether ; the evaporation from each 
plate leaves a residue more and more 
charged with water. The plates should 
have an edging of India-rubber dissolved 
in benzole, applied before the collodion- 
izing. 

Litmus as a Preservative. — When a pre- 
servative of gum and sugar is used, great 
sensitiveness is attained, but the negatives 
often want vigor and are too flat. It 
therefore becomes necessary to introduce a 
substance capable of giving a sufficiency of 
force and brilliancy. Many substances I 
have found capable of doing this ; unfortu- 
nately almost all of them largely diminish 
the sensitiveness of the film. 

Two substances, litmus and the well- 
known tannin, are capable of giving excel- 
lent results. For a time I scarcely did jus- 
tice to tannin, and this because I used it in 
the heavy doses ordinarily recommended. 
But when it is kept down to 2 or 2} grains 
per ounce of both, and used with six or 
eight times its' weight of gum, it does very 
well, indeed. Nevertheless, after a great 
many most careful comparative trials, I 
feel constrained to give the preference to 
my own preservative, red litmus, and this 
for the following reasons: 

1. Except in long exposures and under 
trying circumstances, it completely prevents 



blurring, and always greatly diminishes it. 
The plates are, therefore, strikingly cleaner 
in the shadows; 

2. In controlling contrasts it exhibits a 
moderate but distinct superiority over the 
tannin. 

3. As to sensitiveness, the two are very 
near together, but, after very extended 
trials, I can say that, what advantage there 
is lies on the side of the litmus. 

Persons, in trying litmus for the first 
time, will be very apt, when they proceed 
to develop, to think they are going to make 
a failure The first effect of the alkaline 
solution upon the red plate is to turn the 
red litmus blue ; it thus looks darker, and 
might be thought to be going to fog. As 
the plate lies in the developing bath, and 
the solution is made to flow to and fro over 
it, a bluish cloudiness appears in the liquid ; 
this looks as if something were going wrong, 
but it is only the litmus washing out of the 
film. Sometimes, also, the solution pene- 
trates the film unequally, and gives it a 
spotted or patchy look. All these indica- 
tions mean absolutely nothing. When the 
plate has reached its proper development 
and is thrown into the fixing bath, it comes 
out brighter and cleaner than almost any 
other form of dry plate, and exhibits also 
the softness characteristic of this process. 

The proportion of litmus directed in my 
previous paper may be doubled if desired. 
No diminution of sensitiveness results, as I 
have most carefully tested and proved. And 
as the plate is a darker red, the protection 
against blurring is increased proportion- 
ately. 

Fixing. — The peculiarity of collodio-bro- 
mide plates, as respects fixing, has never 
been sufficiently pointed out. The bromide 
of silver dissolves out in the hyposulphite 
bath much more easily, and the image itself 
appears to be more easily attacked than the 
image on bromo-iodized plates. Hence, in 
the earlier days of tho collodio-bromide 
process, it was advised to look to the alka- 
line development for a thin image only, 
and intensify with silver and pyro. But 
those who will use the methods I have de- 
scribed, will get all the density they want 
by the alkaline development alone ; indeed, 
without care too much density may result. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE, 



149 



And the reducing tendency of the fixing 
solution may be removed bj- using it very 
weak. After a number of trials I have 
found the best strength to be about one- 
sixtieth, 1 ounce of hyposulphite to 50 or 60 
of water. Bromide of silver dissolves so 
much more easily than iodide that a collo- 
dio-bromide plate is fixed with this solu- 
tion in the same time as an ordinary bro- 
mo-iodized film in a much stronger. The 
weak solution has so little action on the 
image that the plate may be left in over 
the time necessary for clearing without 
injury. I prefer, after using the fixing 
bath for twelve or fifteen plates, to reject 
it and pour in fresh. It is almost unne- 
cessary to say that, with no plates should' 
the fixing solution be used for a second 
set of plates after standing. 

P. S. — The addition of the hot solution of 
nitrate of silver to the collodion is not at- 
tended with any inconvenience as might 
have been supposed ; on the contrary, the 
formation of the bromide of silver is favored 
thereby. The whole mixture becomes tepid, 
at which temperature chemical decompo- 
sition advances of course more rapidly. 
In operating with considerable quantities 
it would, doubtless, be well to let the solu- 
tion cool a little, but a little only, and to 
add it in two or more portions. But with 
small quantities, as above explained, this 
is unnecessary. The vial should be well 
closed with a well-fitting cork, which I 
find preferable to a glass-stopper, using, of 
course, a new one each time, and securing a 
very close fit. 



THE SOLAR NEGATIVE PRIZE 
PICTURE. 

BY JOHN C. BROWNE. 

In a recent number of the Philadelphia 
Photographer a prize of a gold medal was 
offered by Mr. Albert Moore, of Philadel- 
phia, for the best negative for enlarging in 
the solar camera, and, as a result, thirty- 
three negatives were offered in competition. 

As one of the judges appointed by Mr. 
Moore, it gives me pleasure to attest to the 
excellence of a large number of them. It 



is not desirable in this article to make a 
lengthy report of all the negatives pre- 
sented, but a few remarks may be appro- 
priate, giving a short criticism of the five 
be,st negatives selected. 

The prize was awarded to Mr. V. ~W. 
Horton, of Brady's Gallery, New York 
city. 

The subject was well chosen, in a young 
girl, sitting figure, gracefully posed, with 
exquisite arrangement of light and shadow. 
The dress of white or light color is admira- 
bly rendered, any tendency to excessive 
high light being toned down by the child 
resting her arms upon a table or chair over 
which some dark drapery had been thrown. 
The eyes are beautifully reproduced, giving 
the soft dreamy effect that children so often 
have when deeply interested in an attract- 
ive story. The negative is upon one-half size 
glass, unvarnished, clean, forcible, sharp, 
well-timed, and exceedingly brilliant ; a 
little too transparent to make a first-class 
contact print, but exactly suited for a solar 
enlargement. Mr. Horton may justly be 
proud of his success in securing the prize, 

Mr. Oliver B. DeMorat, Philadelphia, a 
vignette head and bust of a lady, well ar- 
ranged and skilfully lighted. Chemical 
manipulation first-rate. Size of picture, two 
on 4-4 plate. 

Mr. T, M. Saurman, Norristown, Pa., a 
pleasing picture of a lad, vignette head, ex- 
cellent chemical work, clean, well-timed, 
and sharp negative, one-half size. 

Mr. Charles Stafford, Norwich, New York, 
vignette head of a lady, nicely arranged, 
and well lighted. This negative appears 
to be a little too dense for the purpose in- 
tended. Clean and forcible negative, one- 
quarter size. 

Mr. P, B. Jones, Davenport, Iowa, a fine 
picture of a male subject, negative one-half 
size, sharp, clean, and effective. 

All of the prints were made of uniform di- 
mensions, about the size of life, and printed 
upon demon's arrowroot paper, 18 x 22. 
In tone, sharpness, and general effect they 
compare very favorably with contact pic- 
tures, where the attempt is made to pro- 
duce portraits of the size of life direct in 
the camera. In fact, these solar enlarge- 
ments are better pictures than the majority 



150 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



of life-size contact prints that I have ex- 
amined. 

To Mr. Albert Moore deservedly belongs 
a great deal of credit for his skill and enter- 
prise in developing this very important 
branch of photography. The proof of his 
success will be exhibited at the annual 
meeting of the National Photographic As- 
sociation, in June next, at Cleveland, Ohio, 
so that all may have an opportunity of see- 
ing what wonderful results can he obtained 
by enlarging small negatives of £, J, and 
4-4 size in the solar camera. It. is but fair, 
while speaking in praise of Mr. Moore's re- 
sults, to give a proper share of credit to his 
assistant, Mr. William L. Shoemaker, as all 
of the printing and toning is done by him. 
I judge, from his success and long experi- 
ence, that few can excel his practical knowl- 
edge on this subject. It is no easy work to 
manage a dozen solar cameras on a bright 
day, for each requires to be adjusted to the 
position of the sun about once in a minute ; 
and the focussing of the image from the 
negative upon the sensitive paper, together 
with a knowledge of when to stop printing, 
are somewhat difficult lessons to learn. 
Upon a clear day in the spring, with the 
sun shining brightly, the duty of attending 
a number of solar cameras requires a lively 
exhibition of skill and agility upon the 
part of the operator. In hazy weather the 
time of exposure is very much lengthened, 
but generally thirty to fifty minutes' ex- 
posure to a bright sun will be sufficient. 

In preparing negatives for enlargement, 
do not undertime the picture, but expose 
fully, and rather under-develop. The de- 
tails in the shadows will then be rendered 
more effective, with less liability to fog, by 
attempting to force detail out of an under- 
exposed picture. The chemicals must be 
in fine working order, perfectly free from 
fog, and calculated to give a good, forcible 
negative, not so dense, however, as is re- 
quired for contact printing. Difference of 
opinion exists as to the advisability of using 
hypo or cyanide for fixing, some contending 
that cyanide is too strong in its action, cut- 
ting away th<> weaker parts of the picture; 
while others claim that hypo is not active 
enough. My preference is for cyanide of 



medium strength. But if hypo is used it 
should be fresh. The quality of first im- 
portance in the negative must be sharpness. 
If in a portrait the face, hair, or whiskers 
are not perfectly defined, it is useless to ex- 
pect that a print enlarged to life-size will 
be satisfactory. 

Recently, Mr. Moore has turned his at- 
tention to the double printing of landscape 
negatives in the solar camera, whereby the 
pleasing effect of natural clouds in the pic- 
ture is produced by the use of a second 
negative. 

KURTZ'S PATENT " REMBRANDT 
COUNTER-REFLECTOR." 




Ilf making " Rembrandt" pictures the 
usual routine of operations is abandoned 
and reversed. Instead of at the side of 
the subject nearest the camera, the main 
light comes from behind the sitter, as it were, 
or falls upon the side of the subject/row the 
camera, the side toward the camera being in 
shadow. To get detail in this shadowed 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



151 



side it is necessary to reflect some light upon 
it, and to avoid a multiplicity of screens, 
reflectors, etc., Mr. Kurtz has contrived 
the apparatus below described. 

A B C D represents a light frame of 
wood, about six feet high and three and a 
half feet wide. E F E F are two doors or 
wings turning on pivots at the points A 
and B, and also on two other pivots at G G 
G G, consequently giving a universal move- 
ment. X X X X are four inner wings 
moving on hinges on the frame, whereby 
you may enlarge or decrease the size of the 
opening, the lower wing moving on two 
pivots at P P. 

All this is lined on the back with strong 
paper and black muslin, and on the front 
with pure white paper. This counter-re- 
flector is patented and solely manufactured 
by Mr. Henry Kurtz, New York. 

Its application may be better understood 
by the accompanying drawings. 

Let A B, Fig. 1, represent a block of 
wood, and the light shining on it in the 
direction of the arrow — any attempt to 
photograph this in its present state of illu- 
mination would be impossible. The dark 
shadow at B would be devoid of all details, 
and the high light at A would be too in- 
tense. Upon bringing up the reflector at 
C, the effect is to drive, as it were, the 
shadow back again towards A, producing 
an unnatural lighting, as shown in Fig. 2, 
causing a squinty appearance in the sitter, 
caused by being raked between two fires. 
Now the counter-reflector has the effect of 
doing away with this completely. See Fig. 
3. It throws the light in the direction of 
the lines, and we have the natural effect of 
No. 1, only greatly subdued, with perfectly 
transparent shadows, offering no strong nor 
harsh contrasts against the high light; A, 
as it were counter-reflecting the reflection of 
B, thus preventing that shadow which 
otherwise would have hung over the centre. 

This arrangement also serves a good pur- 
pose when making pictures in the usual 
way, and is specially useful where there is 
no side-light, in scattering the shadows 
that are apt to occur in such cases under 
the eyes, nose, and chin, and in relieving 
the frowns of unwilling; sitters. 



ONE HUNDRED DAYS IN A FOG.* 

BY ELBERT ANDERSON, 
Operator. W. Kurtz's Gallery. 

(Continued from page 108.) 

Twenty-sixth day. — Iodide of cadmium 
increases the intensity of the collodion. 
(HardwicJis Chemistry, page 246.) 

Twenty-seventh day. — When the negative 
comes up with too much intensity, add io- 
dide of cadmium to the collodion. (Devine's 
Practice, page 55.) 

Twenty-eighth day. — Zigzag lines are 
caused by a lack of harmony between the 
bath and the collodion. (E. L. Wilson, 
Mosaics, 1869, page 59.) 

Twenty-ninth day . — The upper part of the 
plate must be examined for zigzag lines ; 
characteristic of a film which had become 
too dry before immersion. (Hardwich's 
Chemistry, 7th Ed., page 419.) 

Thirtieth day. — Streaks like flashes of 
lightning, with a dozen zigzags to the inch 
— from applying blotting-paper to the back 
of the negative. (M. Carey Lea, Mosaics, 
1867, page 15.) 

Thirty-first day. — During exposure the 
bath solution drains down to the edge of the 
plate, and rises again by capillary attrac- 
tion, giving rise to streaks. Eemedy: at- 
tach a piece of blotting-paper to the edge of 
the plate. [Lea's Manual, page 243.) 

Thirty-second day. — Always filter your 
bath after each day's work. (E. L. Wilson, 
Mosaics, 1867, page 141.) 

Thirty-third day. — Neither should the 
bath be filtered after it has once been put 
into use. (Devine's Practice, page 36.) 

Thirty-fourth day. — After each day's 
work, make it a rule to filter your bath. 
(J. C. Browne, Mosaics, 1870, page 29.) 

Thirty-fifth day. — Do not filter your bath 
too much. (Illustrated Photograplier.') 

Thirty-sixth day. — It is an advantage to 
leave the bath in the trough always, that it 

* This subject will be continued, with corres- 
pondence, etc., preparatory to the entire prac- 
tice, formulae, etc., at Mr. Kurtz's gallery, 
entitled Photo Dialogues, a sequel to One Hun- 
dred Days, etc. — Ed. 



152 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



may settle down and clear itself after the 
day's work is done. (Hardwich's Chemistry, 
page 415.) 

Thirty-seventh day. — The bath ought to 
be filtered every evening. (Silver Sunbeam, 
page 113.) 

Thirty-eighth day . — Never adopt the com- 
mon but wasteful plan of iodizing a bath by 
dipping a collodionized plate in it, and al- 
lowing it to lie until the iodide is dissolved. 
(Aliquis, Mosaics, 1869, page 114.) 

Thirty-ninth day. — Coat a plate and leave 
it in the bath all night. (Illustrated Pho- 
tographer.) 

Fortieth day. — Make the bath as follows : 
* * * then add to it about a drachm of 
bromoiodized collodion. (Toivler's Alma- 
nack, 1867, page 76.) 

Forty-first day. — It is a bad plan to add 
collodion to a bath for the purpose of iodiz- 
ing it. (E. L. Wilson, Mosaics, 1870, page 
143.) 

Forty-second day. — The bath must be satu- 
rated with iodide of silver. (Hardwich's 
Chemistry, page 393.) 

Forty-third day . — The bath may be used 
without iodizing, if the plates be taken out 
as soon as smoothly coated. (Devine's Prac- 
tice, page 30.) 

Forty-fourth day.—Xt is therefore neces- 
sary to iodize the bath to saturation, with 
iodide of silver. ( Waldaclc's Treatise, p. 62.) 

Forty-fifth day. — Nearly all the works on 
photography give directions for iodizing 
the bath to saturation ; for negative baths, 
however, such a method of preparation is 
totally wrong. (Devine's Practice, page 31.) 

Forty-sixth day. — A bath not saturated 
with iodide of silver will produce unequal 
results. (E. L. Wilson, Mosaics, 1870, page 
142.) 

Forty-seventh day. — If the bath be satur- 
ated at the outset, it will precipitate crys- 
tals of iodide of silver on the plate, and 
wholly spoil the negative. (Devine's Prac- 
tice, page 31.) 

Forty-eigldh day. — When the crystals of 
nitrate of silver are dissolved, coat a plate 
and leave it in the bath all night. (Sutton's 
Collodion Process, page -40. ) 

Forty-ninth day. — 'Every plate must be 



removed from the bath as soon as it is 
coated, that the silver solution may be pre- 
served as long as possible below the point 
of saturation. (Devine's Practice, page 33.) 

Fiftieth day — When the bath is in perfect 
order, no harm can result from leaving the 
plate in it a quarter of an hour or more. 
(Hardwich's Chemistry, 7th Ed., page 417.) 

Fifty-first day. — The plate should never 
be left in the bath longer than necessary. 
(Lea's Manual.) 

Fifty-second day — When the iodide of 
silver, previously dissolved in the bath, 
crystallizes upon the film, leave a plate in 
the solution all night, that the excess of 
iodide of silver may gradually crystallize 
upon its surface and so be removed. (Hard- 
wich's Chemistry, 7th Ed., page 521.) 

Fifty-third day . — I ascertained that iodide 
of silver is more soluble in a cold solution 
than in a warm one. (Dr. H. Vogel, p. 89 ) 

Fifty-fourth day. — In this case the iodide 
of silver which is precipitated by the solu- 
tion becoming cold, is redissolved as the 
temperature rises. (Devine's Practice, p. 32.) 

Fifty-fifth day. — Sunning of the bath is 
one of the best means of purifying it. (Le 
Moniteur de la Photographic. ) 

Fifty-sixth day. — I cannot, for my part, 
see what effect sunning has upon the or- 
ganic matter with which the bath is 
charged. (Aliquis, Mosaics, 1869, page 118.) 

Fifty-seventh day. — It is advisable to ex- 
pose the bath to the rays of the sun as often 
as possible. (Silver Sunbeam, page 112.) 

Fifty-eighth day. — Sunning the old solu- 
tion may be a very good plan, but I never 
found any marked benefits from it. (Ali- 
quis, Mosaics, 1869, page 118.) 

Fifty-ninth day. — The solution may be 
prepared some days before using, and al- 
lowed to stand in the light. (Devine's Prac- 
tice, page 43.) 

Sixtieth day. — A bath that has stood for a 
week exposed to sunlight, has proved as in- 
curable as one doctored without sunning at 
all. (Aliquis, Mosaics, 1869, page 118 ) 

Sixty-first day. — It has, however, been 
justly remarked that in diluting the bath, 
the disordered bath must be poured into the 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



153 



water and not the reverse. (M. C. Lea, 
Mosaics, 1867, page 10.) Why ? 

Sixiy-second day. — Pour the old bath into 
a clean bottle, and add rain water. (E. L. 
"Wilson, Mosaics, 1868, page 102.) 

Sixty-third day. — When, in the course of 
time, the bath becomes saturated with io- 
dide of silver, add crystals of nitrate of 
silver. [Humphrey 1 s Journal, page 26.) 

Sixty-fourth day. — All works on photog- 
raphy recommend the replenishment of the 
bath with crystals of nitrate of silver. This 
method we strongly protest against ; and 
advise the operator never to strengthen his 
bath until it is thoroughly renovated and 
made over. (Devine's Practice, page 36.) 

Sixty-fifth day. — It is advisable to keep 
up the strength of the bath from day to day. 
(Towler's Almanac, page 88.) 

Sixty-sixth day. — It will always be found 
unwise to add new silver to an old bath. 
(Harvey, Reynolds & Foster, Text Book of 
Photography, page 23.) 

Sixty-seventh day. — Better make a new 
bath than repair the old one, since nothing 
satisfactory will be likely to be got from it. 
(R. D. Ewing, Mosaics, 1870, page 54.) 

Sixty-eighth day. — As long as you can, by 
purging, get an old bath to do duty, never 
make a new one. (Aliquis, Mosaics, 1870.) 

Sixty-ninth day. — As soon as the bath 
ceases to give satisfactory negatives, there 
is no alternative but to make a new one. 
(Mosaics, 1867.) 

Seventieth day. — The best way to get rid 
of all volatile matter in the bath is distilla- 
tion. [ ! ] (Silver Sunbeam, page 112.) 

Seventy-first day. — There are no means of 
abstracting the water from collodion with- 
out injuring the collodion itself. (Hum- 
phrey's Journal, page 59.) 

Seventy-secojid day. — When there is too 
much water in the collodion, it may be re- 
moved by putting some pieces of gelatine 
into it ; this abstracts the water. (Lea's 
Manual, page 236.) 

Seventy-third day. — A strong developer 
favors thinness, a weak developer favors in- 
tensity. (E. D. Ewing, Mosaics, 1870, p. 56.) 

Seventy-fourth day. — A strong developer 
is likely to force up the high lights to com- 
plete opacity. (C. W. Hull, Mosaics, 1870.) 



Seventy-fifth day. — We should apply a 
strong developer to diminish contrast. (Lea's 
Manual, page 115.) 

Seventy-sixth day. — In developing, hold 
the plate absolutely still ; by so doing the 
detail is better obtained. (C. W. Hull, Mo- 
saics, 1870, page 77.) 

Seventy-seventh day. — As the development 
goes on, the operator inclines the plate in 
different directions, so as to cause the de- 
veloper to keep in a state of constant mo- 
tion. (Lea's Manual, page 33.) 

Seventy-eighth day — Use it (the developer) 
with a lavish hand — never mind the silver 
washing off. (E. Dunmore, Mosaics, 1870.) 

Seventy-ninth day. — The developer be- 
comes mixed on the surface of the plate 
with the bath solution, if a portion is wasted 
by washing over, the image will come out 
less strong. (Lea's Manual, page 32.) 

Eightieth day. — The solution of sulphate 
of iron becomes red by keeping ; the writer 
is in favor of a newly mixed solution. (Hard- 
wich's Chemistry, page 395.) 

Eighty-first day . — The older the developer 
becomes it grows reddish. This reddening 
is rather beneficial than otherwise. (Lea's 
Manual, page 26.) 

Eighty-second day. — When the develop- 
ment is conducted with sulphate of iron, 
the negative has seldom sufficient intensity. 
(Hardwich's Chemistry , page 455.) 

Eighty-third day. — The operator should 
aim to get his negatives intense enough 
after one development with iron. There 
will generally be no difficulty in accom- 
plishing this object. (Devine's Practice, 
page 47.) 

Eighty-fourth day. — A great many dark- 
rooms are lighted with yellow glass. We 
recommend the operator to use a gas or 
lamp-light. (Devine's Practice, page 13.) 

Eighty-fifth day. — Orange glass is all that 
is needed for the dark-room. (Silver Sun- 
beam, page 47.) 

Eighty-sixth day. — I know that many men 
think diffused-light printing the best, but I 
believe that I am supported by all who 
know, that sunlight printing is theoretically 
as well as practically the best. (Nelson K. 
Cherill, Mosaics, 1867, page 58.) 



154 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEK. 



Eighty -seventh day. — Printing may be 
done either in the direct rays of the sun or 
in diffused light ; the choice between the 
two will depend upon the nature of the neg- 
ative. [Lea's Manual, page 212.) 

Eighty-eighth day. — When a collodion 
gives an impression in which too much con- 
trast exists, a small quantity of bromide 
will lessen the contrast. ( Waldack's Treat- 
ise, page 46.) 

Eighty-ninth day. — Some careful experi- 
ments made by the writer brought him to 
the conclusion that bromide tended fully as 
much, perhaps more, to hardness and con- 
trasts than iodides. (Lea's Manual, p. 120.) 

Ninetieth day. — If the lights are too in- 
tense, more bromide must be added. (Hard- 
wich's Chemistry, page 260.) 

Ninety-first day. — We confidently assert 
that bromide has no effect whatever in re- 
ducing the contrast of the negative. (De- 
vine's Practice, page 24.) 

Ninety-second day. — It must be allowed, 
the addition of a bromide to negative col- 
lodion impairs its sensitiveness. (Hard- 
wich's Chemistry, page 271.) 

Ninety-third day. — The effect of bromide 
is simply to reduce the time of exposure in 
the camera. (Devine's Practice, page 24.) 

Ninety-fourth day . — The effect of bromide 
is to reduce intensity and contrast. ( Wal- 
dack's Treatise, page 40 ) 

Ninety-fifth day. — For the purposes of 
copying, 1 would invariably use the full 
blaze of the sun ; some artists pretend that 
this system is false. (Silver Sunbeam, p. 162.) 

Ninety-sixth day. — In copying engrav- 
ings, all that is required is a simply iodized 
collodion without any bromide. (Silver Sun- 
beam, page 28.) 

Ninety-seventh day. — It is an entire mis- 
take to suppose this (copying) is best ac- 
complished by the use of a collodion con- 
taining little or no bromide ; as line engrav- 
ings require a small stop, the light is always 
weak, consequently bromide is necessary. 
(Lea's Manual, page 187.) 

Ninety-eighth day. — We certainly prefer 
an intense negative to a thin one. (Towler's 
Almanac, 1867.) 



Ninefy-ninth day. — A good negative should 
be thin and full of detail. (Text Book of 
Photography, page 18.) 

One hundredth day. — We do not think 
there is any advantage of using nitrate of 
uranium in the toning bath. (Humphrey's 
Journal, page 4.) When black tones are 
desired, add nitrate of uranium to the toning 
bath. (Mosaics, 1870.) 



GLASS FORCEPS. 

BY JOHN M. BLAKE. 

Glass forceps will be found useful dur- 
ing the operations of silver printing. They 
are quite efficient, and have the advantage 
over whalebone of being easy to clean. They 
can be easily and cheaply constructed, as fol- 
lows : take two equal strips of ordinary sheet- 
glass ; these may be four inches long and 
half an inch broad. The sharp edges must 
first be taken off, then place them together 
and crowd a piece of rubber-tube, about 
half an inch long, over the two at one end. 




Next slide a shorter piece of tube down the 
length of one of the pieces of glass, until 
it reaches the .first piece of rubber. The 
second rubber band serves to keep the two 
blades separate, while the elasticity of the 
first makes resistance as the blades are 
pressed together by the hand in grasping 
an object. When this pressure is removed 
they will separate half an inch at the end. 
It is best to bring the lower ends of the 
glass strips to an edge, or to bevel off the 
corners on a grindstone, so that they will 
readily slide under a sheet of paper which 
lies on the bottom of a dish. Broad blades 
are advantageous when lifting large sheets 
of paper liable to tear. A pair, one inch 
by seven were found quite convenient. 



If you think you can improve by making 
a second sitting, by all means do it before 
your subject leaves your room. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



155 



BOOKHOUT'S WASHING TANK. 

I will give you a description of my 
washing apparatus. Of course I think it 
hetter than any that I have tried. 

A 




Let A represent a tub, as large as neces- 
sary, filled to the depth of five inches with 
white pebbles, B B ; C, rubber hose (with 
a coupling), for the supply of water, and E 
a syphon. Of course the syphon must be 
of sufficient capacity to carry more water 
than the supply, which can be regulated by 
the water-cock. D represents a fan to 
throw the water against the side of the tub, 
thus giving it a circular motion. You will 
see that, by means of the pebbles the prints 
are drained pretty thoroughly every fifteen 
minutes. I have tried perforated zinc: the 
result, after a few weeks use, was white 
spots on the prints. There was no mistake 
about the cause. I varnished it and had 
none, but as soon as the varnish wore off 
they appeared again. 1 tried this for over 
a year. A net made of twine gave me yel- 
low spots (hypo). "Wooden slats also gave 
me hypo spots — but the pebbles are the 
thing, eas ; ly washed and unobjectionable 
in every way. I use white pebbles be- 
cause I can get them easily, and prefer 
them on account of their hardness. 

I have used this over a year. My work 
is mostly commercial, and I make a great 
many pictures, and, notwithstanding my 
tub sometimes has a great deal of paper in 
it, it always comes out clean, which is more 
than I can say of anything that I have be- 
fore used. E. Bookhout, 

1 & 3 Broadway, Williamsburg, N. T. 

March 23d, 1870. 

We consider Mr. Bookhout's method a 
most excellent one, and well worthy of a 



trial. He gives the idea to the trade freely, 
without patenting it, and, moreover, has 
generously supplied the very excellent en- 
graving, which accompanies his paper, 
from his own large engraving and photo- 
graphing establishment. 



Stereographs on Transparent, Tinted, 
&c, Paper. 

BY PROF. J. TOWLEE, M.D. 

It is not yet a settled matter, I perceive, 
what must be the width of the stereograph, 
for almost every photographer selects his 
own size, aiming, however, nearly in every 
case to make it as large as possible. This 
uncertainty about the size, and the innate 
tendency to make magnitude the sole aim, 
must arise from ignorance of the require- 
ments in the case ; but this ignorance can- 
not be charged to the meagreness of instruc- 
tion on the subject. We have repeatedly 
given our views about this matter, which 
may be expressed in a few words : " The 
width of the stereograph must be equal to 
the distance between the centres of the two 
eyes." 

But since this distance is a variable 
quantity, bordering on two inches and a 
half, more or less, and seldom exceeding 
two inches and three-quarters, we may as- 
sume, without any great error, the last dis- 
tance, which will at the same time accom- 
modate those numerous advocates for large 
productions. Do not think we wish to be 
dictatorial in this assumption, for, if all the 
rest will preferably assume two inches and 
a half for the width of the stereograph, we 
shall certainly join in the phalanx, and 
with joy too, because this distance is nearer 
what it ought to be. This matter might be 
settled at the next great National gathering 
at Cleveland, at least for Americans, sub- 
ject, of course, to revision in accordance 
with the intelligent views of Europeans. 
We ought to have a standard. 

Having assumed two inches and three- 
quarters for our standard width, we pre- 
pare slips of paper of the following dimen- 
sions : eleven inches and one-tenth in length 
by three inches in width ; these are cut with 
clean edges and square corners from the sen- 



1 50 



t 1 1 m r i r 1 1 1 a n k l r n t a r n o t o g.r a p h e r. 



Bitized sheet, eaoh sheet thus yielding twenty- 
four stereographs. 

The lenses on theoamera are fixed in their 
place, also, at the standard distance of two 
inohes and three-quarters from edge to edge 
or from oentre to oentrej and the Beptum 
in the oamera, whioh divides it into two 
halves, is so adjusted as to bring the two 
piotures into sharp apposition in the middle, 

Without any blank space between them and 
without overlapping each other. This ad- 
justment, is easily made. There is great 
economy of time and material by attending 

to these arrangements at the outset. 

The object of preparing the rectangular 
Blips of paper above mentioned is to be ena- 
bled to print, the stereographs in such ti way 
as to require no cutting afterwards, and, 
Consequently, no transposition. We are in- 
debted to an Englishman fortius discovery, 
and 1 thank him heartily for it. Although 
it is now an old dodge, it. will be new to 
many of our younger practitioners. 

Bach slip is folded back exactly in the 
middle, so that the corners are accurately 
in apposition, the sensitized film being out- 
wards. The slip is now opened again and 
placed on a clean sheet o( paper, the film 
being downwards. Each half is now folded 
back on itself, so that the opposite ones 

meet accurately <>n the middle crease. A 

piece of black paper, live and a half inches 
long by three Wide, is inserted between the 
folds. The paper is now ready to be placed 
On the negative. The middle crease o\' the 
paper corresponds to the middle line be- 
tween the two pictures on the negative; 
place the sensitive paper, therefore, on the 
middle of the negative, that is, at an equal 

distance from either edge and with the cen- 
tre lines accurately overlying each other. 
Print one side, and then the paper is turned 

round and placed as before; the other side 

is then printed. In this way two stereo- 
graphs are printed on tin- same sheet ; sepa- 
rate them by cutting with a sharp, straight 
cut through the central line. No transpo- 
sition is needed, a- you will readily see. 

The use o\' the piece oi' blaob paper be- 
tween the folds Of the sensitized slip, is to 
prevent the light from acting on tbelilm 
behind. 

t'.'ire is required in ohanging the paper, 



us soon as one side is printed, round to the 
opposite side so as to bring the upper edge 
of the slip to the same place which it occu- 
pied before, and at the same to make tho 
central line of the negative and that of the 
sensitive paper coincide. There is no dif- 
ficulty in doing this, but care is necessary 
to see that it is done. 

The washing, toning, and fixing require 
no further instruction, and, as the prints 
are already cut out. to the proper size, noth- 
ing remains to be done but to mount them 
in the usual way. 

Hut my principal design in this article is 
to show you how to make transparent paper 
stereographs. For tins purpose 1 use the 
heaviest plain paper, neither salted noralbu- 
menized. This paper I salt as indicated in 
some of my previous articles, that is, in tho 
following bath : 

Water, .... 8 ounces. 
Chloride of Ammonium, . 40 grains. 

Gelatine 10 " 

Citrio Acid, . . . 40 " 
Carbonate of Soda, . .50 " 

1 print, by development, because I can 
get better tones for the purpose by this pro- 
cess. The silver bath I have slightly 
changed since 1 wrote last on this subject, 
substituting nitric acid in a great measure 
for tartaric acid, and probably I shall dis- 
pense with the latter entirely. The solu- 
tion at present is as follows: 

Nitrate of Silver, . . 4 drachms. 

Water 8 ounces. 

Nitric Acid (snee. gr. 1.21, 1 drnohm. 
Tartaric Acid, . . .5 grains. 

Float the paper on this bath for about one 
minute, then hang up and dry. Expose 
until the picture is visible; a longer expos- 
ure will do no harm. In the present case, 
where half the picture is printed separately, 
the exposure of the tWO sides must be timed 
by the watch : in sunlight, one to three min- 
utes eaoh; in a dull, diffused light, from 
live to eight or ten minutes each. 

The mode o( development 1 have changed 
slightly. Eaoh print, previous to develop- 
ment, is soaked simply in water. 

As soon as the paper is moist all through, 
it is placed on a clean piece of glass, a little 
larger than the print, and the latter is then 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



157 



moved over the flame of a spirit-lamp, the 
developer having been previously poured 
upon the surface of the exposed paper. The 
developer remains the same, that is : 

Solution of Gallic Acid, (2 

grains to the ounce), . 4 drachms. 
Acetate of Lead (30 grains 

to the ounce), . . 5 drops. 

Acetic Acid, enough to clean the milky 

precipitate. 

The development is soon performed, to 
any amount of opacity, without injuring 
the whites. Wash the print on both sides 
under the tap, and then immerse it in the 
hyposulphite of soda solution, containing 1 
grain of chloride of gold to 4 ounces of the 
concentrated fixing solution. The latter 
can be used several times, taking care to add 
more hyposulphite of soda from time to 
time. Wash the prints well and then dry 
them, first removing the excess of moisture 
between folds of blotting-paper, and after- 
wards by exposure to the air. Trim the 
edges of the prints if necessary, dry them 
thoroughly near the fire, and then, placing 
each print on a piece of good card-board, 
pass it two or three times through the roll- 
ing machine. This operation flattens the 
paper completely, which is quite necessary 
for the subsequent operation. 

Our next operation consists in making 
the paper transparent, and, at the same 
time, in causing it to adhere to a piece of 
glass. For this purpose we require a small 
iron table, flat on the upper surface, on 
which is laid a sheet of paper. (The plate 
may be eight by ten inches.) Beneath the 
table place two or three small spirit lamps, 
so as to warm the iron to the proper tem- 
perature. On the paper place the cleaned 
glass which is intended to receive the print. 
The following balsam is required : 



Canada Balsam, 


5 ounces. 


Parafine, . 


. 2 ;l 


Gum Elemi, 


2 drachms 



Melt them together and keep in stock for 
future use. Two or three small pieces of 
this balsam are placed upon the glass, and 
are spread out, as it melts, with a clean 
spatula, so as to cover the glass completely. 
The print (perfectly dry) is now laid upon 



the balsam, the print side being next to the 
glass. More balsam is smeared over the 
back of the paper, which is carefully pressed 
down. Continue a gentle heat. In about 
twenty minutes the print will become quite 
transparent. Hub off all excess of balsam 
from the back of the print and the front of 
the plate, and adjust the print to its posi- 
tion. See that all bubbles are removed by 
pressure. Clean the front of the glass plate 
with turpentine. 

All that now remains to be done is to 
cover. the front and back with the proper 
shields of black paper, ornamented with 
gold or otherwise. The transparency thus 
produced is very beautiful, and requires no 
further protection ; nevertheless, a thin 
piece of ground-glass is no detriment to it ; 
it is sometimes an improvement. Of course, 
such transparencies are to be viewed by 
transmitted light. Landscapes mounted on 
squares of glass and set in our window- 
frames produce a very charming effect. In 
addition to all this, the prints may be col- 
ored to your desire, or touched up with the 
appropriate tints, naturally, before the pic- 
tures are made transparent with the balsam. 
After they are made transparent, the colors 
are quite indelible. 

Furthermore, the transparent prints thus 
cemented on glass may be backed with tinted 
paper, by simply gumming the edges of the 
paper and causing it to adhere to the edges 
of the glass. For this purpose it is previ- 
ously moistened uniformly, and, being 
larger than the glass, the edges admit of 
being bent over and then gummed on the 
front edges. The pictures so prepared have 
a rich appearance when viewed by reflected 
light. 

In my next article I shall give a further 
application of the transparent or diaphanous 
picture. 



ACIDIFICATION OF C0LL0DI0- 
BROMIDE. 

The very bad weather which we have 
had has greatly interfered with my ex- 
aminations ; it is only in perfectly cloudless 
weather that a series of plates can be ex- 
posed with a certainty that each gets an 
exactly equal exposure. I, however, have 



158 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



succeeded, within the last few days, in mak- 
ing some sets of exposures. 

One very important result attained is, 
that aqua regia is not only the best sub- 
stance for acidulating the sensitized collo- 
dion, as I have already stated, but appa- 
rently the only acid capable of giving really 
satisfactory results. Neither nitric acid nor 
hydrochloric, used separately, can be relied 
upon to keep off the fogginess. On the 
other hand, with aqua regia I always get a 
clean and brilliant image. Continued ex- 
periment only serves to develop farther its 
utility, and I do not expect ever again to 
expose a collodio-bromide plate that has not 
been thus treated. 

M. Carey Lea. 

Philadelphia, April 11th, 1870. 

Since the foregoing was in type, I have 
received some most beautiful specimens of 
work by my process from Mr. Alexander 
Henderson, of Montreal. They have all 
the good qualities of the very best wet work, 
besides exhibiting much technical skill. 

Mr. Henderson writes : 

" Your last plan of adding acid I think 
the best plan that I have seen, and on the 
two trials I have made of it I think the 
negatives are much improved. My diffi- 
culty sometimes is to get sufficient intensity 
without silver. I think it may be from an 
unsuitable cotton. The simplicity in the 
preparation is what I like, and the softness 
and beauty of the negatives. The plates 
seem to be much the most sensitive that I 
have ever tried." 



NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. 

TuEPhotographical Section of the Ameri- 
can Institute, held its regular monthly meet- 
ing for April, at the Institute on Tuesday 
the 5th. 

Henry T. 'Anthony in the Chair; 0. G. 
Mason, Secretary. 

After the reading and approval of the 
minutes of the March meetings Mr. Hallen- 
beck, in speaking of the great difficulty 
often encountered in the production of 
prints during cloudy weather, gave the fol- 
lowing formula, which had given good re- 
sults in his own practice. 



Float plain paper three minutes on a solu- 
tion composed of 

Water, . . . .20 ounces. 
Bichloride of Mercury, . 5 grains. 

Hang the paper up until thoroughly dry. 
Sensitize on a 35-grain solution of nitrate 
of silver by floating the paper one minute. 
Expose under the negative two minutes, then 
develop with , 



Water, 

Protosulphnte of Iron, 

Glacial Acetic Acid, 



10 ounces. 

350 grains. 

4 ounces. 



As the paper is very sensitive, it should be 
well protected from the action of light be- 
fore exposure under the negative, and kept 
in the same careful manner after exposure 
until the process of development is fully 
completed. 

Mr. Chapman deemed the development 
of the image by an iron solution as a very 
important feature of the process, as many 
experimenters had failed in the use of iron 
solutions in paper printing. 

Mr. Anthony thought that the success of 
the process might be attributed to the or- 
ganic matter used in sizing the paper. 

Mr. Dimmers stated, that a very similar 
process had been published some years ago, 
and that a friend of his had worked it suc- 
cessfully in solar printing. 

Upon motion by Prof. Tillman, a com- 
mittee consisting of Messrs. Hallenbeck, 
Chapman, and Dimmers, was appointed to 
experiment with the process given by Mr. 
Hallenbeck, and report at a future meeting 
of the Section. 

Mr. Chapman exhibited a 4-inch neg- 
ative of the sun, which gave some of the 
characteristic features of that body as seen 
through the large telescope at the Ruther- 
ford Observatory. Some of the larger 
spots were well defined, and the surround- 
ing spicula? distinctly shown. 

Mr. Newton exhibited specimens of sen- 
sitized paper which had been prepared early 
in the month of December last; also a print 
which had been made on the da} r the paper 
was prepared, and toned on April 1st; also 
another print made and toned on the last 
named day; all of which plainly indicated 
that sensitized paper might be kept a con- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHER. 



159 



siderable length of time, without impairing 
its quality in any marked degree. 

The paper and prints exhibited by Mr. 
Newton had been rolled with alternate 
sheets of paper inked on both sides with a 
heavy layer of ordinary printing ink, which 
had almost entirely protected it from atmos- 
pheric and actinic influences. Mr. Newton 
stated that he did not think it necessary 
that the protecting paper should be inked 
on more than one side. 

Mr. Anthony gave details of some experi- 
ments which he had made in the preparation 
of silvered paper, by floating on distilled 
water after removal from the silver solu- 
tion. He had kept such paper perfectly 
white several months. 

On motion by Mr. Hallenbeck, seconded 
by Mr. Chapman, Messrs. Newton, Mason, 
and Anthony were appointed a committee 
to continue their investigations upon the 
methods for preserving 'sensitized paper, 
and report the results of their experiments 
at a future meeting. 

Mr. P. F. Wiel presented three prints 
from negatives made by a missionary in 
Africa. They were particularly interesting 
as illustrations of the scenery and domestic 
life in that distant part of the world. 

Mr. Mason presented six cabinet and four 
stereoscopic prints of interesting patholo- 
gical specimens at Bellevue Hospital. He 
also laid before the Section a copy of Com- 
modore Sands' admirable report on the 
Solar Eclipse of August last. The report 
was accompanied by photographs made by 
one of the government expeditions. 

Mr. Mason also exhibited a heliostat 
which he had constructed by a modification 
of the equatorial mounting of one of his 
small telescopes and the addition of a re- 
flector. 

Mr. Anthony exhibited a collection of 
prints by the Lichtdruck process, from the 
establishment of Ohm & Grossman, of Ber- 
lin, Prussia. 

Mr. Kurtz exhibited a large number of 
very beautiful imperial card prints illustra- 
ting the effects produced in using his con- 
cave background, which he described as a 
two foot segment six feet across, of a papier- 
mache hollow globe adjusted to an ordinary 
iron head-rest, so as to be easily raised and 



lowered or turned to any desired angle suit- 
able for the subject under treatment. The 
prints exhibited, and Mr. Kurtz's plain de- 
scription of its use, were such as to fully de- 
monstrate its great value to all who would 
produce first-class work, as by its use, a vast 
number of very beautiful effects may be 
produced which no other means would 
give. 

Mr. Chapman thought there had been 
some misunderstanding by those who had 
discussed his method of treating the print- 
ing solution, as several correspondents seem 
to confound it with that of boiling the 
negative bath solution, which he is aware 
was done some years before his method of 
treating the printing solution was pub- 
lished. 

The Section then adjourned to the first 
Tuesday in May. 

O. G. Mason, 

Secretary. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting was held 
on Wednesday evening, April 6th, 1870. 
The President, Mr. Frederic Graff, in the 
chair. 

The minutes of last meeting were read 
and approved. 

The resignation of Dr. William Thom- 
son was read and accepted. 

The Secretary read a letter from the Liv- 
erpool Amateur Photographic Association, 
acknowledging the receipt of a package of 
photographs forwarded by this Society. 

A communication was received from Mr. 
M. Carey Lea, upon the subject of the col- 
lodio-bromjde process. Also a number of 
very creditable prints were exhibited, made 
on albumen paper from his negatives. 

Mr. Draper presented to the Society a 
number of excellent photographs. 

Mr. Samuel Powell, of Newport, R. I., 
in the course of some remarks alluding to 
his endeavors to aid his scientific friends 
in their study of natural history and physi- 
ology, by the use of microscopic photogra- 
phy, advocated the use of certain chemical 
solutions for strengthening the negative 
produced under the microscope. Having 



160 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



had occasion to produce for Baron D'Osten- 
sacker a number of illustrations for a valua- 
ble work on entomology, in manuscript, lost 
by the fire at the Smithsonian Institute, 
Mr. Powell commenced to make drawings, 
by the aid of the microscope and camera, of 
the delicate nerves and ribs in the wings of 
the specimens submitted to him. For the 
purpose of reproduction by photo-litho- 
graphy, a clean outline was necessary. The 
negatives in many cases were weak, and 
any tendency to fog from over-develop- 
ment was corrected by allowing a 2-grain 
solution of cyanide of potassium to drop re- 
peatedly upon the parts of the negative re- 
quiring cleaning. Subsequently they were 
treated with a wine-colored solution of tinc- 
ture of iodine, then with an acidulated solu- 
tion of bichloride of mercury, and finally 
with a solution of Schlippe's salts. He spoke 
of the use of permanganate of potassium as 
a strengthening agent, and also of the ob- 
jection to its use by reason of its liability to 
produce stains caused by the presence of or- 
ganic matter upon the plate. 

Mr. Powell strongly advocated the use of 
the magic lantern for purposes of study ; 
thus two or more students could better dis- 
cuss the structure of the specimen projected 
upon the screen than when viewed upon the 
stage of the microscope. He had been re- 
cently very successful with microscopic en- 
largements reproduced by photography of 
the lingual dentition of univalve mollusks. 

Mr. Powell communicated to the Society 
a simple method of removing silver stains 
from the hands, originated by Mr. O. S. 
Hubbell. Treat the stains with a weak 
solution of tincture of iodine, and after- 
wards clean with dilute aqua ammonia. 

After an exhibition of magic lantern 
slides, the Society adjourned. 

John C. Browne, 
• Recording Secretary. 



NEW ENGLAND PHOTOGRAPHIC 
SOCIETY. 

Thk regular monthly meeting of the As- 
sociation was held at Mr. Black's studio, 
April 5th, 1870. 

The meeting was called to order by Presi- 



dent E. L. Allen. The records of the last 
meeting were read and approved. 

A resolution was offered by Mr. South- 
worth that Section 6, Article 2, of our 
Constitution be so amended as not to pro- 
hibit the re-election of any of the officers. 
The resolution was laid on the table for one 
month. 

Mr. Tupper declining the Secretaryship, 
it was voted that we proceed to the election 
of Secretary to fill vacancy, and upon the 
second ballot, E. F. Smith was declared 
elected. 

The following gentlemen were elected 
members: Mr. Edward A. Whiston, of 
Boston, and F. H. Gould, of Woburn. 

The committee on analysis of different 
samples of nitrate of silver made a final 
report, which was accepted, viz. : 

" The Committee to whom was referred the 
analysis of nitrate of silver have attended to 
that duty, and beg leave to report, 

That we procured samples of nitrate of silver 
from Messrs. George S. Bryant & Co. Benjamin 
French & Co., Dodge, Collier & Perkins, James 
S. Babcock, and E. L. Allen. We then took 
the silver from the original packages, divided 
it into equal parts (excepting No. 2 sample), 
and placed each sample in a clean bottle, all 
alike, sealed them and labelled them from 1 to 
6 inclusive. 

We then handed one set to Mr. James F. Bab- 
cock, chemist, and requested him to analyze 
these samples of nitrate of silver for the purpose 
of ascertaining if they contained any impuri- 
ties, and if so, the amount of impurities con- 
tained in them. 

The other set of bottles were handed to Mr. 
Charles E. Munroe, Lawrence Scientific School, 
Cambridge, with the same request. 

Shortly after this Mr. Munroe handed in his 
qualitive analysis which he had obtained with the 
spectroscope. From this it appears that bottle 
No. 1 contained, besides nitrate of silver, soda, 
and a trace of copper ; Bottle No. 3. soda, potassa, 
and lime; Bottle No. 4, soda, potassa, and lime, 
all slight; Bottle No. 5, soda, potassa, and cop- 
per ; Bottle No. 6, soda and lime. 

At this time the committee were not aware 
how delicate a test was this spectrosoope an- 
alysis, and expected that the quantitative analysis 
of both parties would bear it out, and when we 
received Mr. Babcock'e report we were very 
much surprised that he should report " no trace 
of nitrate of potussa in any of the samples." 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



161 



Bottle 










Bought of 


No. 1 coi 


tained 


P. & W.'s 


Nit. 


of Sil. 


G. S. B. & Co 


No. 2 


" 


P. k W.'s 




" 


B. F. & Co. 


No. 3 


" 


Magee's, 




" 


E. L. A. 


No. 4 


" 


Martin's 




" 


J. P. B. 


No. 5 


" 


P. & W.'S 






D., C. & P. 


No. 6 


" 


Pfizer's 




" 


G. S. B. & Co 



MR. BABCOCK'S ANALYSIS. 
Bottle 
No. 1 100 grs. of sample gave 99 50 grs. pure Nit. of Sil. 



No. 2 
No. 3 
No. 4 
No 5 
No. 6 



99.26 
99.26 
99.72 
99.50 
99. 



"All perfectly neutral except No. 2 sample, 
which was slightly acid." 

"No trace of nitrate of potash in any of the 
samples." 

MR. MUNROE'S ANALYSIS. 
Bottle No. 1, 100 grains sample gave 99.94 grains 
Nitrate of Silver, slightly aeid. Impurities, soda and 
trace of copper. 

Bottle No. 3, 100 grains sample, gave 97 40 grains 
nitrate of silver, neutral. Impurities, soda, potassa, 
and lime. 

Bottle No. 4, 100 grains sample, gave 100 grains ni- 
trate of silver, neutral. Impurities, soda, potassa and 
lime, all slight. 

Buttle No. 5, 100 grains sample, gave 99.90 grains 
nitrate of silver, neutral. Impurities, potassa, soda, 
and copper. 

Bottle No. 6, 100 grains sample, gave 99.72 grains ni- 
trate of silver, slightly acid. Impurities, soda and lime. 
He says : "I have subjected the samples to 
the most delicate tests, using the spectroscope in 
the qualitative analysis, which will explain the 
riddle in the fourth bottle, where we obtain by 
quantitative analysis 100 per cent. 

"This instrument will show us the presence 
of the T1 ^^ 77Tj - w part of a grain of common 
salt." 

We are quite happily disappointed, judging 
from the silver we have used in the past, at this 
result, as we fully expected to find a large per- 
centage of adulterations or impurities in some 
of the samples. 

Fred. C. Low, 
A. Marshall, 
H. Wm. Tupper, 

Committee. 

The thanks of the Association were ex- 
tended to Mr. Charles E. Munroe for his 
analysis of silver. 

A communication was received from Mr. 
Loomis regretting his absence on account 
of sickness. Also from Mr. J. W. Black, 
with communications in relation to the 
Shaw & Wilcox Company's suit against 
Lovejoy. 



On motion of Mr. Whiston it was voted 
that a committee of three be appointed to 
procure an official copy of the Shaw & Wil- 
cox patent and report next month, and that 
the Secretary be instructed to write to Mr. 
Lovejoy, and obtain from him pictures and 
description of his arrangement for saving 
silver waste at the time Shaw & Wilcox 
commenced suit against him. 

Mr. Burnham, on committee to procure 
pictures for the St. Louis Photographic As- 
sociation, reported with a collection of pho- 
tographs, to be forwarded by the Secretary. 

Beautiful specimens of our art were ex- 
hibited by Messrs. Marshall, Allen, and 
Burnham, of Boston, Vickery, of Haver- 
hill, Buzzell, of North Bridgewater, and 
Hobbs, of Exeter, N. H. 

On motion adjourned. 



E. F. 



Smith, 
Secretary. 



FERROTYPERS' ASSOCIATION 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Per- 
rotypers' Association of Philadelphia, was 
held at Mr. Thomas Brooks's gallery, Tues- 
day evening, April 5th, 1870, the Presi- 
dent, Mr. A. K. P. Trask, in the chair. 

After roll-call the minutes of the last 
meeting were read and adopted. 

The committee on skylights and manner 
of conducting business at the different gal- 
leries in the city reported progress. 

On motion it was resolved to suspend the 
regular order of business and now proceed 
to exhibit pictures. 

There was a large collection of very fine 
ferrotypes handed in to the meeting, made 
by the following members: Messrs. A. K. 
P. Trask, E. F. Warrington, Thomas 
Brooks, Charles E. Bolles, and D. Lothrop. 

On motion it was resolved that no mem- 
ber shall vote for his own pictures. 

After the pictures were numbered and 
lettered by the President, the members ex- 
amined them and voted as follows : three of 
Mr. Trask's pictures received one vote each, 
one of Mr. Lothrop's pictures received two 
votes, and another, one, making the result 
a tie vote. 

It was now agreed that the two parties 



11 



162 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



who made the pictures should not vote 
again, and on the second ballot the result 
was, two of Mr. Trask's pictures each re- 
ceived one vote, and two of Mr. Lothrop's 
received the same number, the result being 
another tie vote. 

Messrs. Trask and Lothrop were now re- 
quested to select from their two pictures 
the one they considered the best, and give 
their reasons for the same, which they did, 
and the members now proceeded once more 
to ballot for the best of these two, with the 
following vote : Mr. Lothrop's picture two 
votes, Mr. Trask's picture one vote, and one 
blank. 

This was the first exhibition of pictures 
for the prize medal, and was decided in fa- 
vor of Mr. D. Lothrop. These exhibitions 
are to take place at every regular monthly 
meeting for the remainder of the year. 

On motion it was resolved to put these 
two pictures into the album purchased for 
the Society. 

On motion it was resolved that the sub- 
ject for discussion at the next meeting shall 
be : " The best method of cleaning ferrotype 
plates that have been used." 

Adjourned to meet at Mr. E. K. Trask's 
gallery, 242 North Eighth Street, Tuesday 
evening, May 3d, 1870. 

D. Lothrop, 

Secretary. 



One Hundred Days in a Fog ; or, 
Acid vs. Acid. 

I think the gentleman who has been 
" one hundred days in a fog " should be 
more careful in his quotations from our 
most reliable authors. For instance, he 
extracts from Hardwich's Chemistry as fol- 
lows : " Many adopt the plan of leaving the 
plate in the bath for five minutes, and then 
taking it out without any movement." And 
here he stops; of course we are astonished — 
have not gained any information. Why? 
Because he bus not done justice to the man 
he quotes from. He should have stated all 
Hardwich said or wrote on that page, then 
BOine valuable information would have been 
gained by those who need it. The passage 
should read as follows: " The light ought 
to fall upon the plate at a sharp angle 



whilst it is lifted from the bath, that the 
operator may see the greasy lines upon the 
surface. An immersion of from two to 
three minutes will usually be sufficient to 
remove them in warm weather, but, when 
the temperature falls, the time must be pro- 
longed. Something will depend upon the 
number of times the plate is moved up and 
down, and many adopt the plan of leaving 
it in five minutes and then taking it out 
without any movement. When the liquid 
flows off in a uniform sheet the decomposi- 
tion may be considered perfect. The princi- 
pal impediment in this part of the process 
lies in the difficulty with which ether and 
alcohol mix together, which causes the col- 
lodion surface on its first immersion to ap- 
pear oily and covered with streaks ; by 
gentle motion the ether is washed away 
and a smooth layer obtained." 

We now see what Hardwich means, and 
at the same time conclude that the writer 
in Le Moniteur de la, Photographie used a 
very filthy bath, and did not dare to move 
his plate for fear of raising a dust from the 
bottom of his bath. Consequently, Hard- 
wich gives him a remedy, viz., " by leaving 
the plate in the bath until the decomposition 
is perfect.'''' No necessity for thus moving 
the plate. 

Again, in relation to acids. 

If the gentleman who has been "one 
hundred days in a fog " will note what 
Hardwich writes on page 278, I think he 
will be able to give some information to 
A. B. M. 

Now let us see what is said on acids, 
when used with certain kinds of collodion: 
" Acetate of silver or acetic acid, which in 
the nitrate bath for iodized collodion often 
exercises a beneficial effect in increasing 
both density and sensitiveness, here act dif- 
ferently ; they increase the density but 
lengthen the exposure. A small propor- 
tion of nitric acid, on the other hand, ma- 
terially increases the sensitiveness, and at 
the same time lowers the vigor of the im- 
age." He also states other effects caused 
by the acids under certain conditions. 

It is not necessary, at this time, to go 
more fully into all the various quotations, 
but all who wish reliable information can 
obtain it by carefully studying Hardwich's 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



163 



Chemistry and M. Carey Lea's Manual of 
Photography. We, of course, must under- 
stand what we see and read, and, regardless 
of time and expense, keep posted. That 
means, subscribe for the best journals and 
keep a good library of the best standard 
works on photography. You will get 
" light " enough to repay you fully. 

G. S. Keynolds. 



GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. 

Photography in Colors — New Discoveries con- 
cerning Gun- Cot tn — A simple Outdoor 
Tent. 

Much has been said and written of late 
about photographs in natural colors; but 
the reproduction of the natural tints by the 
aid of the camera obscura has not so much 
been the aim as the making of a set of neg- 
atives of the same object, which are after- 
wards printed on blue, yellow, or green 
carbon-paper, and transferred to the same 
sheet. The idea is not a new one, but has 
lately been brought prominently before the 
public by the labors of Ducos du Hauron. 

The negatives which furnish the yellow 
prints are taken through blue glass ; those 
which represent the blue tints are taken 
through yellow glass. How much of a neg- 
ative we will get through a yellow glass 
every photographer will know without an 
explanation. But, to cut the matter short, 
the attempt has been made, and resulted in 
something, but not in perfection. 

In the last session of our Society, Mr. 
Humutz proposed to have the negatives 
copied on stone; from these stones prints 
can be made in the different colors in the 
ordinary manner of chromo-lithographs, 
and these would be real photochromo-lith- 
ographs. The Society was much surprised 
when Mr. Burchardt, a well-known photo- 
lithographer, stated that he had already 
made such pictures, and that they had be- 
come articles of trade. He produced three 
large photochromo-lithographs. The pro- 
cess is curious enough. The pictures were 
copies of water-color drawings. The nega- 
tives are not taken through colored glasses, 
but simply by varying the time of exposure. 
Suppose the picture contains five colors, — 



black, yellow, green, vermilion, and blue. 
These colors have various times of exposure. 
With a very long exposure, black will be 
the only color that has not impressed the 
sensitive film ; all the other colors will be 
over-exposed, and will appear in the print 
the same as white. A print taken from this 
negative will give all the black outlines and 
black parts of the picture ; this picture, 
transferred to stone, is of course printed 
with black ink. If we shorten the exposure 
a little, black and yellow will fail to make 
an impression ; i.e., the others will be over- 
exposed. This picture is now transferred to 
stone, and printed with yellow ink ; that 
the yellow also prints over the black makes 
no difference. In a similar manner, we ob- 
tain the negative for green. This color 
would overlap the yellow and black parts, 
and would, where it overlaps the yellow, 
be rather annoying ; but we can help our- 
selves by printing the green first, and then 
the yellow with an opaque yellow, which 
would cover the green completely. 

A little intelligence and knowledge of 
colors are necessary ; but that the thing can 
be done has practically been proven by Mr. 
Burchardt. The only real difficulty which 
he met was in reproducing the blue, and 
the blue parts he had to draw in by hand. 

These are the first practical results of the 
experiments that have lately been under- 
taken in this direction, and, with skill and 
intelligence, an important future may be in 
store for this new invention. I hope to be 
able to send you specimens for the Exhi- 
bition at Cleveland. 

Next in order, I have to refer to discov- 
eries which throw a new light on our knowl- 
edge of collodion. 

Every photographer knows how widely 
different the gun-cotton from the same fac- 
tory is at various times. To-day it dis- 
solves easily, a year hence with difficulty ; 
to-day powdery, in a month fibrous ; some- 
times yielding a spongy, at other times a 
horny film. Nobody has taken the trouble 
to study more closely the cause of these 
variations. We accepted it in good faith 
that gun-cotton is a chemical compound, 
which, like many other chemical compounds 
in the organic world, changes somewhat in 
its qualities. 



164 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHEE. 



Lately, however, M. Camuzet has com- 
municated to the French Society that gun- 
cotton is not a chemical compound, but a 
mechanical mixture. If we take the very 
best cotton, dissolve it in alcohol and ether, 
and pour the resulting plain collodion in 
water, we will find that the cotton will sep- 
arate in three parts : a flaky one, which 
will rise to the top ; a powdery one, which 
will settle at the bottom ; and a third part, 
which will dissolve in water. 

Gun-cotton soluble in water ! Who would 
have thought it? And the most curious 
part is that the soluble part is quite con- 
siderable. M. Camuzet dissolved four sam- 
ples with the following results : 

Flaky Powdery Soluble 
part. part. part. 

No. 1. Best Collodion, 0.31 0.15 0.54 

" 2. Ordinary " 0.27 0.13 0.60 

" 3. Powdery " 0.27 0.07 0.66 

" 4. Papyroxyl " 0.60 0.05 0.35 

The flaky parts, when dried, will burn 
like the best gun-cotton, and redissolved in 
alcohol and ether will furnish a good col- 
lodion. 

The powdery part can be heated until it 
is charred to blackness without explosion. 
It dissolves poorly in alcohol and ether, and 
gives an indifferent film. 

The soluble part, and which in some sam- 
ples amounts to more than 50 per cent., has 
not been examined by M. Camuzet. It is 
more than probable that the excellence of 
gun-cotton is proportioned to the amount 
of flaky matter ; and this would not only 
give us a means of determining the quality 
of a sample by dissolving a part of it in 
alcohol and ether, and by throwing it in 
water determine the quantity of flaky mat- 
ter, but we can also get rid of all obnoxious 
substances, and get a chemically pure prep- 
aration. ^ Such a preparation is of the great- 
est importance for photographers. Every 
One knows how variable the quality of col- 
lodion is, and what curious results these 
variations produce in our baths and on our 
plates. It is very probable that the part 
which is soluble in water is a "mixtum 
compositum " of various substances, such as 
dextrin, sugar, perhaps oxalic acid, xylodin, 
etc., etc., all of which bodies act more or less 



injuriously on the bath and the sensitive- 
ness of the film. 

What would a careful photographer not 
give if he could get rid of all these impuri- 
ties ? Another curious circumstance we 
must not overlook. How is it that the solu- 
ble substances are not removed by the fre- 
quent washing that the cotton is subjected 
to? We must suppose that in water the 
insoluble parts of the fibre form a mem- 
brane around the soluble parts, and pre- 
vent their removal. 

The circumstance that papyroxyl fur- 
nished the largest amount of flaky matter, 
and consequently the best collodion, we 
must explain by stating that the fibre is 
mechanically much torn in making the pa- 
per, and this facilitates a more complete 
penetration of the nitro-sulphuric acids. 

We hope that our manufacturers will 
take advantage of this new discovery. 

In conclusion, a few remarks on new in- 
ventions in landscape photography. From 
the beautiful collection of landscapes taken 
in the Sierra Nevada, California, which 
you were so kind to send me, I see with 
much pleasure that with you landscape pho- 
tography is as much practised as with us. 
An important article in this branch of the 
art is the tent, which, on the one hand, 
must be light and portable, and on the other 
strong and solid. Herr Kluizer, in Bran- 
nar, has constructed a tent for short excur- 
sions, which stands on a tripod, the feet of 
which can be drawn out or pushed together. 
When fully drawn, they are about seven 
feet long. Over the three feet of the tripod 
a cloth is drawn, made of some stuff im- 
pervious to light. From the top to 3^ feet 
down the cloth is nailed to the legs of the 
tripod ; the balance falls loosely to the 
ground. A window of about eight square 
inches, made of yellow oiled silk, is sewed 
in. The table is three-cornered, and is 
fastened in the feet of the tripod by hooks 
and eyes. The table can be folded, and 
contains a groove for the bath and another 
one for a dish with water. The whole affair 
is set up in a moment, and as soon folded 
up again. 

Yours truly, 

Dr. II. Vogkl. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



165 



NOTES IN AND OUT OF THE 
STUDIO. 

BY G. WHARTON SIMPSON, M.A., F.S.A. 

Varnish for Facilitating Retouching — Accel- 
erators in Collodion — Filtering Collodion 
and Viscous Solutions — New Photographic 
Engraving Process — The Berlin Process. 
Va?'tdshfor Facilitating Retouching. — The 
admirable example of the value of skilful 
retouching on the negative, in the March 
Photographer, is one of the most instruc- 
tive of the many excellent illustrations you 
have issued. In spite of reiterated and 
vivid descriptions of the process of retouch- 
ing, and of the result produced, which have 
been published, the photographer who has 
never seen a print from a touched negative, 
and one from the same negative side by 
side, can form but a very imperfect idea of 
what can be accomplished. That issued in 
the Photographer very happily hit the juste 
milieu, refining and removing rugosities of 
texture without either impairing the like- 
ness or removing the lifelike flesh texture 
of the face. Some artists make a great mis- 
take when they over-touch and produce an 
image which suggests rather a piece of 
sculpture than the mobile, yielding flesh- 
like effect of a human head. But I com- 
menced with the intention of referring to a 
varnish which very materially aids the op- 
eration of retouching either by means of 
lead-pencil or water color. This varnish 
possesses most valuable properties for many 
purposes, and its constitution has been a 
earefully-guarded secret. It has the pe- 
culiar property of drying with a hard dead 
surface without becoming opaque. It is 
quite without the glassy surface of ordinary 
negative varnishes, and has none of the 
opacity of a chilled spirit varnish. It af- 
fords an excellent tooth to the pencil for 
retouching, and also takes water colors ad- 
mirably, having none of the greasy repel- 
lant character often possessed by the glassy 
surface of a bright varnish. The produc- 
tion of this dead surface is due, I under- 
stand, to the character of the solvent, which 
consists of a mixture of ether and benzole. 
Any of the gum resins, soluble in benzole, 
may be used ; but which is best, I have not 
learned, nor have I, as yet, had time to 



enter upon experiments with a view to de- 
termine. Gum dammar, it is probable, may 
answer well, but in a future letter 1 shall 
probably record the results of various ex- 
periments in this direction. 

Accelerators in Collodion. — Some discus- 
sion has recently arisen at this side of the 
Atlantic, as to the possibility of securing 
greater rapidity by introducing accelera- 
tors into collodion. 

The agent which has recently had atten- 
tion was tried many years ago by Hard- 
wich and abandoned. I refer to gallic acid. 
Mr. Bovey, an intelligent practical photog- 
rapher, states that he has gained a decided 
advantage by its addition to the collodion, 
whilst several other experimentalists declare 
that they find no change effected by the ad- 
dition of a small proportion, but, on adding 
sufficient to produce any marked effect, fog 
at once followed. I remember, in the early 
days of the collodion process, some sixteen 
or seventeen years ago, trying a somewhat 
extensive series of experiments with accel- 
erators, or suggested accelerators in collo- 
dion. Gallic acid, camphor, various resins, 
essential oils, etc., were carefully tried, 
but, whilst some degree of increased rapid- 
ity was secured in some cases whilst the 
mixture was new, it generally happened 
that the collodion became exceedingly in- 
sensible after keeping a short time, and a 
tendency to fog, spots, stains, etc., was often 
induced by the addition. I finally came to 
the conclusion that the only valuable ac- 
celerator was a bromide, at that day, not 
commonly used. 

It is somewhat curious to note the tend- 
ency, in the early days of any art, or any 
branch of any art, to empirical experi- 
ments for its improvement. 

In the first few years of the daguerreo- 
type process secret empirical methods of se- 
curing advantages abounded. Magic buffs, 
quick-stuffs, etc., of various kinds were com- 
mon, but general practice settled down to 
the use of iodine and bromine in slightly- 
varying proportions, based on the judgment 
of the operator. The same fact is true of 
the collodion process, the various additions 
to which I have already referred, for se- 
curing sensitiveness, together with glycyr- 
rhizine and similar bodies, have not been 



166 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



found generally valuable. It is not at all 
improbable, however, that renewed experi- 
ments, in the light of modern knowledge, 
might be productive of better results. 

Filtering Collodion and Viscous Solutions. 
— The excellent remarks of Mr. Carey Lea 
in a recent number of the Photographer, re- 
minded me of a method introduced to my 
notice some time ago. A correspondent 
sent me a very simple and efficient aid to 
such filtering operations which he had 
manufactured himself It consisted practi- 
cally of a syringe made as follows : a glass- 
tube about an inch or a little more in di- 
ameter, and about eight inches long was 
covered at one end with one or two thick- 
nesses of any suitable fabric of close tex- 
ture. The tube, then nearly filled with 
the viscous fluid to be filtered, a piston, fit- 
ting the tube pretty firmly, was placed in 
the other end, gently forced down, and, of 
necessity, driving the fluid before it, but 
leaving on the inside of the filtering fabric 
all coarse particles. My correspondent had 
chiefly used this for filtering India-rubber 
solutions, and had found it answer admira- 
bly. 

New Photographic Engraving Process. — 
New or modified methods of photographic 
engraving have been so frequently proposed 
and so frequently patented, without coming 
to anything, that photographers have ac- 
quired a habit of waiting for results before 
feeling a deep interest or profound belief in 
any of the methods proposed. Mr. Wood- 
bury has, however, just patented a method 
in this country, which possesses very great 
promise indeed, and, judging from the one 
specimen I have seen, is capable of produc- 
ing very fine results indeed. 

The process is based upon Mr. Wood- 
bury's photographic relief process, part of 
the operations in which are employed to 
produce the printing-plate in the new 
method, which may, indeed, be regarded as 
a modification of the old one, although giv- 
ing different results, printed at a different 
press, and with a different ink. 

In order to make the matter clear to the 
reader not familiar with the technics of 
intaglio printing, I must briefly explain 
one or two details. Most of ymir readers 
know that copperplate printing is effected 



with a plate having an image in intaglio ; 
that is, the design is cut in or sunken, not 
in relief. They also know that Mr. Wood- 
bury, in his photographic relief process, 
prints from a similar plate. It might 
naturally be asked, therefore, why Mr. 
Woodbury's intaglio plate might not be 
used in the ordinary process of copperplate 
printing instead of requiring a special gela- 
tinous ink and special presses. There are 
several reasons, but there is one of an es- 
pecial and primary character ; such a plate 
from a subject with half-tone has no ink- 
holding capacity. In a subject with half- 
tone there are broad spaces of flat or con- 
tinuous tints, out of which the ink would 
be wiped when used for copperplate print- 
ing. It should be remembered that, after 
inking a copperplate it is wiped to remove 
all the ink which does not fill up the sunken 
design ; and, if the plate have no grain or 
ink-holding spaces, the ink is wiped out of 
the widest and shallowest spaces, destroying 
much of the image. If, however, these 
spaces have a grained or cellular texture, 
the ink is held by the grain or cells, and is 
not wiped out. 

Yarious methods have been adopted to 
secure the requisite quality in the photo- 
graphic engraved plates, with greater or 
less degree of success, which it is not neces- 
sary to refer further to here. The method 
adopted by Mr. Woodbury is analogous to 
some of them, and, apparently, more effi- 
cient than the majority of them. 

Like many other valuable discoveries, 
Mr. Woodbury's new process owes its ori- 
gin partly to accident. About twelve 
months ago Mr. Woodbury gave me one of 
his gelatine reliefs which had a singular de- 
fect. He was in the habit of adding a lit- 
tle coloring matter to the gelatine from 
which' his reliefs were formed, as an aid to 
examining their progress in development. 
On this occasion, from some unexplained 
cause, the color, instead of diffusing itself as 
a flat tint or stain, granulated, and commu- 
nicated to the gelatine relief a surface re- 
sembling that of a very fine aquatint plate. 
When this effect was first produced I dis- 
cussed with Mr. Woodbury the chances of 
utilizing it as an aid to producing a photo- 
graphic engraved plate for copperplate 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



167 



printing. The idea then canvassed, Mr. 
Woodbury has since worked out to the 
present issue. From a granulated relief an 
intaglio in lead or type-metal is obtained by 
hydraulic pressure ; but, as such a plate 
would be too soft for valuable service in the 
mode of printing employed with copper- 
plates, it is desirable to proceed further. 
This soft metal plate is therefore placed in 
the battery, and a copperplate in relief ob- 
tained ; from this, as a mould, another in- 
taglio plate is obtained in the battery. This 
last is the printing plate, and to give it en- 
during qualities it is submitted to the aeie- 
rage process, whereby it acquires a steel 
face, so that a large number of impressions 
may be obtained without sensible wear. 

The Berlin Process. — I have been much 
interested in Mr. Howell's examples of the 
"Berlin process," with which you kindly 
furnished me. The effect was certainly 
novel and pretty, and led me to attempt at 
once to produce it. My experiments have 
led to some curious conclusions. 

As it would have been somewhat difficult 
to rough the back of negatives in existence, 
I adopted the obvious means of supplying 
its place by placing a piece of ground-glass 
with the rough side in contact with the 
back of the negative, and so printing 
through it. A slight degree of granula- 
tion was imparted to the print, less in de- 
gree and softer in kind than the American 
prints with which you were good enough 
to furnish me. 

After some further experiments, I tried 
another plan, based on some former experi- 
ments in which I had aim to produce a 
grain for photo-lithographic purposes. I 
now took an extremely thin sheet of mica, 
and, by means of a mixture of zinc-white 
and mastic varnish, I produced a delicate 
stipple on the surface, closely resembling 
fine ground-glass. I interposed this be- 
tween a piece of sensitive paper and the 
negative in printing. "With some nega- 
tives, the effect was so slight as to be 
scarcely appreciable, and the picture seemed 
neither better nor worse, in any noticeable 
degree, for the treatment ; with other pic- 
tures, however, a specific advantage was 
gained. The subjects best suited are large 
heads, in which the greater part of the face 



is in half-shadow. In these pictures the 
slightest amount of over-printing is apt to 
produce a somewhat dirty effect in the face, 
the shadows are opaque, and the head loses 
at once delicacy and modelling. The thin 
stippled veil here becomes of service. It 
is so slight that in the blacks it soon be- 
comes ignored, and is lost, as in deep print- 
ing very weak detail in shadow is lost, so 
that in the darkened parts of the head, such 
as the eyes, the deep shadows of the hair, 
etc., its effect is not perceptible at all. In 
the lights, which only very slightly print 
through at all, it is from the same cause, 
its delicate thinness, without noticeable ef- 
fect ; but in the half-shadows of the face, 
which print through just sufficiently to 
show grain or texture, but do not get suf- 
ficiently deeply printed to become buried 
and ignored, the effect is very apparent. 
The half-shadow becomes more transpa- 
rent, the minute stipple of lighter points 
admits light into it, and becomes tender 
and delicate without losing force or model- 
ing. 

But still the results I produced were not 
quite the same as those of Mr. Kowell, and 
they were not quite so good as his, and after 
some reflection I have come to the conclu- 
sion that it is not improbable that another 
cause is in operation here to which some of 
the softness of the prints is due. The effect 
in a negative taken on glass, the back of 
which is ground, is decidedly more marked 
than the effect produced by printing through 
ground-glass with the roughed side of the 
glass in contact with the negative, and, so 
far as the mere effect on the printing is con- 
cerned, there can be no reason for this dif- 
ference ; some other cause must, therefore, 
be sought. The possibility which occurs to 
my mind to account for this fact is the re- 
flection of the light passing through the 
film back from the thousands of fine facets 
presented by the ground surface at the back 
of the plate, and these reflections, being in- 
finitely varied in their direction by the 
varied angles of these minute reflecting 
surfaces, will tend to give the soft effect 
similar to diffusion of focus, in which 
freckles, pock-marks, and rugosities are 
softened and diffused as the painter softens 
and blends his tints by a gentle touch of a 



168 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



badger hair tool. If this conjecture be cor- 
rect, it is necessary to take the negative on 
glass roughened at the back, and not merely 
to print through such a roughened surface. 
London, March, 1870. 



THE ROSS LENS. 

The introduction of the Koss lenses into 
this country is an era in photography. 
Although Mr. Thomas Eoss, father of the 
present Mr. Eoss, began the manufacture 
of optical instruments forty years ago, and 
since the birth of photography has made 
the best photographic lenses in the world, 
his instruments are comparatively little 
known in this country, for the reason that 
they have not been pushed and advertised 
here as have others. Mr. Eoss's factory 
could scarcely supply the demand at home 
which has been so augmented by so extended 
a reputation, but after earnest solicitation 
he has made an agency here, and American 
photographers are now enabled to try and 
compare his lenses with others. They are 
pre-eminently first-class. We haven't the 
space now, but we shall, presently, devote 
an article to their excellencies, their pecu- 
liarities, and their construction. We also 
hope to show our readers an example of 
work made by them. A very handsome 
and extensive catalogue of them is before 
us from the agents, and for the present, we 
refer our readers to that, and to the adver- 
tisement on the cover of this number. We 
clip the following from the London Times, 
March 16th, 1870: 

" A Eare Lens. — The largest photogra- 
phic portrait lens ever made in this country 
is one of 10J inches diameter, recently com- 
pleted by Eoss, and now in the possession of 
Mr. Mayall, of Eegent Street. It is an ach- 
romatic lens of great power, and will take 
portraits' of any size, from the smallest 
miniature up to very nearly life-size. It is 
made of glass of the whitest description, 
and its size admits so large a volume of 
light that photographs covering a space 10 
inches by 10 inches may be done in eight 
seconds. The lens renders in the photo- 
graph all that is seen in the optical image, 
and this so truthfully that the coarseness 



and exaggeration belonging to large photo- 
graphs taken with inferior lenses are alto- 
gether absent. In the open air, groups of 
fifteen to twenty persons (each face the size 
of a sovereign, and the whole picture 24 
inches by 24 inches) can be taken with the 
short exposure of ten seconds. The cost of 
manufacturing the lens was upwards of 
£200, but it may be said to be worth its 
weight in gold." 



PRIZE FOR PHOTO-CRAYONS. 

As we understand the Photo-crayon is 
to be largely represented at the Cleveland 
exhibition, we think that competition in 
this new style ought to be encouraged, and 
rewarded by the awarding of prizes to 
those exhibiting the best examples. We 
therefore offer the following prizes : A 
beautiful solid gold medal to the exhibitor 
of the best Photo-crayon, a silver medal 
for the second best, and a bronze medal for 
the third best. 

The medals will bear appropriate inscrip- 
tions, with the name of the exhibitor to 
whom such medals will be awarded. 

So as to have uniformity, all the photo- 
crayons sent for competition must be on 
Sarony's 11 x 14 crayonized sheets, en- 
larged from either a card or imperial nega- 
tive, and accompanied with a plain print 
from said negative. 

We shall, furthermore, pay fifty crayon- 
ized sheets (cost $25) for any Photo-craj r on 
on exhibition to which a prize will have 
been awarded, should the exhibitor desire 
to dispose of them. 

The manner of choosing the judges for 
the awarding of these prizes, will be left 
entirely to the executive committee of the 
Association. 

The Messrs. Sarony & Lambert, being 
the originators of this new style, which they 
have introduced into this country, will not 
compete for the above prizes. 

Hoping that every photo artist will try 
to make this Exhibition a telling success, 
and that none will be so foe-to-grajiliu- as 
to refuse to join in this great work of prog- 
ress, we remain yours, fraternally, 

T. II. N. & N. A. P. Sakony Lambert. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



169 



THE "WHITE HILLS" WHEN 
THEY ARE " WHITE." 

We, perhaps hastily, in our last issue 
promised to give our readers an account of 
a week of delightful enjoyment we had in 
the White Mountains early in March. We 
do it, hecause we think there are others 
who have as great a capacity for enjoyment 
as we have, and whose close confinement 
makes recreation as necessary to them as 
ours does us. There was a general shiver- 
ing among those we told of our intention 
of going, but we have been now — we have 
seen the White Mountains both in summer 
and winter, and we say emphatically, no 
one has seen them, until he sees them in 
their snowy finery — in winter. As we 
.stated in our last, we proceeded to Little- 
ton, where we were joined by Messrs. Kil- 
burn and Hill, and made our first trip to- 
gether to the famous Crawford Notch, sup- 
plementing it by a good night's rest. 

At early dawn a friendly voice awaken- 
ed us with " Good morning, boys. Ther- 
mometer is five degrees below zero, and a 
glorious day is promised ; the mountains 
are all clear!" Our informant got his in- 
formation from a high hill back of his own 
house, where a grand view of the White 
Mountains may be had. 

Our team was ready soon, and no time 
was lost in making our preparations for the 
start. With gay thoughts we went out into 
the air, and inhaled a few of the " degrees 
below." The horses were restless, so we 
prepared to go. Buried in a sleigh full of 
buffalo robes, submerged in coon-skin great 
coats, lost in huge rubber boots and over- 
whelming caps, we left Littleton, our fine 
team of snow-colored horses, with their 
jingling bells, being eager to start. W T ith 
snow under our runners from eighteen to 
twenty inches deep, we glided along at no 
6low pace. 

We were soon among the hills and saw 
old Sol rise far away from behind Mount 
Washington, amid a mass of golden clouds 
which he threw from his stately person, and 
began his day work of creating lights and 
shades for our special benefit, for then all 
things seemed made for us. No one spake. 
The horses were stopped that the gorgeous 



sight might be enjoyed more quietly. Zero 
and his " degrees below" were forgotten for 
the moment, and when the effort was made 
to speak, "each individual hair" of our 
moustaches was found to be cemented by 
the frosty air to our icy beards, and no 
mouth could articulate properly until a 
thaw ensued. 

Several hours' drive then followed, the 
grand White Mountain and Franconia 
ranges being both almost completely and 
continually in sight. On the extreme left 
was Mount Madison, followed by Mounts 
Adams, Jefferson, Clay, Washington (the 
highest), Monroe, Pleasant, Clinton, Web- 
ster, Willard, Tom, Haystack, Lafayette, 
Bald, Cannon, Eagle Cliffs, and so on to 
Mooseilauke or Moose Hillock. Not one 
of all these was cloud-capped, though the 
accommodating clouds, hanging high above, 
soon covered the sun, and spared us the 
dazzling glare from the snow, which threat- 
ened to trouble us earlier. Our view, there- 
fore, was most enjoyable, uninterrupted, 
and complete. Each mile changed the 
aspect. Madison, Adams, Jefferson, Clay, 
and Washington, were literally covered 
up with the snow, and grandly did they 
look in their winter clothing. But for the 
deep gorges here and there, few dark spots 
could be seen. The trees on the mountains 
nearer to us were a constant wonder. Being- 
covered with snow and hoar-frost, they 
looked like groves of crystals, and dazzled 
the eyes and the comprehension to look 
upon them. Their splendor could neither 
be painted, photographed, or described, and 
the trio that then gazed upon them were 
impotent indeed. Nature had covered up 
her gaudy patchwork with her best white 
spread, and its glory must be seen to be 
understood. Oh ! how the tree-tops bristled 
in their great defiles along the ever-chang- 
ing outlines, reminding one of a million of 
bayonets borne by sturdy arms, catching 
and reflecting the sunshine, making it into 
necklaces of diamonds and brilliants for 
the bosom of Dame Nature. 

In a few hours we reached the White 
Mountain House, and from there saw the 
Mount Washington Kailroad Depot. The 
drive from there to the Crawford Notch 
was slow necessarily, the snow being deep, 



170 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



but the enjoyment was great. The Craw- 
ford House was closed, of course, but the 
cottage is always inhabited ; and thanks to 
the courtesy of Mr. Thorn, one of the well- 
known proprietors of the Crawford House, 
and his assistants, an appetizing mountain 
dinner was prepared for us in good time. 

After dinner, a new experience awaited 
Mr. Hill and us. We were to climb Mount 
Willard on snow-shoes ! Cheered by our 
friend, Mr. Kilburn, we put them on and 
made the start. Did you ever try to walk 
on snow-shoes over a drift of snow twelve 
feet deep? "No." Well, then, tie a whole 
size, long platform camera-box to each foot, 
with the platforms backwards. Now walk 
out into the snow — or mud will do, if deep 
enough — then, as you lift one foot, catch 
the front of one box fast to the platform of 
the other, and fall down, hands first. Could 
you ever extricate yourself from such a pre- 
dicament? Not well; but you would feel 
as one feels when he experiences his first 
fall with snow-shoes on. We soon became 
accustomed to them, however, and it is 
astonishing what a help they became. One 
sinks but two or three inches into the 
softest snow with them. 

Up, up we clambered. The ascent is 
steep, and therefore tiresome. With a slow, 
swaggering swinging stride we stepped 
along, stopping often to take breath, the 
air growing more and more rare as we ad- 
vanced. The perspiration rolled down like 
rain, and coats and vests were thrown open, 
and gloves discarded. Through vast forests 
of evergreens, heavily laden with frozen 
snow, we clambered up, up, up. When 
stopping the pervading silence could be 
heard almost, as darkness can be felt, for 
not a sound fell upon our ears except the 
throbbings of our own hearts. Much of 
the way the snow hangs upon the bowed- 
down trees in thick masses, and these must 
be the winter wardrobes of the fairies and 
the nymphs. Nearer the summit the snow 
is thinner upon the trees, and gives greater 
detail to their shapes, each tiny limb com- 
ing in for its share of the burden and the 
splendor. Eere tho fairies get their laces 
and their haberdasheries and their embroid- 
eries and their One jewelry. The sight is 
one not to be described, but Mr. Kilhurn's 



busy camera has been poked in here and 
there among them. He has secured some 
grand stereoscopic views of those trees in 
their winter garments. 

After one hour and twenty minutes of 
hot work the summit was gained. We re- 
ceived a very cool reception from Mr. B. O. 
Reas, who reigns and keeps open house up 
there, but despite his howlings, we remained 
eighteen minutes, snapped some of his ice 
to quench our thirst, then drank in the 
great view before us, which seemed to be 
like the hold of a great vessel. Forty miles 
away could be seen the sharp sides of Mount 
Chochorua, white as driven snow, like a 
great pyramid against a background of most 
beautiful ultramarine blue. Down the valley 
was the Saco fighting its way through the 
snow, and the great valley lay snow-covered 
and slumbering. The Silver Cascade and 
all its tiny companions were fettered by the 
strong grip of the Ice King, and their noisy 
gurglings were hushed. Nothing but the im- 
precations of our frigid host could induce us 
to leave so soon, but we feared the result of 
disobedience, though we felt that his threats 
were all blow, and made the descent in half 
the time occupied in ascending, and with 
much less labor and perspiring. 

Down through the Crawford Notch we 
travelled then, shying an icicle at the "Ele- 
phant's Head," kissing our hands to the 
"Old Maid," and shouting at the answer- 
ing echoes towards the Willey House, over 
the fences we strode with our snow-shoes, 
for they were all under -the snow, and over 
great rocks that last summer caused us 
some effort to get up to the top of them. 
The road that leads from the Crawford to 
the Willey House is now as rugged and 
rock}-, and rough as the top of Mount 
Washington, in consequence of the great 
freshet which occurred in September last, 
and which drove before it all stones and 
rocks weighing less than a ton or so. Much 
less sad and terrible in its consequences 
though than the great Willey slide, which 
Mr. Hill has rendered immemorial now by 
his wonderful painting. 

Coming back wo met Mount Willard face 
to face, the congealed cascades hanging down 
his snowy front "like the oil upon Aaron's 
beard," and his frowning, wrinkled, and 



THE PHILADELPHIA P HOTOGKAPHER. 



171 



frost-bitten cliffs, which we mastered a few 
hours before, seemed ready to cast them- 
selves upon us. 

All night at the Crawford House Cottage, 
where stories of adventures were told by 
all hands until time to rest, and in the 
morning away for a fish. Oh ! how the 
pickerel and the trout do swarm in these 
mountain streams ! Cut twenty holes in 
the ice ; over each suspend a little bough, 
to which fasten a little red flag, and a hook 
and line. Now march back and forth, 
warming yourself betimes by the great fire 
built for you, and ivatch. Down bends the 
little bough making the little flag to court- 
esy. Run! pull! quick! Ah! what a fine 
fellow you have floundering in the air ! 
And that is fishing ! You do not suffer 
from cold, for your twenty lines keep you 
both busy and warm. 

But we must not tire you. This much 
with our drive back to Littleton occupied 
two days, and long ones too. Of our 
further adventures in the snow we may 
find space to tell you in our next. To tell 
all that we saw would occupy a whole 
number of the Journal at least. Only go 
for yourselves, and you will enjoy it. 



The Sitter hath Trial as well ; or, 
The Other Side. 

Overtaken by an unusual hankering 
after literature during the late "great 
storm," when all supplies were cut off by 
land and by sea, and we languished, faint 
and famishing, beneath high Alps of snow, 
I ambulated up a ladder into a reserved 
library, cornered out of a big chimney 
which stood in the centre of our rooftree, in 
search of mental refreshment. 

Reward awaited the enterprise, as here, 
stored by provident hands in orderly pha- 
lanx, were the bulky embodiments of our 
ever-increasing "monthlies," among which 
and greatly prized were the "Philadelphia 
Photographer." 

In lieu of later novelties, I fell upon a 
copy of one of last year's issue, thinking, 
"joys we have tasted may sometimes re- 
turn," and to my surprise came across this 
most fatherly injunction : "Write unto me 
all ye agonized photographers, who are 



knee-deep in tribulation, and I will give 
you consolation and recipes," or what was 
its equivalent. 

Unprecedented philanthropy to be sure, 
but the assumption that only they to whom 
it was addressed could be in need, seemed 
to my amused eyes a very partial, preju- 
diced, one-sided, view of things, to take by 
such a bright black pair of optics as preside 
over these offerings. 

Instantly the conviction seized me it was 
my mission in life to enlighten so benighted 
an editor that he might discern clearly the 
truth ; which is, that the fraternity, un- 
happy as it is in colliding with all manner 
of difficulty and misfortune, does not mo- 
nopolize all the misery incident to picture 
making. 

Why bless you, our trials begin with the 
inception of the idea, a long time before the 
man at the guns is aware of our existence. 
We look at it first in the light of duty, try- 
ing to familiarize our minds with it by 
strong will. After breaking faith with our- 
selves a dozen times by as many postpone- 
ments, the day is finally set apart when cul- 
minates the agony, and you don't sleep or 
wink all night. 

At least I didn't. It makes me chilly to 
recall those long, dark, nervous hours, in 
which danced imps, grinning and exultant, 
making mine a Procrustes couch. 

There was the toilette — no trifling desid- 
eratum with us weaker vessels — and the 
posing, besides meeting the man who don't 
believe at all in your style. Shiveringly I 
was in and out of my entire wardrobe (it 
consists of two suits) twenty times before 
morning. First the black and then the 
blue, and sometimes I had them both on. 
Desperation decided the blue at last, and I 
went to sleep and dreamed such a sweet de- 
lusion of the artist. He was so melting and 
suave, so touching, too. Didn't accuse me 
of notions and nerves, nor ignore all my 
plans and opinions. Then there I was trans- 
ferred directly to the card, without any 
humdrum intermediate process — and such 
a beauty. 

Alas! for those who put faith in dreams. 

I told Spriggins as I stood at the mirror 
in the morning, that I looked like a fright, 
to which he unqualifiedly assented. 



172 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



But then our little world of order had 
been broken through for this great event. 
Dinner had been trundled into the end of 
day, upsetting all domestic data ; a very 
chaotic programme of baking and dusting, 
frugality and expedition, made out for my 
automatic Mary Ann Factotum ; beside, 
my hair was frizzled, so go I must, let what 
would come of it, 

My snowy frills were terribly bedraggled 
on those abominable stairs, to the top of 
which I pantingly clambered, to find only 
fifteen engagements scored head. 

Absorbed exclusively by my own affairs, 
no thought had occurred to me a soul else 
would want pictures upon this day. Or if 
I thought anything, it was that the business 
stood still waiting my pleasure and arrival, 
that the whole energies of the establishment 
were accumulating expressly to spend their 
force and power only too delightedly on me. 
Consequently great was the dash given my 
expectations by these numberless people. 
It was as though they had premeditatedly 
usurped my rights, and would laugh at my 
defeat and glory in my chagrin. 

But bent on biding my time now I had 
come, I settled into the only vacant seat 
with grim determination. 

It was a long, low, many-windowed room, 
with passing views of gay women and jolly 
driving, but no one looked out or seemed 
interested in aught but waiting, and that 
they did most forlornly, unlike those who 
wait with a certainty of its fixed and final 
ending It might be one hour, or two, or 
a day, or longer. The harrowing uncer- 
tainty told in their elongated visages and 
dejected air. 

One group of females looked especially 
funereal in their dismal attire and lockjaw 
expressions; sat as immovable as statues, 
with back hair twisted up fast and tight, 
nut-cake fashion, and stabbed with pins 
sufficient to- warrant a horseback gallop. 
Beyond, in striking contrast, loomed two 
immense chignons, to which were attached 
two gauzy, giggling brides, to whom, in 
turn, were attuched two Grecian-bender 
husbands. It behooved them to secure 
these orange-blooms and honeymoon faces 
ere both should fade. 

"Dear me if here aint another," was the 



tardy reply of my next neighbor, whose ex- 
pansive hoops could, in no way, be coaxed 
between the arms of her chair, and so tilted 
up exposing two skinny ankles and long 
pantalettes. "'Pears like the hull town's 
gone crazy to have their pictur took. I told 
Jonathan this morning when he was hitch- 
ing up — ses I, Jonathan, if them bandy 
legs a hizzen don't fly round and do the 
job up this hitch, he'll never git no more 
patronyge of mine, — you can just salt that 
down." 

This little speech she delivered in a gene- 
ral way for the ear of the public. But the 
ear of the public being dull and unsympa- 
thizing, and I in close proximity, she turned 
her back upon it and favored me with her 
confidence, unbosoming herself at great 
length: 

"You see this is five times we've druv 
over — near on to ten mile; because you 
know I've got a inward Tricocephalus set 
up that may end my life any minute." 

"Ses Jonathan to me, ' Betsy, your the 
choice of me youth, the pride of me heart; 
if it costs our red heifer we'll have your 
pictur ' He was alius orful attached to 
me. Wal, the fust time the pictur man 
done putty well, was as perlite as a beggin 
committee, sot me several different ways to 
git the best pints. I haint got the stiddiest 
nerves in the world, and never could bear 
a man fussin over me, so what with my 
squirmin and his fussin it took almost all 
day. I ses to Jonathan driving home: 'I 
guess I learned him one thing, and that air 
was I'm virtuous.' " 

At this point she seemed exhausted, and 
opened her lunch basket which gave forth 
some huge doughnuts she had tucked in 
beside her best cap, with which she pro- 
ceeded to regale herself, taking the story of 
her trials along with the eating. 

"You see we had something of a tussel 
about the pay — he wanted it right down. 
But I never pays no man till 1 git the value 
received. I got that lesson dealing with 
tin peddlers. He saw I was firm as a hitch- 
ing post and finally gin in. 

" Wal, we waited and waited, and Jona- 
than hedruvoverandoverand piled up them 
air stairs and got a crick in his back, and at 
last they wus all struck on". At fust wo 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEE. 



173 



thought um pretty good, but the neighbors 
they said how I wasn't fetched out enough, 
and my daughter Tilda Jane, she thought I 
orter been took standing. Will nobody 
thought um quite natural, so I told Jona- 
than I'd set again." 

The last doughnut was eaten and she sat 
meditatively, economically picking up the 
crumbs from her alpaca lap, when seeing 
the interest I manifested, went on. 

-"Jonathan, he's been poorly all winter; 
fust he had the shingles, then he had a wasp 
nest, so what with them and the crick aint 
fit for nothin, he says, but tied up to me. 
The next two times we come they said they 
was too bizzy to look at us — got short and 
cranky. Then 'twas too dark, but we am- 
bushed um early to-day. I made up my 
mind to come and set it out if it takes till 
pitch dark." 

The poor woman's fervor reached a crisis, 
and in fetching an extra breath, drew a 
crumb into her windpipe which so choked 
and strangled her as to cause her waterfall, 
that had dangled precariously some time by 
one pin, to plump on the floor. A squint- 
eyed boy restored it with comical grimaces, 
assisting to adjust it cornerwise over the 
left ear. At this denuding catastrophe, he 
had slipped out from a half dozen of his 
compeers, who, to beguile time, were hover- 
ing over specimens, whistling, and posing. 
legs. Tall, overgrown, noisy chaps, just 
entering the estate of jewelry and neckties. 
Conscious-looking juveniles who had it on 
their minds to look in the mirror directly,, 
and when they did, drew on such long 
ghostly expressions one wondered they had 
courage to face them. But they stood it 
out, each hitching at his already too visible 
linen, betaking himself complacently there- 
after to peanuts ; sowing recklessly the new 
bright carpet with the debris, which, to- 
gether with seed-cake and crackers scattered 
by hungry infants tearing about, gave the 
place quite an easy-going air. 

Between times ghostly guttural sounds, 
like a distressed Dutchman in a barrel, 
came rumbling down tin tubes, accelerating 
our blood a little and signalizing the vic- 
tims to fresh martyrdom. 

At length, after a weary four hours' wait- 
ing, enough to annihilate the animation 



J of new yeast, or depress the spirits of a 
June cricket, release came, and I was ush- 
ered into the presence of the hero of my 
dreams. 

He was a slightly-built, nervous individ- 
ual, who forestalled all his troubles, as you 
could see by the contractions over his nose, 
and who drank one up at a glance. Un- 
like Sammy Weller's, his " vision " was 
not limited, his eyes being real "double- 
magnifying microscopes" of hextra power. 
Never a glamour beguiled him. Striking 
an attitude, with the coolest sang froid he 
roamed up and down the front gores of my 
dress, squinted round my chignon, peeped 
under my modestly-drooping eyelids, not- 
ing generally every deflect. 

Of course, under such open scrutiny, in- 
firmities grew apace, making it only too 
obvious in his decipherable frowns, that 
" nothing much can be made of you." 

Phantoms of my dream still haunted me. 
Alas ! where were the sweetness and ten- 
derness it promised ? Instead thereof, here 
confronted me literalness and no trifling. 
No pearling over rough places like the wise 
little oyster, but rather bringing all things 
to light. 

Some weakness or other, either of soul or 
body, is the inevitable condition of life. If 
nature is lavish of beauty, she straightway 
compensates herself by a limitation of brain. 
Sometimes the frisky old dame gives loveli- 
ness to form but repents at the features, 
afterward endowing the recipient of her 
fickleness with sweetness of temper, that 
her distributions may be equitable. 

When doling her gifts to me she was par- 
ticularly generous in nose. No subterfuge 
had ever saved it from immediate observa- 
tion. Being, therefore, conspicuous, it was 
early seized upon for experiment, and ex- 
ercised at all altitudes and in all possible 
lights and bearings. 

Nevertheless, it proved a stubborn fact, 
destined to destroy all the poetry of a pro- 
file, my coveted attitude. Suddenly the of- 
fender was brought round, and turned un- 
compromisingly into the camera by a grab 
at the chin, and my carefully-arranged 
tresses so pulled and tossed, I should have 
screamed had they been in at the roots. 
Such twistings and turnings, such bend- 



174 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



ings and doublings too, gutta percha would 
have resented it. 

And then the despair of this lynx after a 
succession of failures. To see him merge 
into that dark hole of mysteries and smells 
all a-tremble with hope, and then emerge, 
limp with disappointment. It was pitia- 
ble and made me weak from sympathy. 

So the day faded with these repeated ef- 
forts, and night approached. I reflected 
upon the yearling hen fricasseeing with un- 
faltering perseverance at home with much 
composure, knowing full well it could not 
be over done. 

" Success hasn't crowned our efforts to- 
day, madam ; or, in other words, it's a fiz- 
zle. Blue is antagonistic to your chances, 
beside, your hairdresser don't understand 
your bumps. If you will effect some change 
in these matters, we shall be happy to re- 
peat the sitting to-morrow," expansively 
spoke the lynx. 

Shadows crept up the wall and the sun 
dropped behind a purple cloud. My high- 
built hopes dropped with him as I returned 
to the bosom of my family. 

Spriggins rose to the emergency, meting 
me sympathy and encouragement with the 
wing of the yearling, as we sat over our late 
dinner discussing the disappointments of 
life, especially the trials of photography. 

" Never say die, my Juno ; the fault is 
in the change. Go to-morrow and prove 
the man a bungler." 

Watching two nights with an idea is not 
nearly so interesting as sparking. One — two 
— three — mournfully tolled the tower-clock. 
O, the darkness; O, the misery! How the 
window-shutters banged and the top-but- 
ton at my throat choked. How exasperat- 
ingly somebody sno — slept. Yes, indeed; 
how impudent in that fellow to yank my 
chin, and snub my blue and my hair. I 
would do as I should please about it. That 
was a happy conclusion to come at, as it 
could not be disputed, and thus ended the 
controversy. 

It was a bleak unpromising morning. 
Not a ray of hope in sky or breast. It 
took a deal of bathing, and towelling, and 
pink-saucer to tone up after the wake, so 
it was nearly midday ere the brown-silk 
umbrella and 1 pointed noses toward that 



place whence issue shadows only of the sub- 
stance that enters. 

The dark day was telling on custom, as 
nobody had ventured out but one doting 
mother, who sat with tears in her eyes, 
tying up her new baby into hard knots, de- 
claring the precious lamb had wiggled on 
fourteen plates. This doting mother and. 
one teetering female, who toed and heeled, 
rose and fell to the rhythm, seemingly, of 
an inward hand-organ. It was the eighth 
proof she was returning — not suited yet. 
They all had been tested at the sewing so- 
ciety and taken to prayer-meeting, not a 
soul knew them from a Malay native. Al- 
ready it had cost her, beside her time, six- 
teen fares on the horse-cars — she had been 
once robbed of her purse, split out her best 
dress, not to mention the numberless dis- 
asters which had befallen Tommy in her ab- 
sence. 

These were fellow-sufferers in common 
trouble with myself. My heart beat in 
sympathy. Tears choking my voice, I 
asked the poor mother, " Did he tell you to 
change the style of its hair, and come to- 
morrow?" 

Very obediently mine had been cared for, 
studying the bumps and the lack of them, 
though grinding my teeth at my mentor 
the while, as I did also when he flashed 
round a corner and stood scowling before 
me. 

"Dark day, madam. Didn't think you 
would come. Better put it off till to-mor- 
row," he muttered. 

My heart failed me. To-morrow! after 
all this watching and waiting, anxiety and 
climbing ! To-morrow will be Friday, too, 
when all things go amiss on principle, and 
the cook goes out on principle, ditto. My 
distress was visible, almost audible. 

"Please, Mr. Lynx, do try me to-day." 
A stone would have melted under such 
pathos. The woman gave me a commiser- 
ating nod, and used her handkerchief as she 
passed out with her animated bundle, that 
still wiggled. 

Flinty and obdurate though he was, yet 
the appeal touched him. He motioned to 
make ready, at the same time saying ' ' there 
wasn't a ghost of a chance." 

Too happy to heed small discouragement, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



175 



I flew rather than walked at the heels of 
this autocrat of my destiny, submitting to 
thumbscrews and criticism with a willing- 
ness and heroism worthy the martyrs of old. 
All cherished ideas of attitude or even grace 
oozed away, leaving me only too glad to 
secure the awkwardest semblance. 

Smiles of derision swept through my soul 
as I recalled, for an instant, the ideal pic- 
tures wrought by fancy in the little red 
rocking-chair by the window at home. In- 
nocently enough, I then asked, "Shall I 
represent modern or antique style ? Or 
shall I found myself on Malibran, whose 
beautiful statue serenely beamed from Crom- 
well's prolific screen the other night? 
Should it be tragic or comic ?" I had but 
to choose, so blissful ignorance whispered. 
Thus we proed and coned, settling it a long 
time before. 

It still lowered, the rain falling fast and 
ominously on the broad stretch of glass, 
seeming to wash out the last lingering pos- 
sibility of success. 

Well, after struggling against difficulties 
for a prolonged time, interspersed with 
woful ejaculations and a terrible crash of 
bottles, emitting suffocating odor, when 
hope was about to die and everything go 
to the bottom, suddenly the clouds broke 
away, and the strong welcome light most 
unexpectedly enveloped us. In the hurry 
that ensued to " make hay while the sun 
shines " all was bustle and bumping. 

Activity asserted itself in this Lynx and 
his associate, both spinning round me like 
lunatic tops. The curtain and spread, and 
the little round table, — inevitable traps, — 
were pitched speedily into array, my dumb 
head squeezed into the jaws of a griping 
vice, — all in a twinkle. All minor matters 
were at discount in the exigency of the oc- 
casion ; so the too faithful sun stamped ir- 
reparably an anxious face, a twisted collar, 
and a nose in exaggerated relief, whose en- 
ormity no charity could mitigate. 

It was the last chance, forsooth, the final 
trial ; the only return for all this hoping, 
journeying, clambering, and exhaustion. 

Two weeks thereafter, in which time, 
with the help of iron tonic and three doc- 
tors, my prostrated system had rallied, a 



small sprig brought the proof. It was as 
though I carried the burden of an Atlas, 
so solemn and apprehensive its aspect. "With 
many misgivings, it was submitted to Sprig- 
gins, since for him had been all this warring 
with the fates. 

"Oh, Juno!" he exclaimed, with theat- 
rical gesture, " he caught thy nose, but not 
thy soul." 

"My dear unsophisticated Spriggins," I 
returned, "he caught what there was. I 
had no soul more than a mummy. Think 
you a soul could stand pinchings, and Wink- 
ings, and oglings two mortal days? But 
don't despair; it's to be retouched, and a 
soul put in. Retouched, Spriggins, what- 
ever that is." 

This brief summary of the sitter's trials 
is but a feeble first cousin to what they 
would be if given in detail. The fluctua- 
tions of our hopes and fears, subject as we 
are to the moods and tenses of these despotic 
photographers, would fill your Journal. 

However, we will trust these few hints 
may prove efficacious in giving sight to 
your other eye, so that our wrongs may be 
sometimes espoused, and your consolations 
and recipes impartially tendered. 

Julie. 



TRANSPLANTINGS. 

BY DAVID DUNCAN. 

Photographic processes, like roots and 
bulbs, rarely lose anything by being judi- 
ciously transplanted. Yea \ in many in- 
stances, they improve and thrive better than 
in native soil. Even as men by emigration 
find the groove for which they were fitted 
and so move easily to and fro on the " tram- 
way of life," photographic processes or im- 
provements, little appreciated; or, perhaps, 
discarded in the country they originated in, 
by being transplanted like the flower, bloom 
with a brighter hue, exhale a sweeter fra- 
grance, or, by being nurtured and culti- 
vated by foreign devotees, like the trans- 
planted root, grow and flourish until the 
fowls of the air lodge in the branches thereof. 

It is not necessary for me to cite the many 
instances wherein processes and novelties 
have become indispensable to the photo- 
graphic business at large, only by being re- 



176 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEK. 



moved from one country to another. The 
collodio-chloride process, cabinet cards, pho- 
to-lithography, and a host of improvements 
from France and England, are now prac- 
tised in this country in a manner which can- 
not be excelled. 

The Woodbury process, albeit a failure, 
as yet, in England, is a success in France, 
and will carry all before it in a photographic 
point of view in this country. 

The Sarony photo-crayon process, in the 
hands of Messrs. Lambert, is travelling fast 
through the American and Canadian pho- 
tographic world, and is already practised 
to perfection. It is gratifying to see the 
many specimens exhibited by the best pho- 
tographers in the principal cities in so short 
a time. No wonder at that, however, for 
the modus operandi of the process can be 
successfully performed by any intelligent 
operator. The pictures, when produced, 
are, indeed, pleasing and flattering, yield- 
ing "soft pictures" from hard "chalky" 
negatives, selling readily, and all without 
putting the purchaser of the process to ex- 
tra expense. Not being " transparencies " 
but prints, they are speedily made, so that 
they could be delivered while a customer is 
waiting for the next train. The litho- 
graphic effect on the paper mounts is, by 
no means, inartistic, and various effects can 
be produced by different-colored crayons. 
Nor is the process confined to paper alone. 
The photo-crayon, applied to ground opal 
glass, is enhanced both in artistic and com- 
mercial value. 

American photographers, I observe, are 
about to be introduced to "Ross lenses." 
May they welcome them with open arms! 
They are, doubtless, the ne phis ultra of 
lenses, made under the personal supervision 
of a skilled optician, whose father, the late 
A. Ross, was the most skilful optician in 
his day, and had a name famous in the early 
days of our' art. I would prefer the lenses 
made by Mr. Thomas Ross before any that 
I know, having used them (I speak with 
confidence), during my varied photographic 
experience. 1 have taken pictures with 
"tubes" made by French, English, and 
other milker-, yet I never could obtain such 
uniform results, combined with sharpness, 
brilliancy, etc., as a "Ross lens" enabled 



me to do. How dearly some skilled Eng- 
lish photographers prize a lens made by 
Ross ! 

I feel I should like to make some further 
remarks on the Woodbury process ; space, 
however, forbids. The above novelties on 
this side of the Atlantic will do much to im- 
prove and enhance American photographic 
art, for here all things good and practical 
fly through the land with electric speed, 
and ripen like fruit in the tropics. 



KURTZ'S CONE BACKGROUND. 

The advantages of gradated backgrounds, 
and means of securing gradation in the same, 
has occupied a good deal of attention recently 
and we have pleasure in describing an appa- 
ratus that secures the coveted result per- 
fectly. At the last exhibition of the Ameri- 
can Institute, New York, Messrs. Waters 
& Son, Troy, N. Y., exhibited some very 
novel boats made out of papier-mache. 
They attracted the attention of the ingeni- 
ous photo-artist, Kurtz, and he queried, 
" Why not something like that for a back- 
ground?" He applied to Waters & Son, 
and by his aid they succeeded in making all 
that one could desire. We have seen it in 
operation, and describe it below. 




Fig. 1 represents it entire. The back- 
ground is six feet in diameter by three 
feet deep, mounted on a rod which iits any 
ordinary head-rest stand; the latter is fast- 
ened to a wooden platform on castors, 
and is furnished with a handle, A. As the 
whole affair weighs but a few pounds, it can 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



177 



readily be moved and adjusted to any part 
of the room or light. The interior is painted 
or sanded to any degree of shade desirable. 
It will be readily understood that any light 
coming from one side, must illumine that 
part of the interior furthest from it, and per 
contra leave the nearest side in comparative 
shade. By turning it full to the light, there 
is no shade, and you get a very light back- 
ground, and upon turning it from the light, 
you get it almost black, if you wish it so. 
An example of its peculiar and extraordi- 
nary effect will perhaps be better understood 
by contemplating Fig. 2. 




Let A B represent the side-light, D E, 
the background, F, the sitter's head, and H, 
the camera. Now you plainly notice that 
the rays of light from the window A B, il- 
lumine only about that portion of the back- 
ground at the left of the line D-, whilst the 
portion at the right of D is left in its own 
shadow. Now as the light falls on the sitter 
F, the side turned towards the light only is 
illuminated. The sitter, as viewed from the 
camera in the direction of H, has the high- 
light F admirably relieved by the darker 
portion, whilst the shadow part of the sitter 
is as well relieved by the lighter portion 
of the background. 

It must be self-evident at a glance that no 
matter from what direction your subject is 
lighted, the background immediately as- 
sumes the opposite lights and shades, and an 
extraordinary relief is at once obtained. 
By a little judgment and management it 
can be made exactly suitable for all com- 
plexions, and in the case of a group of two, 



the darker person should be placed against 
the lighter portion of the background. 

So numerous and variable are the beau- 
tiful effects produced, that the desire to use 
this affair increases with its application.* 



OUR PICTURE. 

Our readers have doubtless been much 
interested, recently, in the description and 
drawings of Messrs. Loescher & Petsch's 
skylight, etc., in <our March and April 
numbers, and have probably wished that 
they might see a picture made by those 
celebrated artists. This pleasure we are 
glad to give them, our picture this month 
being from negatives made in their studio. 
It is a grand study in every respect, both 
in composition, lighting, exposure, and de- 
velopment. We hope it will be studied. 

The prints were made in this country by 
Mr. William H. Ehoads, No. 1800 Frank- 
ford Avenue, Philadelphia, and do him 
great credit. They were made on Sulz- 
berger & Mater's Dresden Koyal albumen 
paper, for which Messrs. W. H. Mardock>& 
Co., No. 417 Broome Street, New York, are 
the agents. The prints praise the paper 
more deservedly than we can. 

Mr. Ehoads speaks very highly of it, and 
worked it by the same formula published 
by him in a recent number of this Journal. 

•Our next issue will be graced by a beauti- 
ful " Rembrandt " picture. 



VOICES FROM THE CRAFT, 

Dear Sir: In your March issue your 
correspondent " Koland Vanweike " says: 
" Every photographer is supposed to possess 
sufficient ingenuity or constructive ability 
to arrange those things (curtains, etc.) so 
as to get his light where he wants it, and 
to be able to regulate it according to changes 
that may occur during the day. If he has 
not, he had better get somebody that can 
do it for him, or else get out of the business." 

I have been in the photographic business 
eighteen years, and I know no other (don't 

* The cuts for this article were hastily made, 
but we hope they are understood. — Ed. P. P. 



12 



178 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHER. 



know this very well), but I dislike to leave 
it very much. Should I take his advice, I 
should sell my "traps" at auction, and 
leave for parts unknown. 

How many of the eminent photographers 
in both this country and Europe, if they 
were asked, " Can you arrange your light 
at all times of the day, for all your subjects, 
and please yourself?" would say "Yes?" 
Not but a very few, I think. Perhaps you 
might find now and then one who thinks 
he knows everything, and would say: " Oh ! 
yes, I never have any trouble ; I always 
please them and myself the first time." 
When I meet one of that class of operators, 
I always set him down as not knowing any 
more than he ought to. 

Not long since, I had a lady subject of 
very good address, medium size, thirty-five 
to forty years old, not a hard subject to look 
at through my optics, dark blue or hazel 
eyes, not much " vim " in them; to be sure 
her complexion was not very fair, neither 
was it very rough or disagreeable. I at 
once went to my task, not thinking it was 
a task in its strongest sense. I arranged 
the light, angling, half-skylight and half- 
side-light, and sat my subject about three- 
quarter view, having the dark side well de- 
lineated, and eyes turned pretty well away 
from the strong light. I couldn't find a 
pleasing line of her face any way. I finally 
made a negative as above. It was well-de- 
fined, and made a very vigorous print, and 
as disagreeable as it was vigorous, for it was 
mottled all over the face. This mottling 
or dark spots appeared to exist under the 
cuticle, and was not apparent to the natural 
eye. I spent some time trying to find some- 
thing that looked like a plausible picture, 
but all to no purpose. At last I tried a 
"Rembrandt," and that was no better. 
Had Mr. Vanweike been here, and said, 
" Get out of the business," perhaps I should 
have done so as far as my feelings were 
concerned at that time. But I never say 
die, therefore I couldn't give it up. 

I shut out all the sky-light and used the 
side-light only, turning the face slightly 
away from the light, and having very soft 
shadows, I got a very fair negative, and the 
lady was well pleased with her pictures. 

I account for the getting rid of a part of 



the roughness of my picture in this way: 
those very minute globules of blood exist- 
ing between the cuticle and true skin, did 
not absorb so much light, or cast the same 
amount of shadow when the light was re- 
ceived from the side as from overhead. 

I shall be in Cleveland next June, nothing 
in Providence preventing, and shall be 
pleased to see Roland Vanweike and his 
Focus. Westley. 

Bangor, March 12th, 1870. 

Dear Sir : I have to thank you for draw- 
ing my attention to the Holyoake Card- 
mounts. They have been in use at my 
rooms for some months, and are a success. 
The. effect is very beautiful indeed. 

I merely want to commend them to your 
readers, and suggest to the manufacturer 
that he make larger sizes — say cabinet and 
whole size any way. 

If I dare presume so much, I would also 
be glad, if you would give us an example 
as your illustration some time. 

Truly, your well wisher, 

Livingstone. 

Mr. Editor: We are now working the 
new Photo-Crayon process, and we are 
practically convinced that there is money 
in it. The process is easy, and the results 
are beautiful and artistic. Although the 
Photo-Crayon Portrait is finished in a few 
minutes, and at only a nominal cost, they 
sell easily at $15.00 apiece. 

We feel it is our duty to recommend this 
beautiful process to the fraternity, as being 
a good means to give a new impetus to the 
trade. We hope that the prices will be 
well kept up, as it is a vital element of suc- 
cess in working this artistic process. 
E. L. Allen, 
Pres. of N. E. Photo. Ass'n. 
J. W. Black, 

Vice-President. 

Frank Rowell, 
A. Marshall. 

Boston, April 12th, 1870. 



After varnishing a plate, keep it hori- 
zontal a few seconds before pouring off, to 
give the varnish time to soak in. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



179 



CLEVELAND. 

The Exhibition and the Annual 
Meeting. 

If our readers would heed it, we could 
say all we want to them on this subject 
in one word, i. e., GO ! But as we would 
probably be met on all sides with the query, 
" Why should I? " we suppose we shall have 
to urge upon you all a few reasons ' ' why ' ' 
we believe it will pay you to make a con- 
siderable sacrifice of time and money to be 
at the second great National Meeting and 
Exhibition of the photographers of your 
country. 

You are engaged in a profession which is 
unlike anything else in mechanics, the arts, 
or the sciences. You cannot turn out your 
productions by the mill-fx\M by automatic 
machinery, nor can you mix your solutions 
and set them aside to crystallize into "pleas- 
ing portraits." You have the most irregu- 
lar, uncertain, obstreperous, patience-trying 
ingredients to manage, delusive instruments 
and all sorts of weather to test your amia- 
bility. Moreover, you are so scattered about 
the country, that in most cases, when in 
trouble with your manipulations, you have 
no one to confer with, and you spend a great 
deal of time, and patience, and money beat- 
ing about in the air, because you do not 
know when and how to act. 

How, then, are you to better your condi- 
tion in this respect ? We answer, by joining 
earnestly in these annual conferences of the 
members of your profession. If you would 
gain information you must go where they 
are. If you would know men you must go 
where they are and mix with them. If you 
would know how others battle with difficul- 
ties and how they overcome them, you must 
go and talk over the thing with them. 
You must learn their ways, to think their 
thoughts, and to be stirred with their feel- 
ings. If you would live by your profession 
you must go where you can study its best 
productions and confer with its best work- 
men. You must search out the great high- 
ways and emporiums of success. If you 
would move the world you must stand upon 
it. If you would grow, and improve, and 
prosper as rapidly as does our beautiful art, 
you must take advantage of this great an- 
nual National opportunity I 



"When a lad we were told by our em- 
ployer, that if we ever expected to know 
anything we must ask questions. It was 
a good lesson that we have never forgotten, 
and, although born early in life, we have 
not learned our profession yet, and quiz 
everybody we rub against. Come you to 
Cleveland and do the same thing. 

The meeting this year will assume a more 
practical turn than did the Boston meeting. 
The latter was preliminary, and much of 
the time was spent in arranging for the 
future. 

This year practical discussions will be 
held, experiments made, processes worked 
and explained, causes of failure made plain, 
and the road to excellence opened wide, 
and so on and so on. 

Dr. Voqel, whose name is well known to 
our readers, is probably, at the time you 
read this, on his way to this country, spe- 
cially to visit the Exhibition. This is a 
fine compliment to us, and we hope both 
Germans and Americans will be there in 
great numbers to greet him. We expect he 
will give some very valuable information to 
all, concerning the workings of our art in 
Germany. Mr. Carbutt is expected there 
to work the Woodbury process. It is 
hoped to have the photo-lithographic pro- 
cess worked there also. There will also be 
several other matters exhibited that will in- 
terest, entertain, and benefit all much : a 
superior lantern exhibition, with the new 
electric light, by Messrs. Black and Dun- 
more, and other things on a grand scale. 

With these will be the greatest feature 
of all, the Exhibition.. It will embrace the 
best work that our country can afford from 
all quarters: from Canada, England, France, 
Prussia, Austria, Russia, Italy, Spain, and 
even Turkey and some of the islands of the 
sea. Exhibitors are allowed to bring dupli- 
cates of their pictures for sale, and will find 
it well to do so. 

The Local Secretary, Mr. Byder, has en- 
gaged for the Exhibition the new "Central 
Skating Rink," which is immense in size, 
is admirably lighted, and will make a grand 
appearance. 

Is not all this most tempting, and do you 
not see what a benefit it will be to you to 
be there ? We have letters from parties 



180 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



from Texas to Canada who will be there. 
They will be repaid. It is a privilege that 
should not be refused. The question has 
been asked us r "-"Will the ladies be ad- 
mitted ? : ' We answer yes, most certainly. 
We know a number of ladies who are prac- 
tical photographers, and we are not certain 
but we know of one or two who work at the 
camera while the husband cleans the glass 
and pastes on the sticking-paper. And 
there are hundreds of good women who 
spend their whole- time in assisting their 
husbands on their road to photographic 
fame, and, in some cases, they are the best 
man of the two. By all means let them 
come and vote too, if they are members of 
the Association, 

And now this brings us to a point : Are 
you a member of the Association ? If not r 
identify yourself with it before you go to 
Cleveland, and join now. Four dollars sent 
to Mr. H. T. Anthony, 591 Broadway,* New 
York, will pay your entrance fee and dues. 
Two dollars will do the same for an em- 
ployee. That you may have the advantage 
of a reduction in your fare and in your 
hotel bill this is necessary, as some of the 
railways only favor members of the Associa- 
tion. Attend to this at once, now, male and 
female. Your extra privileges will more 
than pay the fees and dues, and you will 
then be enabled ta take part in the business 
meetings of the Association and vote. 

The committees appointed last year have 
not been idle. The Committee on the Be- 
nevolent Fund are at work, and will have a 
report which will most likely benefit and 
interest all there. The committee to in- 
tercede with Congress have also success to 
report. The subject of a Photographer's 
Life Insurance Band is also to be discussed, 
and many other such practical matters. 

Be it remembered, that photographers,, 
whether members of the Association or not,, 
are welcome to come en masse. 

Bring a good supply of your cartes along 
to exchange with others. 

The Local Secretary, Mr. J. F. Ryder, 
has secured a reduction in railroad fares, 
hotel charges, expressage, etc., etc., and the 
following is tin- way matters stand up to 
the time <>f our going to press. In about 
five days you will receive a circulur giving 



you further information ; after that you 
must apply to the Local Secretary, but do 
not write him if you can help it, as he will 
have his hands full. 

ARRANGEMENT WITH HOTELS, 

The (best two hotels) Kennard House 
will charge $3 and the Weddell House 
$2.50 per day, and others lower. Where 
there are several parties going from one 
city or section, if they will address Mr. 
Ryder ten days beforehand, he will secure 
them the accommodation they need.. 

ARRANGEMENTS WITH THE RAILROAD 
COMPANIES. 

We have, in connection with Mr. Ryder, 
spent a great deal of time in corresponding 
with the passenger agents of all the rail- 
roads that we thought could aid us. With 
many we could do nothing. They cannot 
yet see that it is to their advantage to favor 
us. Some day they will, we hope. The 
following is the best we have been able to 
do so far, and if it does not help all who 
want it, be assured it is not our fault, for we 
tried every railroad that we thought could 
aid us, as we have before said. Those on 
the line of, or who connect with, the roads 
mentioned below may secure their tickets at 
reduced rates by obeying directions given. 

1. Philadelphia and Erie Railway, run- 
ning from Philadelphia to Erie, Pa., and 
intervening places. Write to J. F. Ryder, 
Cleveland, Ohio, Local Secretary, who will 
send you an order on the ticket agent at 
your place for an excursion ticket at the 
reduced rate of two cents per mile to 
Erie, Pa. There you change to the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad. See 
No. 5. 

2. Pennsylvania Central Railroad, Phila- 
delphia to Pittsburg and intervening places. 
Write to Local Secretary for order for an 
excursion ticket.. Faro two cents per mile 
both ways. At Pittsburg change to Cleve- 
land and Pittsburg Railroad. See No. 4. 

3. Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and 
Indianapolis Railroad, from Indianapolis 
and way stations to Cleveland, and from 
Columbus to Cleveland via Crestline. Pas- 
sengers via this road, will pay full fare 
going on. On their return the Local Secre- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEB. 



1S1 



tary will furnish them with a return ticket 
free. 

4. Cleveland and Pittsburg Railroad, from 
Pittsburg to Cleveland, connecting with 
Pennsylvania Central (No. 2), will give 
excursion tickets at the rate of two cents 
per mile. To be had at the Pittsburg De- 
pot. Distance 150 miles. 

5. Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
Railroad, from Buffalo to Cleveland and 
intervening places — connect at Erie, Pa., 
with the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad 
(No. 1) — will issue excurson tickets at the 
following rates : will charge full regular 
fare going on and one-third regular fare 
returning. Tickets can be had at any of 
the stations going on, and the Local Secre- 
tary will furnish certificates to those return- 
ing, which will secure their tickets at the 
reduced rate. 

6. Erie and Atlantic and Great Western, 
New York to Cleveland, via Binghamton, 
Elmira, Corning, Hornellsville, Salamanca, 
Meadville, etc. Full fare going on, and re- 
turn at half fare. Through without change 
of cars. The line for New York and New 
England Photographers. At Cleveland, the 
Local Secretary will furnish you a certifi- 
cate, entitling you to return at half fare. 
Pound trip from New York to Cleveland 
costs about $22.50. Time 24 hours. 

Photographers from New England pur- 
chase their tickets at foot of Chambers St., 
New York. Return tickets will be issued 
until June 27th, through the kindness of the 
G. P. Agt., W. R. Barr, Esq., New York, 
and N. Van Horn, Esq., Philadelphia. 

7. New York Central Railroad, Albany 
to Buffalo, via Utica, Rochester, and Buf- 
falo, and there connect with Lake Shore 
and Michigan Southern Railroad (No. 5). 
Pare two cents per mile both ways. 

8. Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago 
Railway — Chicago to Cleveland via Fort 
"Wayne, Crestline, and Alliance, two cents 
per mile. Orders for excursion tickets to 
be had of the Local Secretary. 

9. Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Rail- 
vmy via Omaha, Council Bluffs, Iowa City, 
Rock Island, etc., to Chicago — thence to 
Cleveland via No. 8 — sixty per cent, of 
regular fare both ways. Orders for excur- 



sion tickets may be had of the Local Secre- 
tary. 

10. Little Mitwii Railroad, from Cincin- 
nati or from Dayton — either — to Cleveland. 
Fare two cents per mile each way. Apply 
to Mr. Ryder for orders for tickets. 

11. Great Western Railroad, Canada. Ar- 
rangements pending. Apply to Mr. Ryder 
for orders for tickets. 

This is as much as we have been able to 
secure, but we hope to do more. Parties 
who want to go should address a note to the 
Local Secretary as follows : 

Dear Sir : I wish to attend the Cleveland 
Meeting, and if you have any orders for tickets 
that will favor me, please send one by return 
mail, and oblige 

I am (or not) a member of the National Pho- 
tographic Association. I start from , 

on the Road. 

Mr. J. H. Fitzgibbon, Treasurer of the 
St. Louis Photographers' Association, has 
desired us to say, that parties starting from 
St. Louis, or who take it in their route, will 
please apply to him for tickets, as he has 
arranged, through the kindness of J no. S. 
Garland, Esq., the General Ticket Agent, 
for half fare from St. Louis to Cleveland, 
over the Indianapolis and St Louis Rail- 
road. Round trip $25. St. L. to C. 

When you get your orders from the Local 
Secretary for tickets, you will observe that 
they are only good for a certain number of 
days. We have got the time extended be- 
fore and after the Exhibition as long as we 
could. Parties who live on roads connect- 
ing . with any of the above, may obtain 
tickets at the connecting point, the same as 
if they lived oa the line of the road. 

Many thanks are due to the railway com- 
panies who have so generously favored us, 
and we hope all who travel or send freight 
will remember them hereafter. 

Q^pr" Mr. Black requests that parties having 
interesting or instructive subjects will bring 
transparencies with them. He prefers | size. 
They should not be made too dense, and free 
from dirty varnish spots. Bind to plain glass 
with sticking-paper. Tone with hyposulphite of 
gold, weak solution of permanganate of potash. 
or bichloride of mercury. 



182 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC WORLD. 

Head the several articles on the Exhibi- 
tion in our current number. 

M. Ducos du Hatjron has published a 
pamphlet entitled Photographs in Colors. 

Pyrogallic Acid is said to be as deadly 
a poison as Cyanide. Oil of turpentine is 
an antidote. 

The Photographic Society of Vienna 
contemplates holding a World's Photogra- 
phic Exhibition in that city. 

Adam Salomon writes to Mr. Simpson, 
that he intends to abolish curtains in his 
studio altogether, his experiments have 
convinced him that he has found a system 
of illumination which will give excellent 
results without curtains or other similar 
arrangements. 

Scientific Opinion says, " Telegraphs, 
railways, and huge ocean steamers, are 
every day removing the old barriers of 
nationalities. Nowadays, the connection 
of arts and sciences between this country 
and ' the States,' is almost as close as it 
was between England and Ireland, twenty 
years ago. The National Photographic 
Association of the United States is an il- 
lustration of this." It then follows with an 
invitation to foreigners to join us in our ex- 
hibition. This is handsome on the part 
of our esteemed contemporary, and is the 
more courteous and kind, because it was 
unsolicited. 

The Photographic Art Journal, a copy of 
which has been sent us by private hands, 



makes a very handsome appearance in 
its first issue. It contains three illustra- 
tions on sheets 9£ x 12 : 1. " Keturn of the 
Flock," Woodburytype copy of a painting 
by Jague ; 2. "The Nativity," a photo- 
graphic engraved copy by Edwards, of 
Derers' celebrated engraving ; and 3. ''View 
from Nature near La Grande Chartreuse," 
from a collodio-albumen negative; also 
printed by the Woodbury process. The 
letter-press is mainly by the editor, Mr. 
Thomas Sutton, and consists of a " Leader ; 
Our Illustrations; Review of the Progress 
of Photography during 1869; A Week at 
the Woodbury Establishment at Asinere's; 
Amateur Photographic Association ; Exhi- 
bition of the French Photographic Society 
for 1870; United States National Photo- 
graphic Association (which we are glad to 
see); and Reviews." We wish the new 
enterprise great success. 

When sun painting was first introduced, 
some wag declared that it would be & foe-to- 
graphic art; but, as yet, it has been a help 
rather than a hindrance to graphic art. 
Artists have sought its aid, and the conse- 
quence is a greater fidelity and truthful- 
ness in the representations of many sub- 
jects. Photography has arrived at some- 
thing like perfection, for it is announced 
that a discovery has been made, viz., the 
printing of photographic pictures in perma- 
nent pigments, or ordinary printer's ink, 
at an ordinary printing-press. This has 
been accomplished, and very successfully 
too. — Every Saturday. 



To Correspondents in trouble with their 
manipulations. — We shall be much pressed 
during May and June with matters pertaining 
to the National Meeting and Exhibition, and 
shall not have time to answer correspondents 
privately on matters of manipulation, as we usu- 
ally gladly do. Please remember this. 



Dr. Vogel's Visit to America. — We are 

sure that every photographer who expects to be 
in Cleveland, will be delighted to know that Dr. 
Vogel will be there. We know he has many 



friends in this country, and warm ones. The 
following correspondence was had by Atlantic 

eable : 

New York, April 8, 1870. 
Dr. Voqel: — You are respectfully invited by the 
photographers of America to attend the Cleveland Ex- 
position in June. W. Kurtz. 

Sec. of Com. 
Answer : 

Berlin, April 12, 1870. 
I shall come. Voqel. 

Let us be there and give him a warm welcome, 
so that he may take home with him a good re- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



183 



port of American photography and American 
photographers. 



AVe again have to run eight pages over our 
usual number — 40 in all — on account of press of 
matter. Few magazines give more for the money 
than is promised. We hope our readers will ap- 
preciate the fact in our case. 



Mr. William Notman, Montreal, has fa- 
vored us with a print of his last composition 
picture, "The Skating Carnival.'' It contains 
the picture of H. R. H. Prince Arthur, and 
many of the most eminent citizens of Montreal. 
It is an admirable study in composition, and 
that our readers may have the benefit of it, we 
have arranged with Mr. Notman to print it for 
a future issue of our Magazine. 



Collodio-Bromide Pictures. — Our esteemed 
correspondent, M. Carey Lea, Esq., has favored 
us with some very beautiful 8 x 10 landscape 
prints, from plates made by his collodio-bromide 
dry process. The remarkable feature about them 
is, the entire absence of that harshness and 
hardness which generally characterizes dry plate 
work. On the other hand, they are soft, delicate, 
fine in detail, and wonderfully transparent in the 
shadows. One of the views is of a stone arched 
bridge over the Wissahickon. At the time it 
was taken it would have been a severe test for 
any process. The bridge being low, is very dark 
underneath ; back of it is bright sunshine, stones 
in the distance, and water in full sunshine, and 
yet there is detail in all and no harshness. It 
seems almost paradoxical. A Steinheil 10-inch 
focus lens was used to make the view. Mr. 
Lea has worked most perseveringly at his pro- 
cess, and these views certainly commend it most 
highly. 

The Year Book op Photography, — This ex- 
cellent book has now arrived, and the name of 
its editor, G. Wharton Simpson, is sufficient to 
guarantee a vuluab/e and useful work. Mr. 
Simpson has exceeded himself this yearin getting 
together, into small space, an unprecedented 
amount of good from the most eminent practical 
photographers in England, France, Germany, etc. 
As will be seen by the summary of contents in 
the advertisement, it is composed of short, terse 
articles on almost every photographic subject of 
interest. It is in size same as our Mosaics, and 
same price. It is for sale by all dealers, and as 
only one. thousand copies are imported, those 
wanting it must be spry. A few of 1869 copies 
also for sale. Please read the advertisement. 



The case of the Shaw & Wilcox Co. v. G. W. 
Lovejoy was argued in court on April 21ft, 
and placed in the hands of the judge. We can 
only now await his decree, which we feel sure will 
be just and right. If it be against the patent, 
our readers will have great cause to rejoice, for 
they will have escaped an infliction that would 
be hard to bear. If the patent is sustained, the 
only mercy you will get from the monopoly will 
be such as you are able to secure by your own 
efforts. We really thought there was more 
interest in the matter among our readers than 
there appears to be, judging from the little help 
offered Mr. Lovejoy. 



Dr. Woodward's report on the Magnesium and 
Electric Lights in Micro-Photography, a copy of 
which has been kindly sent us by the Surgeon- 
General U.S.A., is an elaborate work, illustrated 
by several admirable specimens. Dr. AVoodward 
has made some very extensive experiments in 
that enchanting and useful branch of photogra- 
phy, and we shall soon take occasion to make 
some extracts from his report which will interest 
our readers. 



The Toronto Photographic Society. — We 
have received from its worthy President, Eli J. 
Palmer, Esq., a history of the rise and fall of the 
Toronto Photographic Society. It was started 
a few months ago under the brightest auspices. 
Decent living prices were agreed upon, and all 
went on pleasantly until some of the number be- 
came demoralized, broke ranks, put down prices, 
and thus broke up what would have been a pleas- 
ant, profitable affair to all concerned if kept in 
its integrity. We regret that such is the case, 
and hope, with Mr. Palmer, that a reorganization 
will soon follow. Mr. W. M. Bruce read a very 
interesting paper at the last meeting, from which 
we hope to nuke extracts hereafter. 



The Prize Sets. — Photographers who un- 
derstand the advantages to be derived from 
studying the work, good and bad, of others, will 
not forget that the prize sets are ofiered at a very 
low price to enable them to study them. They 
are more useful than almost anything else, for 
they educate the eye and enable one to see what 
to avoid and what to imitate. See advertisement. 



Photographers burned out: S. AV. Sawyer, 
Bangor, Me., March 19th ; R. Emery, Plymouth, 
0., March 31st; M. Moses, Trenton, N. J. .March 
23d. 



184 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO G RAPHEE. 



Photo-Crayons. — Mr. A. E. Alden has 
favored us with a number of new patterns of 
sheets for the Sarony photo- crayons which are 
very different from the ones first sold. Our 
Philadelphia artists who are making photo- 
crayons are getting exquisite results, exceeding 
any we have seen anywhere else, even those 
from England that we have seen. Mr. Fenne- 
more, Mr. Germon, and others, are pushing 
them, and make a fine display. In good hands 
they seem certain to succeed. As we have said 
before, they must be made well, to look well, 
but in this they are not peculiar. The price 
should be kept up in proportion to their beauty. 
They cannot be compared to any other style of 
picture, for they are entirely different in appear- 
ance and style. 



Received from F. W. Hardy, B ingor, Maine, 
some admirable " Rembrandt" pictures; from 
E. H. Alley, Toledo, Ohio, an 8 x 10 group of 
the Central German Conference — 80 portraits in 
all. Mr. Alley states that he has sold about 
1000 copies making 80,000 portraits; from 
Austin & Oliver, Oswego, New York, a very fine 
cabinet portrait ; from T. T. Sweeney, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, a 12 x 16 view of Rocky Gorge, 
Elyria, Ohio, , which is admirable. The water 
seems as still as death, and consequently the re- 
flections are grand. We have never seen it ex- 
celled in a picture of its size ; from Mr. John 
L. Gihon, a capital 13 x 16 picture, full length, 
of Miss Lizzie Price, the accomplished actress ; 
from Mr. A. K. P. Trask, 40 N. Eighth Street, 
Philadelphia, some admirable ferrotypes; from 
Mr. 0. G. Mason some fine stereos of small ob- 
jects made after instructions given by him in Mo- 
saics, 1870. Some of bromide of potassium in 
different stages of crystallization are beautiful. 
There is a wide field for the stereo in this line ; 
from Mr. A. Bogardus. cabinets of "Josh Bill- 
ings," Prof. Morse, and William Cullen Bryant; 
from Mr. J. A. Schoeltn, St. Louis, some capital 
cabinets of Masqueraders, splendidly managed. 

Mr. W. R. Gill, Lancaster, Pa., has sent us 
a number of very beautiful stereographs of views 
near Lancaster, from negatives intensified with 
his "chromointensifier." There is a verypecu- 
liar softness and aerial effect about them which 
is very charming and desirable. 

Mr. J. Inglis, Montreal, has sent us a compo- 
sition picture of the "Opening of the Montreal 
Caledonian Curling Rink,'' which is one of his 
most creditable works, and is very popular, lie 
furnishes a list of the portraits in it, which com- 
prise the elite and talent of Montreal, Prince 
Arthur with the rest. 



Mr. E. F. Warrington, a promising young 
photographer of this city, died April 22d, of 
heart disease. He had been ill a couple of 
weeks, and it was hoped he was going to re- 
cover. He was genial and pleasant in his life, 
and his death is regretted by many. 



Answers to Correspondents. 

" A. R.," Greensdurg, Indiana. — The cause 
of your collodion "giving way under the de- 
veloper" is this : Your bath is super-saturated 
with iodo-nitrate of silver, which settles on the 
plate. Dilute your bath to one-third its strength 
and then boil it until its wonted stiength is re- 
sumed. A good sunning would be efficacious 
also, if you have another bath you can use. 

"E. J.," Mantino, III. — You do not state 
what kind of "red spots" appeared on your 
paper. If in the shape of "tear drops," then 
your silver solution is too strong. If so, adding 
water one-third, and boiling down to former 
strength is the correct remedy. 

"George H." — If you "get plenty of detail 
I but no force," as you say, you evidently over 
I expose your negatives. For transparencies your 
collodion should be very ripe and somewhat red. 
Developer, 32 ounces of water ; 64 grains pyro- 
gallic acid ; 32 grains citric acid ; 2 ounces 
acetic acid ; alcohol 1 ounce. Try this. 

" S. P. G." — 1. Your wash water contains 
either chloride or carbonate, which deposits 
silver on your prints. Use distilled water for 
the first washing, or add a little salt before im- 
mersing the prints. 

2. The "blue'" color of your prints is owing 
to too long fuming. 

3. The turning red of your prints when put in 
the hypo, is caused by insufficient toning — the 
toning solution has not penetrated the prints. 
Use less gold and tone more slowly. 

"J. T. H. Brown," Brockport. — Pictures 
have been made of various colors by Niepce, 
but no one has yet succeeded in producing them 
according to nature. See German Correspond- 
ence. 

" W. W." — Unless you have experience, you 
had better send your residues to a practised re- 
finer, or you may proceed as follows : Mix your 
gold residue with 12 to 14 ounces saltpetre to 16 
ounces of residue. Put them in a crucible, 
being careful to fill it only half full. Expose to 
a bright red heat and nearly pure gold will re- 
sult. 




W.KURTZ , 



• 







THE 



MMdpta ^hnUpnyhtv. 



Vol. VII. 



JUNE, 1870. 



No. 78. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, 

By BENERMAN & WILSON, 

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern Districtof Pennsylvania. 



THE EXHIBITION. 

We have hastened our current number a 
little, in order to have an opportunity to 
say once more to our readers, in reference 
to the Cleveland Meeting and Exhibition, 
Go ! you will never regret it. It will be a 
most brilliant affair, full of instruction and 
profit. The recent triumph over wrong, 
in the matter of the Shaw & Wilcox Co. , 
should convince those who are not asleep, 
of the importance of the photographers of 
the United States banding themselves to- 
gether in order to maintain their rights, 
and that there is something in the existence 
of such an Association that will have the ef- 
fect to head off and prevent any more at- 
tempts to take advantage wrongly of the 
profession. 

We are glad to see that a number have 
connected themselves with the Association 
since our last issue. In union there is 
strength. Our Association virtually de- 
feated Shaw, though no official action .was 
taken by it in the matter, but it defeated 
him nevertheless, for the existence of such 
an Association prompted some of its mem- 
bers to fight vigorously for the rights of 
all. We shall have no more fights if we 
unite, for our unity will scare away the 
brazen, brow-beating, threatening, would- 
be swindlers. They will not attempt their 
tricks on us, but turn their mighty genius 
into a different channel. 



Unite with the Association now, and come 
to Cleveland and see how nicely it works. 
Cheer up ! a bright day approaches. Only 
work for it. 

The regulations, etc., pertaining to the 
Exhibition have been given you in our last, 
and, since then, in a circular sent to all. 
There has been no change. We hope to 
meet hundreds of you there, and to see you 
hand to hand and face to face. 



DR. VOGEL. 

As we announced in our last number, at 
the Cleveland Exhibition the most distin- 
guished guest will be our esteemed friend, 
Dr. Herman Vogel, of Berlin, Prussia. 

Those who have been in the habit of read- 
ing Dr. "Vogel 's contributions to our pages, 
have not failed long since to see that he is 
one of the most earnest and enthusiastic 
friends of, photography in the world ; in fact, 
we are free to say 'there are none more so. 
We have many times heard him spoken of 
in the warmest terms, and always took pleas- 
ure in frankly reciprocating the same. 

That he truly feels likewise towards 
America and her photographers, Dr. Vogel 
has often assured us. As a proof of their 
devotion to him, a number of our friends, 
headed by Mr. Kurtz, of New York, have 
privately invited Dr. Vogel to visit this 



13 



186 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



country and attend our coming Exhibition, 
offering at the same time to pay all ex- 
penses of the trip and to make him their 
guest while here, if he would only favor us 
by coming. 

After consultation with the authorities of 
the Prussian Government, in whose service 
Dr. Vogel is professionally engaged, he tele- 
graphed that he would come, and, by the 
time this reaches you, he will be in America 
for the first time, among the profession he 
loves and who love him. 

And Dr. Vogel is not the only one com- 
plimented in this matter. We should all 
feel highly favored at his coming among us. 

You are all aware that the work of Euro- 
pean photographers receives much and de- 
served praise and notice in this country, for 
many thousands of our people go to Europe 
annually, and we doubt if one ever returns 
without some specimens of foreign photog- 
raphy ; yet, on the other hand, we and our 
work are but little known on the other 
side, for we have no representation there. 
This fact is not because our work is in- 
ferior to that made abroad — the contrary is 
the fact — but because most travellers get 
their pictures made abroad while there and 
bring them home with them, while com- 
paratively few of our pictures reach the 
Old "World. "We may hope then that Dr. 
Vogel's visit among us will work a change 
in this direction, and when he goes home, 
so let the Exhibition be, that he can speak 
well of us. 

Let all who can, meet him in Cleveland 
and give him a hearty, earnest welcome. 
In the cities he visits he will be in charge 
of committees who will care for him. 

Mr. "William Notman, of Montreal, and 
' Messrs. Notman & Frascr, of Toronto, have 
pressed him to visit Canada and to be their 
guest there. 

"We look forth to his coming as an era in 
American .photography. He has done the 
profession world wide much good service, 
ami let us give him the good, round, hearty, 
welcome he so richly deserves. 



Study Art. It will enableyou to find ma- 
terial for your camera oftentimes when with- 
out it you would have passed the other by. 



A HOLIDAY NUMBEE. 

Our readers will notice that our present 
issue has very much of a holiday appear- 
ance. Especially is this apparent in the 
advertising pages, our advertisers seeming 
to have all their flags at high mast, in honor 
of the coming Exhibition. We believe our 
advertisements are always interesting and 
valuable to our readers, for they must be 
read regularly if the photographer would 
keep informed on the commercial matters 
of his profession. 

A very pretty ferrotype graces our num- 
ber this month, for the double purpose of 
showing off ihe excellencies of the new 
chocolate-tinted plates patented and manu- 
factured by the Phenix Plate Company (pat- 
ented to secure to them their right to make 
exclusively, but requiring no royalty from the 
consumer for using them), and the beauties 
of the new size and style of ferrotype mat 
manufactured by Messrs. A. M. Collins, 
Son & Co. of this city. Mr. E. K. Trask, 
in making the pictures, has shown good 
taste and skill, it being no small job to 
make the several thousands required for 
the purpose. 

Another display advertisement shows the 
several new styles and shapes of envelopes 
for cartes and ferrotypes manufactured by 
Messrs. Nixon & Stokes of this city. The 
number of these envelopes sold is almost 
incredible. Over four hundred thousand of 
them were sold during last month we are 
told by the manufacturers. They are very 
useful. 

The next display is made by the Ameri- 
can Optical Company, through Scovill 
Manufacturing Company, the proprietors 
of the works, pleading the undoubted mer- 
its and excellencies of their unequalled ap- 
paratus, accompanied by a full-priced cata- 
logue of Mr. Ross's world-renowned lenses, 
through his American agents, Messrs. "Wil- 
son, Hood & Co. The importance of good 
instruments and good apparatus cannot be 
overrated or too often insisted upon, and 
should be the first things selected when 
purchasing an outfit. All these wares you 
may purchase of your regular stockdealer. 

Our other advertisements will be found 
changed, many of them, and some new ones 
also appear, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



187 



We endeavor to purge them of any catch- 
penny arrangements, and our readers surely 
cannot he at sea on anything pertaining 
to the commercial branch of their business, 
and we may fairly judge, from the quantity 
and extent of these advertisements, that the 
photographic business generally is bright 
and prosperous. 

With the above, our beautiful picture, 
our usual variety of matter, a glorious pros- 
pect of a fine Exhibition at Cleveland, and 
the defeat of the " Waste " patent, we feel 
particularly as if a gala day was with us, 
and hope we may impart the feeling to our 
many readers. 



NOSS'S SIDE SCREEN. 

I have been annoyed a great deal, and 
have seen others annoyed, with the old- 
fashioned side-screens. 




I send you a drawing of one I have sub- 
stituted, and find it admirable and a great 
power in my hands. The cut explains the 
whole thing and its use. Being in a light 
frame, it can be readily moved about from 
place to place. 

I hope everybody has not been using it 
since 1840, for it is a new thing to me, and 
I place it where all good things should be 
placed, i. e., in the hands of our Journal to 
scatter it freely to the craft. 

H. Noss. 

New Brighton, Pa. 



REMARKS ON SILVER DIPPERS. 

BY JOHN M. BLAKE. 

A silver, platinum, or gold wire, prop- 
erly bent, would obviously make the best 
dipper. A plate could be taken out of the 
bath and transferred to the slide without 
the aid of fingers or forceps, and there would 
be no unnecessary dripping of silver solu- 
tion than from the plate itself. The price 
excludes all but the silver. Such dippers 
were long ago proposed, but it is doubtful 
if they have been much used. Lately, the 
subject came up in one of the journals, and 
a correspondent made the assertion that a 
portion of copper in the silver was of no 
consequence. 

Trial of pieces of a silver spoon, two years 
ago, showed a most undesirable action of 
the bath solution upon them. There was a 
solution of the copper in the alloy, with the 
deposition of an equivalent of silver by gal- 
vanic action. This pure deposited silver 
presented the peculiar surface familiar to 
.those who have deposited copper in thick 
masses by electrolysis. The matter was then 
dropped for a time, until recently a friend 
had succeeded in making a dipper of a 
Mexican coin, which, it is stated, are made 
of purer silver than the American. The 
coiri was cut into a spiral and straightened, 
and forged, and fragments melted on with 
a blowpipe, until finally a neat square bar 
of small thickness was produced. This was 
bent into a dipper, and immersed in the 
bath. A few minutes sufficed to cover its 
surface with small granular crystals of sil- 
ver. As an experiment, it was laid in a 
dish with enough bath solution to cover it. 
In a few days the solution became green 
with copper, and crystals of silver of con- 
siderable thickness were formed upon the 
alloy. This treatment made the dipper 
brittle, and therefore of no value, although 
it may have removed the greater part of 
the copper. Bad behavior of the bath after- 
wards, in which the dipper had been im- 
mersed for a few minutes only, was attrib- 
uted to the introduction of copper. 

In order to arrive at a definite conclusion 
as to the amount of copper that might be 
alloyed with silver consistent with safety to 
the bath, I made several alloys of these two 



188 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



metals by means of a blowpipe and an assay 
balance. The alloy containing five per cent, 
of copper showed unmistakable signs, by 
the deposit of crystals of silver upon it, of 
being acted upon by a forty-grain bath after 
fifteen minutes contact. Lest this rapid 
action should be due to an imperfect admix- 
ture of the metals, the alloy was again 
melted at a high temperature and ham- 
mered, then cleaned bright and remelted, 
and again cleaned. The deposition of silver 
upon it could be seen after four minutes' 
action of the bath. The three per cent, al- 
loy showed a deposit of silver after half an 
hour in the bath. It was remelted twice 
and cleaned from oxide to a dead white sur- 
face in nitric acid, then washed and re- 
turned to the bath. The action was not 
now noticed. A small portion of bath left 
in contact with alloys containing eight and 
five per cent, of copper dried away, leaving 
crystals of nitrate of silver colored green by 
copper. This did not occur with the three 
per cent, alloy similarly treated. 

Since the five per cent, alloy was so ob- 
viously acted upon, it will be advisable not 
to trust to a three per cent, alloy for the 
sake of economy, but rather to use silver 
made as pure as possible for the manufac- 
ture of dippers. 



Enlarging of Photographs with the 
Ordinary Camera. 

It is almost a general belief that a so- 
called solar camera is an indispensable piece 
of apparatus for the production of photo- 
graphic enlargements. This is far from 
being a fact ; that is, the solar camera in all 
its forms, whether of that of Woodward, of 
Shive, of Eoettger, etc., in many instances, 
may be entirely ignored, if by the denomi- 
nation solar camera we comprehend a con- 
densing lens, or a condensing reflector as 
constituting its essential character. It will 
be well to know, in the first place, what the 
peculiar characteristics of the condensing 
lens and of the condensing reflectors are. 
They are different in each case. 

The property of the condensing lens is to 
produce a cone of light, so that the rays of 
light impinge upon the negative, converg- 



ing, and proceed in this converging condi- 
tion to the lens, whose property it is to pro- 
duce the picture. On arriving at this lens, 
the rays are rendered more convergent, and 
are brought to a focus in the optic centre of 
the last combination of this lens. By rea- 
son of this increased convergence of the 
rays, on leaving the focal point the rays 
pass out of the lens more divergent than 
they entered, and thus produce a larger 
illuminated circle of light ; that is, they in- 
crease the angle of view. Do not misun- 
derstand me by this expression that any 
given object is enlarged by means of the 
condenser. Such is not the case. But more 
of the object can be seen by means of the 
condenser than when it is not employed. 
For instance, at a given distance behind the 
lens we will suppose that on the screen a 
picture is accurately focussed by means of a 
given lens, and that the diameter of the 
illuminated disc is ten inches and one-half; 
also, that the longitudinal diameter of the 
head of a portrait in the disc is five inches. 
This picture is produced, of course, as it 
always is, by means of the lens placed be- 
neath the negative and the screen at the 
proper focal distance. We will now intro- 
duce the condenser into its place, and see 
what its effects are. Now the illuminated 
disc is twenty-four inches in diameter, and 
a larger portion of the portrait, compre- 
hending the hands and lower extremities, 
is visible, but the longitudinal diameter of 
the head remains exactly the same, and in 
exactly the same position. 

Furthermore, the amount of illumination 
on a given square inch is not materially 
different in the two cases ; that is, for prac- 
tical purposes not materially different. The 
sharpness of the picture has been neither 
increased nor diminished by the employ- 
ment of the condenser. In fine, the only 
apparent change produced by its employ- 
ment is simply to enlarge the field of view 
or the illuminated disc. This, I admit, is a 
great advantage where it is needed. It was 
supposed, and probably is even now sup- 
posed, that the condenser carried, as it were, 
the picture of the negative in the convergent 
cone to the distributing lens ; and from the 
fact that that part of the cone on its arrival 
at this lens is reduced to a very small com- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



189 



pass, it has been argued that central stops 
are unnecessary, because the picture being 
already alone on the axis of the lens, and 
nowhere else, it is not necessary to exclude 
the peripheral parts by means of a dia- 
phragm. Now, if the picture were located 
in the convergent cone, and nowhere else, 
and were produced by this cone, it is evi- 
dent that if the convergency were altered, 
or the distance of the condenser from the 
lens were either increased or diminished, 
we might expect some change in the pic- 
ture on the screen ; but the only apparent 
change is simply in the size of the illumi- 
nated disc. This fact shows that the pic- 
ture is independent of the condensing 
lens. 

The condensing reflector consists of an 
inverted frustrum of a pyramid of four 
sides, so arranged as to condense by single 
and double reflection a much larger amount 
of light upon the negative than that which 
is obtained by the direct impact of a bundle 
of parallel rays from the sun ; this extra 
amount of light increases the illumination 
of the negative to a great extent, and par- 
tially increases the angle of view on the 
screen, but not so decidedly as the condens- 
ing lens. 

It appears, therefore, that the production 
of a solar picture is essentially independent 
of all so-called condensers. This being the 
case, then, the questions arise : 1st. Can we 
obtain an enlarged view by means of a com- 
mon copying camera without a condenser, as 
correctly, efficiently, and rapidly as with 
the so-called solar camera ? And 2dly. 
Can we increase the size of the illuminated 
disc without the intervention of a con- 
denser ? 

Let us test the first question. Fix up a 
copying camera in such a manner as to be 
furnished with a vertical and horizontal 
motion, thus allowing the camera to be 
tilted so as to receive the direct rays of the 
sun perpendicularly upon the negative, and 
to be moved as the sun moves. Focus the 
picture upon the screen in the usual way, 
and then introduce the sensitized paper. 
You will find by experience that the print- 
ing operation will be accomplished almost 
as rapidly as with the ordinary solar camera. 
This method is, indeed, quite satisfactory; 



and where the prints are subsequently to be 
finished by development either upon bromo- 
iodized or chlorized paper, the difference of 
rapidity between the two instruments is 
imperceptible. 

In answer to the second question, we may 
observe that there are methods of increasing 
the size of the illuminated disc without the 
intervention of condensing lenses. Thus, 
for instance, take three different lenses, the 
principal focal distance of each being three 
inches, as one of Harrison's portrait combi- 
nation, one of Harrison & Schnitzer's Globe 
lenses, and finally, one of Eoss's stereo- 
graphic doublets. Each one of these mag- 
nifies to the same extent, — produces a pic- 
ture of a head on the screen of exactly the 
same size; but the equally illuminated disc 
in each case is very different. Thus, with 
the portrait combination it is the smallest, 
and with the stereographic doublet it is the 
largest. Thus, then, for all solar opera- 
tions, the stereographic doublet lens pre- 
sents itself as incomparably superior to the 
other two forms, and probably the best of 
any existing form. 

Therefore take the best lens to begin with. 

Secondly, the magnifying power of the 
stationary lens may be considerably in- 
creased by placing in front of it, and nearly 
in contact with it, the objective of another 
lens. Thus, for instance, I placed in front 
of my copying lens the four-fourth objective 
of a Jamin's view-tube ; and I thus in- 
creased the illuminated disc from a diameter 
of ten inches and one-half to fourteen inches, 
and at the same time the picture of the ob- 
ject was magnified. The only means, there- 
fore, of increasing the illuminated disc, 
without at the same time changing the 
magnifying power, depends upon the pecu- 
liarity of construction of the lens and upon 
the employment of a condenser. 

Naturally, the illuminated disc can be 
obtained of any size whatever by simply 
removing the screen more remote from the 
lens, a plan which I excluded from contem- 
plation by fixing the screen at a given dis- 
tance. 

Now photographers will do well to study 
the whole use of their lenses, and they will 
then learn that exquisite enlargements can, 
by the method just recommended, be made 



190 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



with a small bath on a quarter plate, so as to 
cover an eight by ten plate very correctly. 

A copying camera mounted as directed is 
excellent, too, for copying daguerreotypes, 
tintypes, ambrotypes, engravings, etc. ; in- 
deed, much superior to a camera that is 
stationary (of course, I refer to the system 
of copying by the direct rays of the sun, 
which I regard by far the best). But why 
superior ? 

Take, for instance, a daguerreotype and 
place it in the focus of the lens, and turn on 
the light of the sun. This is done by wheel- 
ing round the camera so that the sun's light 
can shine upon the picture. Now observe 
the image on the screen, and meanwhile 
tilt and move the camera in different direc- 
tions, still keeping the sun's rays upon the 
picture. You will observe that in some 
positions the image on the screen is hazy 
and indistinct, in others it is less so, and 
finally in one particular position the image 
is most distinct. This one particular posi- 
tion is easily found by means of the camera 
in question. 



THE BERLIN PROCESS. 

We have tried the process in New York 
(that is, five rusty old photographers have 
tried it). We find the following to be the 
facts : 

Twelve years ago two of us used ground- 
glass, and published it then, but in conse- 
quence of its great expense at that time, 
abandoned the use of it. We find it of no 
use at this late day, for the reason that most 
negatives are now retouched, and we can 
obtain all the softness we desire by using 
emery and lead pencils, as you direct in 
your Journal. 

Five plates of ground-glass were tried with 
the following results: they were soft, but not 
equal to the negatives retouched with lead- 
pencil. They did not require redeveloping. 
The ground side is fine for retouching on 
with lead-pencil ; does not improve or lessen 
the transparency of the freckled parts. As 
Mr. Kowell states, they need to be retouched 
the same as on plain glass. The only, and 
perhaps great advantage of ground-glass 
over plain is, you can take a negative in 



one-third less time than you can on plain 
glass. Our trials only required 10 seconds. 
With the ordinary glass it took 30 seconds 
to obtain the same results. We then placed 
blue glass behind the negative (" S. M. C." 
glass), and obtained the same results as on 
ground glass (that is in time). Why was 
it so? 

Perhaps Mr. M. Carey Lea will be kind 
enough to give us some light on this im- 
portant matter of light in the plate-holder. 



MYSTERIES OF THE NEW YORK 
DARK-CHAMBERS. 

(Continued.) 
Mr. V. W. Horton now manipulator in 
chief at Brady's galleries, New York, has 
favored us with a formula for negatives, as 
follows : 

COLLODION. 

Alcohol and Ether, . 
Iodide of Ammonium, 
Bromide of Cadmium, 
" Potassium, 

Gun-Cotton, 

The solution must be allowed to settle or 
be filtered before adding the cotton. 

The negative bath Mr. Horton uses is 40 
grains strong. The best medicine for curing 
the bath of any of the evils it is heir to, 
Mr. Horton says, he finds is, that given in 
our pages a short time ago by Mr. O'Neil, 
i.e., " brains" used and exercised. They 
combine with any and all known chemi- 
cals. 

Mr. Horton has adhered to these formulaa 
for several years at Gurney's gallery in 
New York, and now at Mr. Brady's. He 
was the successful competitor for the medal 
given by Mr. Moore for the best solar nega- 
tive, and states that in his experience he finds 
a. solar negative should be longer exposed 
than a regular contact negative, and should 
bo developed with a weaker solution. This 
fact is worthy of the attention of those who 
make solar negatives, and, shall we say it, 
intensify them. Mr. Horton is one of our 
most skilled photographors, as tho excellent 
example of work, the solar prize picture, 
proves him to be. 



. equ 


il parts. 


• 4i 


grains. 


• li 


" 


. U 


" 


. 5 


" 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



191 



CONSTRUCTING THE ROOF OF A 
GLASS HOUSE. 

BY "LONDON STONE." 

" The construction of the roof of a glass 
house is a matter that will bear, and should 
get, very serious consideration. In all those 
that I have as yet seen, the ordinary hot- 
bed sash frame appears to be the model 
copied; the result being, that in windy 
weather the shaking of the roof breaks the 
unyielding putty, and when rain comes the 
water finds its way in at every break, and 
plays a fine game with the generally not too 
substantial furniture. Of course all availa- 
ble dishes, etc., are brought to the rescue, 
into which the drops fall with a hearty splash, 
but immediately rebounding spread them- 
selves over surrounding objects. When it 
is wanted, not only to catch, but also to 
hold, these sportive drops, I find the best 
thing to employ is a bottle with a funnel 
stuck in it. Thinking, however, that 'pre- 
vention is better than cure,' I will endeavor 
to show how to effectually caulk the seams 
of those leaky ships, — glass house roofs. 

" The form of sash-bar is rather different 
from that in common use, and consists of 
two pieces. Here are sections of them. 

" The object of the grooves in B, is to 
catch and convey outside any leakage at the 
edges of the panes ; and is copied from the 
' Photo. News Year Book ' for 1864. 

" Where the ordinary form of sash is in 
use, a strip of wood shaped thus, and screwed 
to the underside of the bar, will be found a 
very useful addition. 




<3E? 



The plan, however, I have to suggest, is 
the employment of a strip of soft India-rub- 
ber cord in place of putty on the outside of 
the glass, which is brought closely down 



upon it by means of the slip of wood (or, 
preferably, iron) shown above, marked A. 
The glass having been bedded as usual in 
putty, A. is screwed down ; and with the In- 
dia-rubber forms an impermeable joint, 
which, unlike the putty, will yield to the 
shaking of the roof in windy weather, but 
it will not allow the passage of any water. 
Another advantage consists in the fact that 
if the glass be also bedded on rubber, they 
can, by merely unscrewing A, be lifted out, 
without the very serious risk of breakage 
that attends the removal of glass fastened 
in with putty; and photographers would 
then be able to arrange with glass merchants 
for the yearly renewal of the glass in their 
studios at a low figure ; no unimportant 
point, when the rapid yellowing of common 
glass is considered. When large panes are 
used, leakage will also take place at the lap- 
joints, partly by capillary attraction, but 
mostly from the bending of glass in heavy 
winds. To prevent this, a thin piece of 
elastic might be inserted between the panes, 
and supplemented by the use of a strip of 
wood placed on the top of the iron rods that 
run along under the laps inside the house. 
As these joints soon get filled with dirt, the 
employment of the wood would not occasion 
any loss of light, and would strengthen the 
glass very materially, thus allowing the use 
of large panes. There are many modifica- 
tions of the above plan that might be adopt- 
ed, but I will venture to assert that the prin- 
ciple is the right one. 

" To those who print outside with glass- 
fronted frames the adoption of this plan will 
save a good many prints in wet weather, 
and possibly some negatives, as I have seen 
such a thing as the paper sticking to nega- 
tives, and fetching away the film with it 
when pulled off." 

The above we clip from an English con- 
temporary as being useful at this season of 
the year, and add below a few remarks on 
the same subject from Mr. A. E. Turnbull, 
to whom we are indebted for several useful 
little wrinkles: 

" I have always been bothered with leaky 
sky-lights, until a short time ago when I 
determined to put a stop to it. I tore out 
my old light and made a frame out of pine 



192 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



pieces 1| x 3 inches for the centre strips, 
and the edges are considerably heavier. 
And, in place of making the sash as is usual, 
I cut a groove on each side of the centre 
strip, ahout \ inch from the top like this, 



and put pieces of tin in like this, to prevent 



the glass from slipping down ; then, I mixed 
my putty, about one-half white lead, and 
puttied the glass in carefully, then gave the 
outside two heavy coats of white- lead paint, 
and I have been well rewarded for the trou- 
ble, as it is as light as can be. 

"One great mistake in putting in lights 
is, that the sash is not heavy enough, so that 
the wind shakes the putty loose. With this 
if the putty all comes out the glass cannot." 



Printing Frame for Mezzotints or 
Aquatints. 

BY FORESTER CLARK. 

I send you a drawing of a printing frame 
I have for making aquatints, we call them, 
similar to the celebrated mezzotints, only a 
better thing, and it has no " patent " on it. 
A great many out this way are making that 
kind of picture, and it is of no use to buy a 
patent to make them. 




A is the outside of the frame, made of 
walnut, 6 inches square and 1} inches thick, 
but rabeted out \ inch on the sides, to let 
the cover down flush with the top, as you 
will see, and then fastened with a little 
catch, at C. 



B B is the cover hinged on to the frame, 
6 inches long, but \ inch narrower, to let it 
down into the frame, f inch thick, and just 
a piece of board with 2 strips on the edges 
to prevent warping. 

D is a cross bar, that slides in grooves in 
the frame A, and is to hold the negative 
with the help of the thumbscrew E. 

F F are two little pieces 1^ inches wide 
and 3 inches long, hinged to the cover to 
hold the paper, and are made thickest at the 
outer edge. 

The operation of the frame is very simple. 
Fasten your paper on to the cover with the 
little clamps, which will keep it straight, 
and fasten your negative with the thumb- 
screw, putting it back from the paper as far 
as you choose, and thus you get your pic- 
ture without " printing through any trans- 
parent substance," and also secure much bet- 
ter effects. The idea is to create a small 
space between the negative and the paper. 

I do not claim to be the inventor of the 
frame, and as I received a sample and an 
offer to send me the frame and process for 
$10, a few days since, I thought perhaps I 
might save some one enough to pay for the 
Photographer for the next two years, and 
concluded I would send it to my Journal. 



YELLOW GLASS IN THE DARK- 
ROOM. 

A plate sensitized as usual, then exposed 
to the light from the yellow-glass window, 
and then developed, will be found not to be 
affected at all. But, if the sensitized plate be 
exposed in the camera as usual, then taken 
in the dark-room and held to the glass 
window for a few seconds, and developed, 
you will find the plate is solarized or fogged, 
showing that enough actinic light passes 
through the yellow glass to solarize or fog 
a sensitized plate which has been exposed 
in the camera. 

One of our best operators in New York 
is now lost in just such a fog, but, as he takes 
the Philadelphia Photographer, I hope the 
next time I see him he will be out of his 
trouble. 

Pehamhulator. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



193 



COLLODION AS A VARNISH. 

Some time in the summer of 1857, 1 think 
about July, I communicated to the Ameri- 
can Journal of Photography my discovery 
of the fact that collodion, modified by a 
large addition of alcohol, might be used as 
a varnish for collodion pictures. 

That the discovery was considered of 
some value at the time, is proved by its 
mention in the preface to " Waldack's Trea- 
tise," for 1858, in conjunction with Mr. 
Seely's discover}'- of purifying the bath by 
exposure to light, as the two most import- 
ant discoveries of the year then past. And 
Mr. Seely always claimed that my commu- 
nication was prior to, and the primary 
cause of all the subsequent discussions re- 
garding the virtues and uses of alcoholic 
collodion, both here and in Europe. 

Be that as it may, I believe the discovery 
to be of more practical benefit and capable 
of more extended application than it has 
yet been, and my object in calling atten- 
tion to it again is to suggest new experi- 
ments and uses, in a different direction 
from what the idea has heretofore been car- 
ried. 

One is to assert that collodion is the best 
varnish for negatives, or rather is better 
than varnish, because it does not reduce 
intensity, and therefore does away with 
most of the redeveloping ; it cannot be- 
come sticky by heat of the sun ; it is much 
easier to clean when that is desired, yet it 
has sufficient protective powers to preserve ■ 
an ordinary negative, with only one appli- 
cation, and that power may be increased 
by successive coatings. 

The mode of preparation is, to wet the 
cotton with as small a quantity of alcohol 
as will do it thoroughly, then to accom- 
plish the solution with the smallest possi- 
ble quantity of ether that will destroy the 
structure of the cotton, and reduce it to a 
pasty mass, then bring it to condition for 
use by adding four or five times its bulk of 
alcohol, and when the negative is dry and 
cool flow as usual. Care must be taken 
not to add too much alcohol, as it will flow 
clotted ; and there must be enough, or it 
will partially dissolve the film. Of course, 
the alcohol must be nearly or quite free 
from water, and the cotton must be of a 



quality that easily and completely dis- 
solves. Its flowing qualities are impaired 
by use, but are easily restored by the addi- 
tion of a few drops of ether. 

I do not find it difficult to manage, and 
believe it can be made very useful, and I 
offer the suggestion as some slight return for 
the benefit I have derived from your excel- 
lent and very useful Journal. 

E. K. Hough, 

487 Eighth Avenue, New York. 



Photography an Aid to Painting and 
Chromo-Lithography. 

PRAKG'S CHROMO OF MR. HILL'S YOSEMITE 
VALLEY. 

We stated in our April issue the fact 
that Thomas Hill, Esq., the eminent land- 
scape painter, was free to acknowledge the 
good service done him in his profession by 
photography. We also alluded to Prang's 
chromo of Mr. Hill's admirable and mas- 
terly painting of the Yosemite Valley, and 
since then Messrs. Prang & Co. have sent 
us a copy of the chromo. We take pleasure 
in calling attention to it here, because, 1st, 
it is a work of art ; 2d, it is an exquisite 
reproduction of the original ; and 3d, pho- 
tography did its share in the work of the 
great whole. Mr. Hill spent weeks sketch- 
ing in that famous valley, but he also took 
the precaution to be attended by a skilful 
photographer. To the latter fact much of 
the detail of form, the likeness of those 
great heights is due. 

The distance in the picture is about seven 
miles, and the view includes the great gran- 
ite giant, "El Capitan," who catches the 
glaring sun on one broad side and hides the 
other in solemn shade. The " Bridal Veil 
Palls ; " the " Bridal Veil Rocks ; " the 
" Cathedral Rocks," with the tearful clouds 
swaying over their summits, battling with 
the sunshine as it attempts to break through 
them; the "Sentinel; " " Sentinel Dome," 
the famous "South Dome," and the Mer- 
ced, whose reflections set the photogra- 
pher wild, running slowly through the 
groves and meadows. In looking at it one 
seems to have the actual landscape before 
him, sauntering about here and there hunt- 



194 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



ing for good places for the camera. The 
atmosphere is soft and dreamy ; the color- 
ing that of a master. 

The original is 6 x 10 feet, and a most 
difficult one to reproduce, but Messrs. Prang 
& Co. have accomplished it perfectly. 

The chromo is for sale only through sub- 
scription agents and the publishers. It is 
for sale in this city by Messrs. J. S. Earle 
& Sons. The number of copies is limited. 



WEIGHING AND MEASURING. 

BY M. CAREY LEA. 

Although weighing and measuring ap- 
pear to be, and are, operations of a very 
simple order, they are, nevertheless, the 
sources of very many mistakes to those who 
have not paid a certain amount of attention 
to the ordinary causes of error. I have, 
therefore, thought that a brief exposition of 
the right and the wrong ways of taking 
weights and bulks of substances would not 
be unacceptable, at least to those who are 
not thoroughly versed in the manipula- 
tions. 

WEIGHING. 

Every one who undertakes to photograph 
well, should possess a reasonably good bal- 
ance. I do not speak here, of course, of 
delicate analytical balances turning with the 
hundredth of a grain, but of good, common 
balances turning on knife-blades, and mov- 
ing immediately with a quarter of a grain. 
And I may remark here that an easy way 
of testing this, by those who do not possess 
fractional weights, is by cutting up pieces 
of paper, or, better, of tin-foil. If a nearly 
square piece be weighed off, weighing four 
grains, and the smooth, hard letter-paper 
or the tin-foil be cut into sixteen equal 
pieces, we have so many quarter-grain 
weights, well suited for testing a balance. 
And a balance that will not give an easy 
and decisive indication by the addition of 
such a quarter-grain fragment, when loaded 
witli a drachm in each pan, is unfit for use. 

The French trebuchet or tilting balance is 
much the more agreeable sort to use. The 
beam is thrown upon its suspension by 
pressing a lever; on letting it go again, the 
pane return to the board. 



Another important point, after having 
ascertained the sufficient delicacy of the bal- 
ance, is to habitually be on guard against 
sticking. Neglect of this point has led to 
thousands of errors in weights, and vexa- 
tious and inexplicable failures in the opera- 
tions connected with them. "Sticking" 
arises from this : when the pans are not far 
from equally loaded, a very slight cause 
will deprive the beam of freedom of mo- 
tion. It may not rest exactly square on its 
supports, or some grains of dust or other 
foreign body may have got on the socket 
under the knife-blade, or there may have 
been a slight tendency to rust. Any of 
these, and perhaps other causes, may pre- 
serve the beam from oscillating, meantime 
the needle points exactly vertical, and the 
weight seems to have been correctly taken, 
when, perhaps, it is wrong by enough to 
seriously affect the next steps to the opera- 
tions. 

The only sufficient safeguard against this 
dangerous mistake, is never to take a weight 
with the needle in this condition, never to 
depend upon the needle pointing directly to 
the centre of the index, but always to make 
the needle oscillate, and see that at each os- 
cillation it moves to an equal distance on 
each side of the centre, as far to the right 
as it does to the left. With a needle mov- 
ing freely, and passing to an equal distance 
on each side, anything like sticking is im- 
possible, and the operator feels safe that his 
weight is correctly taken, provided that his 
weights are correct. 

The weights that are offered for sale are 
often very carelessly made. The greater 
part of the sheet brass weights that are to 
be found in the market, in sets of from 
half a grain to six grains, do not give indi- 
cations, for the most part, of ever having 
been adjusted. The brass is rolled to as 
uniform a thickness as possible, and then 
the weights are cut out by size, and simi- 
larly with larger weights. 

To show how carelessly these weights aro 
mad«, I have several sets by the same and 
also by different makers. In two sets made 
by one and the same maker, the ten -grain 
weights differ by over one grain, the ono 
being about as much too heavy as the other 
too light. Also a six-grain weight proved, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



195 



on comparison with my exact platinum 
standard, to be nearer seven grains than 
six. 

The worst, however, that I have seen, 
are some "bar weights " made in New Eng- 
land, and largely advertised and sold all 
over this country. The shape of the " bar 
weights " is much better than that in com- 
mon. use; all the weights have the same 
breadth and thickness and differ in length 
only ; thus, the one-grain is a small square 
piece, the two-grain is twice as long, so that 
the ten-grain is a long narrow strip. Each 
is stamped with as many small circles as it 
is intended to weigh of grains, and to pre- 
vent mistakes between those of nearly equal 
size, the even numbers are cut off square at 
the ends and the odd numbers are cut off 
diagonally. The whole plan and arrange- 
ment is excellent, but a very insufficient 
amount of care has been taken in the regu- 
lating. I have weighed a considerable num- 
ber of them and found them vary much. 
Some few are correct, most of them a good 
deal over-weight. 

Brass weights are liable to the additional 
objection that they rust if exposed to acid 
vapors, and are acted upon by alkaline 
chlorides, iodides, and bromides. In all 
these cases they gain in weight, and, if 
cleaned off, weigh less than they originally 
did. 

The difficulties here enumerated, are so 
serious that every one who feels interested 
in working with exactness should own a set 
of platinum weights. These need not be 
adjusted with the extreme accuracy neces- 
sary for weights intended for chemical analy- 
sis, but should be sufficiently correct for 
ordinary careful use. Platinum has the 
inestimable advantage of never oxidizing, 
and, if the weights are kept with any care, 
they do not tarnish in the least. In my 
own case I adjust a set of ordinary brass 
weights by my analytical set, for ordinary 
use. As the weights sold are almost in- 
variably too heavy, they can be filed down 
until right. In case any are too light, 
those, of course, cannot be adjusted, but 
this is quite uncommon. If it happens, 
another set must be procured. In fact, it 
is always convenient to have duplicate 
weights, and therefore it is best to adjust 



two sets at once, and be provided against 
loss. 

Another source of error lies in mistaking 
the weights themselves, or mistaking the 
count. To guard against this, the weights 
should always be counted twice. After the 
weight has been taken, and before the ma- 
terial is used or even removed from the 
pan, the weight should be taken out, and 
recounted as this is done. 

Our system of weights and measures is 
certainly a disgrace to any civilized people. 
It is highly conducive to mistakes and very 
troublesome. To have two ounces, one of 
480 and the other 437J grains ; two pounds, 
the one of 7000 grains, the other of 5760, 
is bad enough. Of late, to add to this con- 
fusion, a second drachm has been intro- 
duced, viz., the eighth of an avoirdupois 
ounce instead of a troy ounce, and, conse- 
quently, about four grains short of a true 
drachm. It is to be hoped that, in time, 
the French decimal system will come into 
universal use. 

(To be continued.) 



California Working Formulae. 

From the columns of your valuable jour- 
nal I have received much useful informa- 
tion during the past five years, and should 
be happy, if in my power, to assist any 
member of the profession. I do not expect 
to tell you or your readers anything new or 
unheard of, yet " such as I have give I unto 
thee," — two or three formulae which have 
proved most successful in my hands. 

Commencing with silver bath, I use 

Rosengarten's Philadelphia 

Nitrate of Silver, . . 4 ounces. 
Distilled Water, . . 44 " 

Saturated with iodide of silver, prepared as 
follows : Take 1 ounce of silver bath 40 
grains strong ; precipitate with tincture of 
iodine ; wash two or three times, last with 
distilled water. Add this to your bath, 
shake well, filter, and it is ready for use. I 
am not often compelled to use acid. If, 
however, the bath requires it, I take nitric 
acid C. P., diluted with three times its bulk 
of water, and of this add ten drops. (I 
have never known a bath containing, four 



196 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



ounces of Kosengarten's silver to require 
more.) This bath I have used for several 
years, and always with success. 

I have tried many formulae for collodion, 
but get the best results with the following : 

Alcohol, . . . .32 ounces. 

Ether, . . . . 22 " 

Anthony's Gun-cotton, . 325 grains. 

Iodide of Ammonium, . 180 " 

Iodide of Potassium, .65 " 

Bromide of Potassium, . 124 " 
Or 6 drachms of a saturated solution. 

This collodion will keep three months in 
warm weather without any apparent change, 
and may be used 24 hours after mixing. 

DEVELOPER. 

Photosulphate of Iron, . 4 ounces. 
Water, . . . . 64 '• 

Acetic Acid, . . . 5 " 
Alcohol enough to make it flow smooth. 

In very warm weather, I use 72 ounces 
of water instead of 64. 

SILVER SOLUTION FOR ALBUMEN PAPER. 

Rosengarten's Nitrate of Sil- 
ver, .... 1 ounce. 
"Water, . . . . 8 " 
Liquid Ammonia, . . 1 drachm. 
Nitrate of Ammonia, . . 60 grains. 
Alcohol. .... 1 ounce. 
I float from 30 seconds to 1$ minutes, ac- 
cording to the weather and the kind of 
paper I am using. I find the " Pearl " 
paper requ'res less time than any I have 
used. I do not fume. 

My toning bath is simply chloride of gold 
neutralized with chalk. (It will give any 
tone required.) 

Take 60 grains of chloride of gold, and 
one ounce or more of powdered chalk ; put 
it in a cyanide bottle, fill it with water, 
shake it well, cork it up, and let it stand for 
12 hours. Take one ounce of this solution 
and one quart of water, filter, and your 
toning bath is ready. 

Do not throw it away when your prints 
are toned. It is good for the next day by 
adding a little more of the stock solution of 
gold. In this way, I have used the same 
bath for over two years. 

Photographically yours, 

A. J. Perkins. 
Va.ll.ejo, Cal. 



The Case of the 
Shaw & Wilcox Co. vs. G. W. Lovejoy. 

ITS ALPHA AND ITS OMEGA. 

It gives us a great deal of happiness to 
be able to announce to our readers the com- 
plete overthrow of the complainants in the 
above case, and to congratulate them on 
their escape from a tax that would have 
been most grievous upon them if it had 
been sustained. A brief resume of the case, 
from beginning to end, may not be without 
interest to our readers. 

In the year 1868, and in the beginning of 
1869, we heard from a number of corre- 
spondents that the Shaw & "Wilcox Co. 
were visiting photographers about the 
country, claiming all to be infringers upon 
a patent they had for a vessel for saving 
waste solutionsof silver and gold, who saved 
their wastes by precipitation, no matter by 
what means. Such a broad claim seemed 
very ridiculous and absurd, and our advice 
was constantly sought in the matter. We 
began then to realize the importance of the 
case, read up on the subject, and finally 
concluded to take sides against the broad 
claims made as we have stated. 

We frequently warned the trade in these 
pages as to their rights in the matter, and, 
as the said claims had never been substan- 
tiated in any court, advised them not to 
entertain such absurdities unless they were 
so sustained. The resistance that then fol- 
lowed compelled the Shaw & Wilcox Co. 
to engage in a suit, in order to prove the 
right or wrong of their claims. Their 
victim was a very poor, obscure photogra- 
pher, with one eye and one arm, Mr. George 
W. Lovejoy, of Stepney Depot, Conn. Why 
he resisted their claims we have never asked 
him. We were not acquainted with him 
then. That he did resist them to the very 
end we should all remember with gratitude 
to him, for he has been a martyr to the 
interests of his coworkers. We were in- 
formed that some one had been prosecuted 
by the patentees, but for some time could 
not find out who. Finally, we made a re- 
quest in these pages, that if the party saw 
it he would oblige us by sending his ad- 
dress. The poor man could not afford to 
take our Journal, but some friend informed 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTO GRAPHEE. 



197 



him of our request, and his address was 
soon in our hands. This was about eight 
or nine months ago. We then stated to 
Mr. Lovejoy that we felt that his prospect 
of defence was good, if the fraternity 
would only help him, hut, as we had not 
time then to take active part in fighting 
with him the patent, all we could prom- 
ise him was a little pecuniary aid and a 
recommendation to the mercy of a number 
of leading photographers. He waited upon 
several of the fraternity, feeling — and 
rightly, too — that they were as much — and* 
some of them more — interested as he was in 
the case, but he failed to get much assist- 
ance — felt that he was begging for what was 
his right, and grew despairing. 

We continued to warn our readers on the 
subject, the result of which was the render- 
ing to Mr. Lovejoy of the most liberal, over- 
whelming and magnanimous — silence. 

This rather dumbfounded us. We could 
see ahead, how, if this patent he sustained, 
a powerful organization could he formed, 
with the law on its side, which could bleed 
and sap the fraternity of all its waste solu- 
tions, or as much of the same as it saw fit 
to demand for " royalty." 

How could photographers be so sleepy on 
this subject? We could not understand it, 
and consoled ourselves with taking a nap 
too (and during this spell we were "caught 
napping" by Mr. Shaw and the gentle- 
manly deputy sheriff who accompanied 
him, as will be learned further on), leav- 
ing Mr. Lovejoy to go on as he would, or 
as far as his funds would allow. We ex- 
pected that he would finally be compelled 
to settle and let the case go by default, for 
want of funds to go on, then the photogra- 
phers would feel the weight of the pat- 
entee's claims, and probably awaken and 
fight a new case. Fortunately, however, Mr. 
Lovejoy had fallen into the hands of hon- 
est, noble counsel, Mr. E. Y. Bell, 43 Wall 
Street, New York, who, although having 
been paid but $50, felt the injustice of the 
claims, and concluded to push for Mr. Love- 
joy, as far as he could afford to take his time 
to do. 

The case lingered on then ; every few days 
a meeting of the counsel of both sides was 
held for the taking of testimony, until the 



day of our arrest, when, singular as it may 
appear, the testimony was to have been 
closed and the case pushed to an argument 
in court. Mr. Bell felt that he had done 
all he justly could be asked to do under the 
circumstances, and with but half a case con- 
cluded to argue it. 

Mr. Shaw and his confreres were, no 
doubt, chuckling over this state of affairs. 
It was just what they wanted. Now, if they 
could only capture the editor of the Philadel- 
phia Photographer, the Secretary of the Na- 
tional Photographic Association, frighten 
his mouth shut, and prevent him from going 
to Cleveland by employing his time early 
in June with a lawsuit in New York, then 
their happiness would be supreme, and the 
gold and silver would precipitate right into 
their coffers ! They, therefore, made bold 
to arrest that humble, harmless person, 
who had not, as yet, done anything scarcely 
in their case with Lovejoy, bound him over 
to appear and answer to a claim for $30,000 
damages. This procedure awakened us 
from our nap, and, after obtaining neces- 
sary bail, we visited the office of Mr. Bell 
for the first time, where we learned the 
then condition of the case, which was as 
stated above. We felt that the matter 
should not close thus, for he had not the sort 
of evidence he needed. Although having 
avowed that we would never again undergo 
the mental labor of fighting another patent 
case like i he Bromide patent, we decided to 
help, after mature deliberation. We saw 
that Mr. Bell's heart was in the work, and 
told him to go on taking evidence that 
wc uld be supplied him, and that he would 
be fully remunerated. This we did, be- 
lieving that it was of immense importance 
to the photographers of the country, and 
believing that they would at least supply 
funds to pay the costs. 

In our April issue we stated the facts, 
a call was made by President Bogardus 
to supply funds, and we are glad to say 
that the responses were most overpoioering , 
amounting in sum total to two, and in fig- 
ures to six dollars! With this magnani- 
mous support and fond hopes of success, we 
went on, paid the demands of the case, and 
are happy to announce as the result, another 
co?nplete overthrow of injustice and impudence. 



198 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



The Testimony. 

It would be wearisome to give you all the 
testimony taken, but a synopsis may in- 
terest you. It was taken before James 
Gutman, Esq., U. S. Commissioner, New 
York, Thos. M. Wyatt, Esq., being counsel 
for the Shaw & Wilcox Co. 

The witnesses for us were Mr. Lovejoy, 
who testified as to his apparatus in use ; 
Mr. Hugh O'Neil, N. Y., who testified to 
having saved his wastes since 1858 ; Mr. 
Geo. G. Eockwood, N. Y., who had saved 
his wastes since 1854 or 1855 ; Mr. George 
Sly, N. Y., who saved gold and silver 
wastes by precipitation in England about 
1850, and in the employ of Mr. Bogardus 
had saved them since 1861 ; Mr. Charles 
Cooper, N. Y., the eminent chemist, who 
testified to having precipitated waste solu- 
tions since 1857. These were the only wit- 
nesses on Mr. Lovejoy 's side, though parts 
of several days were occupied in their ex- 
amination. 

There were two only on the other side, 
both of whom were examined after our ar- 
rest (the others before), viz. : Myron E. 
Judd, an obscure individual, who swore 
that in 1852 he and Mr. Shaw experimented 
with waste solutions ; that the only " chemi- 
cal work " he had read up to that time was 
" Hill on the Daguerreotype ;" and in reply 
to the question, "Could not the photogra- 
pher's waste solutions be converted into 
chloride of silver by the use of muriatic 
acid or a solution of common salt?" made 
the luminous, lustrous answer, " It might 
be converted by the use of muriatic acid, 
but not chloride !" 

But the principal witness for the Shaw & 
"Wilcox Co., and the most valuable one for 
Mr. Lovejoy, was Jehyleman Shaw him- 
self, " President of the S. & W. Co." He 
did well. His counsel got out of him all 
he felt it was safe for him to abstract, and 
then Mr. Shaw was turned over to Mr. Bell 
for cross-examination. The result was fine. 
Shaw evidently expected no such a raking 
over the coals as he got. By some mys- 
terious means, Mr. Bell had became thor- 
oughly conversant with the chemistry of 
photography, and was therefore able to put 
Mr. Shaw through such an examination as 
surprised him. The affair was most inter- 



esting and entertaining, and we wish we 
had space to give the record in detail. Shaw, 
of course, was fully posted, for he had made 
the subject his study for years. We may 
some time find space for some of his answers. 
Some of them were admirable, but there 
was his "horrible claims in the way," as 
Judge Blatchford remarked at the hearing. 
He was on the stand on several separate 
days. The gist of his testimony was this : 

1. He first conceived the idea of saving 
photographers' wastes, and experimented 

'in that direction as early as 1852. Finding 
a "common Shaker pail," a barrel, etc., 
not to answer the purpose fully, he invented 
his patent " vessel." Therefore, being the 
first to save said wastes and the patentee of 
a " vessel " for saving them in, "all par- 
ties saving their wastes by precipitation 
were infringers, no matter what means they 
used." 

2. Although jewellers, chemists, etc., may 
have saved their wastes previously, that 
did net interfere with him. Photography 
gave birth to " new combinations," he said, 
such as iodide, bromide, and sulphide of 
silver, and he patented the idea of saving sil- 
ver from such combiiiations, and all who did 
it without paying him a royalty were in- 
fringers. 

This was his broad claim, and he insisted 
upon it to the end. He perhaps stated them 
more broadly than he wanted to, but the 
very object of his cross-examination was to 
make him reach as far as he would, for the 
broader the better and the surer his defeat. 
We know that when we stretch a gum band 
around a file of papers too large for its 
strength, it becomes very thin and trans- 
parent, and then it breaks. So was it with 
"President" Shaw's claims. They were 
stretched and widened by him until they 
could be seen through, and now they lie 
broken. 

The testimony was closed March 31st, 
and the counsel separated to prepare their 
argument for court.* 

We were in New York the last two days, 

* It will be understood that in such cases the 
witnesses are examined before a U. S. Commis- 
sioner, and then the cai^e is argued before the 
Judge of the U. S. Circuit Court, and by him 
decided.— Ed. P. P. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



199 



and during the time when Jehyleman Shaw 
was giving breadth to his claim. It was 
policy for us to keep out of his sight ; but 
the cross-questioning he got through Mr. 
Bell made him suspect some Lucifer was 
about, and with malice in his heart (we are 
told) he made a second charge against us, 
and after Mr. Bell was through with him 
it was his intention to gobble us up again ; 
but we made our exit while he was racking 
his ingenious brains to answer the questions 
put to him, and are yet free. 

After the taking of testimony was closed, 
it was apparent that Mr. Shaw and his "Co." 
had no chance whatever. His own broad 
claims would defeat him. But that his 
claims were broad had to be brought to the 
mind of the Judge by argument, which was 
afterwards most handsomely done by Mr. 
Bell. 

Mr. Bell made a visit to Philadelphia, 
and engaged himself in the quiet shades of 
the office of the Philadelphia Photographer 
in gathering material to strengthen his plea. 
Here he was met by Mr. James F. Magee, 
the eminent photographic chemist, whose 
library of chemical works was brought into 
service. In Gmelin's Chemistry (1851), it 
was found that "all the new combinations " 
that " photography gave birth to," were 
mentioned, some occurring as ores in na- 
ture, all treated of in detail, and methods 
for recovering the precious metals. 




In lire's Dictionary, a book Mr. Shaw 
swore he had consulted in his early experi- 
ments, was found a woodcut and descrip- 
tion of a tank or vessel used for the purpose 
of upward and downward filtration. A 
square (or other shape — see the drawing, 
which is square) vessel with a partition in 



the middle, running near to the bottom ; 
the fluid to enter at the side E, pass down 
under the partition J, rise up through the 
other side through a filter a, and out at an 
opening/, near the top! Could anything 
be more like Shaw's apparatus without be- 
ing it ?* Draw your own inferences, then, 
as to where he got his ideas from ! 

The production of this proof by Mr. Ma- 
gee was most invaluable, and of vital im- 
portance to the case. Mr. Bell was also 
thoroughly posted, in .Messrs. Suddards & 
Fennemore's rooms, in making negatives, 
printing, washing, and toning, in order to 
understand exactly what wastes were saved 
and how it was commonly done. 

The day of argument came, April 14th, 
and the case was argued fully on both sides. 
Mr. Bell had bottles of negative bath, wash 
water from prints, &c, furnished by Mr. 
G. H. Fennemore, which he precipitated 
before the court with thrilling effect, upon 
which the Judge at once exclaimed, " Why, 
that is old," and was about to dismiss the 
case in open court at once. The plea of the 
other side, however, induced him to reserve 
his decision, and the argument was closed. 

We knew that our side had been faith- 
fully argued. Not only was the law pressed 
home, but the equity of the case was also 
fully argued. The main opposition was to 
Shaw's broad claims, and to his theory that 
photography gave birth to "new com- 
pounds" of silver in solution, from which it 
was his good fortune to first find a way to 
recover the precious metals. 

Mr. Bell was also furnished with photo- 
graphs of several vessels used for precipitat- 
ing wastes in, in this city, by Messrs. Newell, 
Reimer, and Fennemore, among which were 
several of one of Shaw's tanks, in order to 
show the fallacy of claiming that one was 
an equivalent of the other. It would be just 
as reasonable for you, because you have pat- 
ented a new printing frame, to say that all 
others were an infringement, and no one 
could print without paying you a royalty. 

And yet of such a nature were the claims 
of Shaw : 1. That he was the first to dis- 
cover that the precious metals could be re-- 

* For drawing and description of Shaw's ap- 
paratus, see page 34 of our last volume — Febru. 
ary, 1869. 



200 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



covered from solution by the means of suit- 
able precipitating ingredients, and there- 
fore all who performed that operation were 
infringers ; and 2. Being the discoverer as 
above, he invents an improved vessel or 
tank for saving and precipitating such 
wastes in, and therefore all other vessels 
were infringements. 

So sure were the Shaw & "Wilcox Co. 
that these claims would be sustained by the 
Court, that they were imprudent enough to 
issue a circular to the photographic fra- 
ternity a week or more before the decision, 
which is a gem in its way. A number of 
our readers have had copies of it ; for we 
spread it, as soon as a copy came to our 
hands, among our subscribers near by, 
whom we thought could afford to help pay 
the expenses. We can hardly spare the space 
for it, but it is too good for our readers to 
lose, and we append it. 

"THE FINAL DECISION 

OF THE UNITED STATES COURT UPON SHAW'S 
PATENT PROCESS FOR RECOVERING GOLD 
AND SILVER FROM "WASTE SOLUTIONS. 

"The United States Court has now de- 
cided that Mr. Shaw is the original in- 
ventor of the process of recovering silver 
and gold from waste solutions, of every de- 
scription, and that all parties who recover 
gold and silver from waste solutions by 
means of precipitating ingredients use his 
invention. 

"Judge Blatchford, at the summing up 
of the issues, used the following language: 

" ' Mr. Wyatt, I understand the case fully. 
I see that Mr. Shaw has made a very valua- 
ble invention. That it is a patentable one 
there can be no question, and that Mr. Shaw 
is the original inventor there can be no 
doubt, as the commencement of his experi- 
ments were coeval with photography itself, 
and I have no doubt whatever that every 
one who is now using it have stolen their 
ideas from him or received them from those 
who did get them from him.' 

"Judge Blatchford's remarks speak for 
themselves so forcibly, that we can add 
nothing to them. The written decree we 
have not yet received, and may not receive 
it in several weeks, and we may receive it 
to-morrow. lie that as it may, the decision 



is virtually made, and in our favor, and 
having, after such a fight with the whole 
power of the National Photographers' As- 
sociation to back the nominal defendant, 
gained such a glorious victory, we are now 
disposed to be magnanimous to our fallen 
foe and show our liberality. During the 
past year we have been furnishing tanks of 
our own make to all who wished for them, 
on conditions that for each tank furnished 
the party receiving it was to subscribe for 
one share of the capital stock of our company, 
paying one-half down, and sending us all of 
their waste to be worked at 25 per cent., 
the other 75 per cent, to be returned to the 
party sending it, and the second payment 
to be made out of the first waste worked 
thereafter. 

" We shall continue to work waste for all 
who prefer to send to us upon these same 
favorable terms, and all who thus send us 
all of the waste which they make, to be 
worked by us on the above terms, will be 
allowed the free use of our patent. Here- 
after, however, there will be no more of the 
Company's stock sold on the above terms, as 
it is now worth more than par, but we shall 
still furnish tanks for all who wish (to be 
paid for by them at a fair price), and allow 
all who choose, to make their own apparatus 
or to continue using such as they already 
have, charging all galleries in the first in- 
stance a bonus of from $10 upwards, ac- 
cording to their business ; and those who 
then send us all of their waste to be worked 
on shares, will be required to make no further 
payment, but will be allowed to use our pat- 
ent free on the above conditions. 

"All for whom we do not work waste, 
will be required to pay us an annual royalty 
of from $10 to $100 each, in proportion to 
their business ; they can then, of course, dis- 
pose of their waste as they choose, as we shall 
have no further claim upon it after receiv- 
ing the royalty. We do not desire to work 
the waste for any man or party who does not 
prefer to have us work it for them ; all we 
ask is, that you pay us a moderate and 
reasonable price for our invention and pro- 
cess for recovering it, which you are all now 
using and must continue to use, or else not 
save at all. 

"All parties who will voluntarily fill out, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHE R. 



201 



sign, and send us the inclosed application 
for a license to use our patent, will have 
one granted to them upon the above-men- 
tioned very liberal terms. All who neglect 
to apply on these' conditions within thirty 
days after receiving this notice, will be im- 
mediately prosecuted for infringing our pat- 
ent, and compelled not only to pay a royalty 
for the future, but damages for all past in- 
fringements, and for all violation of con- 
tracts heretofore made by them, with either 
Mr. Shaw, The Shaw and Wilcox Co., or 
with any party who may have heretofore 
held an interest in the patent, as it now be- 
longs exclusively to us, including all former 
licenses, contracts, &c. 

" Many of you have violated solemn con- 
tracts heretofore made with us, and nearly 
all of you have been using Mr. Shaw's in- 
vention from three to five years past, and 
many of you longer than that even, free of 
all cost, but notwithstanding all that, we 
are willing to let the past bury the past, with 
all who are now willing to treat us fairly 
and honorably. All we ask is what is le- 
gally, justly, and equitably our rights. "Will 
any reasonable or honorable man deny it to 
us? 

" Would a pickpocket even persist in rob- 
bing you to-day when he was certain that 
you could bring him to justice to-morrow? 
Gentlemen, take your choice. To-day we 
stand ready to meet every 'man upon the 
square, and to deal with him in an extra 
liberal manner, provided only that he comes 
forward and asks for an honorable settle- 
ment. Eight and Justice is upon our side, 
and Right and Justice ive will have, peacea- 
bly, quietly, and without further litigation 
if possible, but if any are so blind or stupid 
as to persist in further litigation, they shall 
have it to their heart's content. You can 
if you choose put us to the expense and 
trouble of paying you a visit with the United 
States marshal, and of closing up your busi- 
ness, seizing your gallery, and placing it in 
the marshal's hands, but will you do it? If 
you do, you certainly cannot hereafter blame 
us for what you bring upon yourselves, or 
find fault if we ask you to pay the expense, 
which your obstinacy forces us to make. 
We prefer the easier and cheaper course, 
but if there is no alternative, we shall not 



shrink from enforcing our rights, no matter 
what the cost*, — in the end it must fall upon 
those who forced it upon us, and will be no 
fault of ours. 

" Tours, respectfully, 

"The Shaw & Wilcox Co." 

It was accompanied by a blank for the 
photographer to fill applying for a license, 
and giving a detailed statement of the 
amount of business done during the past 
annually, your gross receipts, amount of 
silver and gold used by you on an average 
each year, and so on, — a regular inquisi- 
torial account of your business, — followed 
up by a lot of insinuations and threats, in 
harmony with the spirit of the circular 
above. 

Photographers of the United States, do 
you see what you have escaped? How bold 
the hydra-headed monster became, hissing 
at your very doors before it had a right to 
make its voice heard ? But thanks to " Right 
and Justice'' for severing its hateful body 
with one clean, clear, fell swoop, giving vic- 
tory to the right, and to wrong, death. 

We are indebted to Mr. L. Thompson, 
Norwich, Conn , for promptly supplying 
us with copies of the circular. If others 
have received them, and have thereby been 
frightened into paying anything, we believe 
they can recover damages ; for the Shaw & 
Wilcox Co. would be guilty of obtaining 
money under false pretences in such cases. 

We now come to the real and genuine 

FINAL DECISION OF JUDGE BLATCHFORD. 

" The claim is as follows : ' An apparatus 
for recovering gold, silver, etc., from waste 
solutions, by means of suitable precipitating 
ingredients, substantially as herein speci- 
fied.' 

"It is impossible to sustain this patent 
as a valid patent on the claim it makes, 
whether such claim be regarded as a claim 
to a process or a claim to an apparatus. 
Whether it claims the recovering of gold, 
silver, etc., from waste solutions by means 
of suitable precipitating ingredients used in 
a proper apparatus substantially as speci- 
fied, or whether it claims a proper apparatus 
for recovering gold, silver, etc., from waste 
solutions, by means of suitable precipitat- 



14 



202 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEK. 



ing ingredients, substantially as specified, 
it is equally open to objection'. The speci- 
fication states that the object of the inven- 
tion is to provide means for recovering 
from waste metallic solutions the valuable 
metal contained therein, after the solution 
has been used and spent. The result, — that 
is, the recovering of such valuable metal, — 
cannot be claimed. The means alone can 
be claimed. In the means, or the provid- 
ing of the means, or the use of the means, 
to effect such result, the invention consists. 
Those means are stated by the specification 
to be a vessel to hold the waste solution, in 
which vessel chemicals may be placed to 
precipitate the valuable metal and separate 
it from the waste. The specification states 
that the vessel may be of any suitable ma- 
terial, and of any suitable form and size; 
that in it a bag may be contained contain- 
ing any ingredient that will precipitate the 
metal, or such ingredients may be placed 
in the vessel in a loose state ; that, after the 
precipitation takes place, the liquid may be 
drawn off through a suitable pipe arranged 
on any suitable part of the vessel, or it may 
be allowed to fill the vessel and run away 
over the top ; that a filtering device may be 
used with the pipe, but can be dispensed 
with for the majority of solutions ; and that 
the vessel may have a partition in it or may 
not. The sum and substance of all this is 
that the result is the thing claimed to be 
patented. • The apparatus is nothing but a 
vessel to hold the liquid, and the process 
consists only in putting into the liquid in 
the vessel the proper chemicals to effect the 
precipitation of the valuable metal. That 
a suitable vessel of a suitable form and size 
must be used to contain a liquid, if the 
liquid is to be utilized, is no new idea. To 
discover that a suitable precipitating ingre- 
dient will precipitate what it is capable of 
precipitating is no invention. The claim 
is altogether vague and general. It is open 
to the objections stated in the case of 
O'Reilly v. Morse (15 Howard, 62, 119), 
against the eighth claim of Morse's tele- 
graph patent. It is in effect a claim to the 
use of the proper chemicals to precipitate 
the metal from the liquid waste solution, by 
putting such chemicals into any proper ves- 
sel containing the solution. The claim in 



its present shape cannot be sustained, and 
the bill must, therefore, be dismissed with 
costs." 

T. M. Wyatt for the plaintiffs. 
E. Y. Bell for the defendant. 

Could anything be more lucid or satis- 
factory if a committee of our wisest pho- 
tographers had been appointed to write the 
decision ? Judge Blatchford seems to have 
comprehended the case fully and entirely, 
and, in these days of uncertainty of the law, 
bis decision is most learned and worthy of 
the highest compliment. It is just and 
right. 

Now, photographers, you are freed from 
an annoyance that would have vexed you 
for eight or nine years to come. Not only 
your past but your future is protected. 
We are informed that there can be no ap- 
peal from this decision, so the victory is 
final and complete. If your savings are 
not very great, the amount of annoyance 
you have been saved is great. Will you 
not, therefore, contribute what you can 
towards defraying the expenses of securing 
you from this annoyance, and at once? 

Considering the importance of the case, 
the charges are very moderate. Had it to 
be done again, it would be even less, but, 
where a case must be closed within a short 
time, often expenses are incurred to save 
time, that could be saved if time were more 
plenty. 

Mr. Bell is yet to pay partly, and Mr. 
Lovejoy should be made whole, so that 
about $900 are still wanted. Are there not 
enough of our readers who will send us 
their share to close up this matter at once? 

Shaw, at one time during the case, re- 
marked to a party from whom we got the 
information : " Why should Mr. Bell and 
Mr. Wilson pursue me so? What assur- 
ance have they, after they have done their 
work, and, perhaps, beaten me, that pho- 
tographers will not turn around and give 
them a kick?" Shall his insinuation be 
verified ? 

And now one word for our lortrned coun- 
sel, Mr. Ezekiel Y. Bell. When he was 
first visited by Mr. Lovejoy he saw very 
little money in t lie case for him, as it stood. 
Bowevi •!■, lie became interested, and with 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



203 



no one to help him but Mr. Lovejoy, went 
to work ; from time to time summoned the 
witnesses, with the most of whom he had 
but a few moments' conversation before 
their examination, examined them, cross- 
examined Shaw partly, and prepared to 
close the case as we have stated before. 
The help from the profession that Mr. 
Lovejoy seemed to assure him of, did not 
come, but Mr. Bell did not quail. For- 
tunately, our arrest was made at that time. 
We have to thank it for our acquaintance 
with Mr. Bell. We rendered him our hum- 
ble assistance ; he willingly acceded to our 
request to go on in the case ; spent night 
and day, at the sacrifice of other cases, in 
working for you ; came to Philadelphia, as 
we have stated ; studied photography ; stud- 
ied chemistry and other authorities, and left 
no stone unturned to secure success. His 
argument was most brilliant, and victory, 
we are happy to say, is his. Now let him 
be paid pr< ■mptly. 

If any of our readers are favored with 
law business in New York, there is no one 
there whom they can more confidently rely 
upon and trust than E. Y. Bell, 43 Wall 
Street. 

" Handkerchief Printing Frame." 




Those who are accustomed to printing 
photographs on handkerchiefs and other 
fabrics, know what a trouble it is to get the 
same drawn tight and even, and to hold 
them so during printing. 

While visiting the rooms of Messrs. 
Moore Brothers, Springfield, Mass., a few 



weeks ago, we were shown a little device 
that answers the purpose admirably, and is 
very simple. Take any ordinary porcelain 
printing frame — they use Chapman's — and 
through the bottom part bore a hole, say 
2£ inches in diameter. Fit this with a nice 
smooth tapering cork, so that the further it 
is pushed up through the hole the tighter 
the fit. Now over the face and small end 
of the cork lay the fabric, push it up through 
the hole in the printing frame, and thus you 
secure a surface as hard, even, and easily 
printed upon as a piece of ground porcelain. 
The cut will make the whole matter plain. 
The hole does not prevent the frame from 
being used for porcelains either. 



THE FOG DISPERSING. 

(SEQUEL TO ONE HUNDRED DATS IN A FOG.) 
[No. 1.] 

Milwaukee, May 1, 1870. 
Publishers Philadelphia Photographer : 

Inclosed you will please find ($5) five dol- 
lars for one year's subscription to the Phila- 
delphia Photographer, commencing January 
1st, 1870. I notice that you published the 
correspondence between Mr. Elbert Ander- 
son and myself, as also the " One Hundred 
Days in a Fog," which he sent me. 

I assure you that I look forward, with 
considerable interest and expectation, to the 
coming letters of Mr. Anderson, though I 
fear he will dwell but lightly (or else per- 
chance skip altogether) on items which he 
may consider as too trivial of notice; and 
yet it is oftentimes on these minor points 
one needs the most information. 

I feel thankful, however, that he gives 
himself any trouble to write what he does, 
for it cannot particularly interest him. 
A. B. Marshall, 

Photographic Artist. 

[No. 2.] 
Milwaukee, May 1, 1870. 
Mr. Elbert Anderson, 

Operator, Kurtz's Gallery, 872 Broadway, N. Y. 
Dear Sir : Your very welcome, though 
rather severe letter, with manuscript, en- 
titled " One Hundred Days in a Fog," came 
duly to hand. That I was amazed, — in fact, 



204 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



overwhelmed with astonishment upon read- 
ing these extracts, is beyond all question. 
All this may be very amusing to you and 
those who throw these photographic stones 
at us unfortunate artistic frogs ; and had I 
not referred to some of these books from 
which j'ou quote (a number of which lie [!] 
before me), I should certainly have supposed 
the whole " Fog " was purely an invention 
of your most brilliant imagination. 

I have subscribed to the Philadelphia 
Photographer, as you directed, thus taking 
your advice at the outset. 

It needed no ghost, Horatio, to tell me 
the trouble with my negatives. It is the 
cause, prevention, and the cure of the trouble 
I wish you to give me. 

Which of these reliable authorities (!) in 
your extracts are wrong and which right? 
How could they (the wrong ones. I mean) 
have gained any reputation whatever in 
photography, when they deliberately wrote 
what they knew to be false, or else, still worse, 
when they wrote through the most deplor- 
able ignorance ? 

How I wish I had the hanging of every 
mother's son of them! By the way, why 
don't you write a book on Photography? 
Or, if you have not the time to do so, can 
you not at least write me a few plain in- 
structions in plain language? It seems to 
me a great oversight to tell us to do so and 
so, without giving us the reasons why. For 
instance, we have on the fifth day in the 



'fog 



; Should your bath streak your plates, 



add a little nitric acid thereto. ' ' Why ? 
What effect has nitric acid in preventing 
streaks? On the sixth day: "Nitric acid 
is, of all things, the most objectionable in a 
new bath." Just so. Hardwich says : u Io- 
dide of cadmium increases the intensity of 
the collodion." Whereupon Devine re- 
marks : " When the negative comes up with 
TOO MUCH intensity, add iodide of cadmium 
to the collodion." Yet neither of these gen- 
tlemen give's us any clue whereby he ar- 
rives at this conclusion. And so on to the 
end of the chapter. 

By the way, I notice that a party of the 
name of Reynolds takes exception to your 
extracts. It appears to me, however, to use 
an expressive, though very inelegant say- 
ing, " he is barking up the wrong tree." 



He certainly misunderstands you most com- 
pletely. One would suppose, from his com- 
munication, that you considered Hardwich 
as in error, whereas you make no comments 
whatever. I fear he is a little premature. 
Hoping soon to hear from you, 

Yours, A. B. Marshall. 

[No. 3.] 

New York, May 4, 1870. 
Mr. A. B. Marshall. 

Dear Sir: Yours of 1st inst. is just to 
hand. That you were astonished upon perus- 
ing the "One Hundred Days in a Fog," 
is admitted, I see ; that you were amused 
thereat, however, is not so clear. Never 
mind, hereafter, when you come to know 
better, it will be your turn to be amused. 
You are pretty u cute," though, when you 
say, almost in one breath, that you "should 
like to hang some of these gentlemen — and 
— why don't / write a book on the sub- 
ject?" Oh, yes! and perchance disagree 
with some of these learned authorities, and 
thus get hung ; being made the very first 
example under the new law. That would 
be Marshall law, with a vengeance (!). 

Some years ago, before you and I were 
born, an ingenious artist of Athens, named 
Perillus, made a brazen bull for the tyrant 
Phalaris of Agrigentum. This machine 
was constructed for the purpose of putting 
criminals to death, by burning them alive. 
It was so made as to cause the cries of the 
victims to resemble the roars of a bull. 
Now, when Perillus gave it to Phalaris, the 
tyrant made the first experiment upon the 
donor, and cruelly put him to death by 
lighting a fire under the belly of the bull. 
[Moral: don't write a book on photogra- 
ph-] 

But " let us have no more meanderings. " 
I would not have you think for an instant 
that I make any such pretensions as to put 
myself into competition with these great 
men, whose works furnished my extracts. 
No, indeed; they have doubtless devoted 
years of study upon a subject where I have 
devoted as many weeks. I cannot for an in- 
stant harbor the thought that any of these 
gentlemen wrote what "he knew to be false;" 
nor will I accept the other alternative, that 
be wrote in " deplorable ignorance" on the 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



205 



subject. But I will say, however, that 
many of them do write a vast deal of un- 
necessary and unmeaning words ; compli- 
cating what otherwise might be made quite 
plain ; going into erroneous and useless pro- 
cesses ; first creating, and then magnifying 
difficulties, much to the discouragement of 
the reader, who would most certainly, like 
Queen Gertrude, prefer " more matter with 
less art." 

Now, sir, I shall, in my next letter (ac- 
cording to your desires), be very particular, 
and tell you exactly how I prepare every- 
thing I use, and how I use it after it is pre- 
pared. Not, mark you, that J am right, 
and Prof. Muddlehead and Dr. Flipma- 
gilder wrong. I make no such assertion. I 
do everything by an invariable rule — ac- 
cording to circumstances — and have, conse- 
quently, an invariable result ; thus keeping 
clear of "trouble," as you call it. In the 
meantime, if you have any special questions 
to ask, ask them ?iow, or evermore hold your 
peace. 

In regard to " the party of the name of 
Reynolds" [who fails, by the by, to give 
his address, — a circumstance of itself of the 
most susjncious character], it is much to be 
regretted he so little understands what he 
reads. 

First. " The party of the name of Rey- 
nolds " says : " He" (i. e., I) " does not do 
justice to the man he quotes from." Hard- 
wich says : " Many adopt the plan of leav- 
ing," etc., etc. (page 417, 7th ed.). Mark 
you, Hardwich does not say that he adopts, 
nor does he say anything pro or con; he 
merely states as a fact that " many adopt 
this plan." Alas ! all I said was to repeat 
Hardwich 's very words. I made no reflec- 
tion whatever on Hardwich. Where's the 
injustice ? I have carefully read " all 
Hardwich wrote on that page," and can see 
no reason for abandoning my first position. 

Second. " The party of the name of Rey- 
nolds " says : " We conclude that the writer 
in Le Moniteur de la Photographie used a 
very filthy bath, and did not dare to move 
his plate," etc. I am glad to see that he, at 
least, has " done justice" to Le Moniteur 
man. 

Third. " The party of the name of Rey- 
nolds " says : " He " (i. e., I) "should have 



stated all Hardwich said or wrote on that 
page, then some valuable information would 
have been gained by those who need it." 
Exactly. At the end of the first part of 
" One Hundred Days in a Fog " is printed, 
in perfectly legible type, " To be continued." 
Now J think that " the party of the name 
of Reynolds " should have waited until I 
had stated all J had to say in these pages, 
when he, even he, would have gained some 
valuable information, and thus spared him- 
self the mortification of his present deplor- 
able position. If I assert that Prof. Mud- 
dlehead says he always eats fried potatoes 
with his soft-shell crabs, and that Dr. Flip- 
magilder says he always eats boiled potatoes 
with his crabs, do I do injustice to either 
party, inasmuch as I offer no comment 
whatever, one way or the other ? 

Fourth. " The party of the name of Rey- 
nolds " says : " If the gentleman " (I, again) 
" will note what Hardwich writes on page 
278, I think he will be able to give some 
information to A. B. M." Just so. Now, 
considering I did not intend — in these ex- 
tracts — to give you ("or any other man" 
to whom the pages may come) the slightest 
information [I believe I stated as much in a 
former letter], I fail to see the application. 

In conclusion, then, " the party of the 
name of Reynolds " gives you this good ad- 
vice : "Subscribe for the best journals, and 
keep a good library of the best standard 
works on Photography." 

This is precisely what I have done, and 
by so doing have, with their monstrous in- 
consistencies and ludicrous contradictions, 
plunged directly into this very " One Hun- 
dred Days in a Fog." 

Very sincerely yours, 

Elbert Anderson. 

[No. 4.] 

New York, May 12, 1870. 
Mr. Elbert Anderson. 

My dear Sir: I have again to thank 
you for yours of 4th inst. As you see above, 
I arrived in New York only this morning, 
but was unwilling to intrude myself at the 
gallery [where 1 am dying to come, how- 
ever, to see all the "modern improvements"]. 

I sincerely trust to see you at your private 
residence, where, I feel assured, I could 



206 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



learn more in a quiet chat with you than in 
a wilderness of correspondence. May I 
come this evening ? 

By the way — I know you will excuse me 
— is there a Mrs. A., whose sanction and 
convenience I am hound to consult? For 
I should be loath to incommode or interrupt 
any domestic routine. 

An early answer will greatly oblige yours, 
Very respectfully, 

A. B. Marshall. 

[No. 5.] 

New York, May 7, 1870. 
Mr. A. B. Marshall. 

Dear Sir : Yours of this morning re- 
ceived. Surely, you may call on me any 
evening and welcome. I shall certainly ex- 
pect you this evening. You did wrong not 
to come to the gallery, for Mr. Kurtz 
would, of all others, be pleased to show you 
all the " modern improvements," as you style 
them, and fully explain their object and 
divers uses. I hope yet to see you there. 

There is a Mrs. A., whom you will not 
incommode, however. She will take good 
care of that. For when I told her of your 
contemplated visit this evening, she ex- 
claimed: "What! that horrible Marshall 
man from the Rocky Mountains ?" [She has 
a confused idea that Milwaukee and the 
Bocky Mountains are one and the same ; 
or, as she says, il jusl as bad, every bit." I 
know you will overlook the manner of men- 
tioning yourself, seeing she has never had 
the honor of a personal acquaintance.] "And 
are you two going to pow wow wow photog- 
raphy all night long?" Upon my inform- 
ing her that such, indeed, I thought was the 
object of your visit, she said never a word, 
but putting on her bonnet and shawl, in 
awful solemnity, marched to the door, mere- 
ly observing that she was " going over to 
motliers;" and with this Parthian arrow 
she left me. So, you see, you must come 
now, else I shall die with ennui. 
"Very sincerely yours, 

Elrkrt Anderson, 
No. 1 Vacant Place, N. Y. 

The "Photographer" has the greatest 
circulation of any Photographic Journal in 
America, among bona fide subscribers. 



UNDER THE SKYLIGHT. 

BY ROLAND VANWEIKE. 

No. II. 

Good morning, Focus. 

" Good bordig, sir." 

(Focus has a little squeaky voice, and 
talks as if he had a cold in his head.) 

Agreeably to promise, Focus, I will try 
and give you some further instructions to- 
day, and as you are coming to understand 
pretty well what we are doing, you may 
ask any questions you please. But. as it is 
early yet, and we may not have any sitters 
for some time, I want to improve the oppor- 
tunity and talk with you a little about what 
we do, and what we do with. 

I propose to dwell more particularly on 
what are termed plain pictures to-day, and 
show you my idea of making that style of 
work. It is not original with me, however, 
for many of the most eminent photographers 
practice it. I allude more particularly to 
the accessories, furniture, &c. Years ago 
when nearly everything was made either 
standing or sitting, full figure, there was 
little attempt made with accessories. The 
articles mostly used being a pedestal and 
column, appearing to be of immense height 
and great solidity, with a curtain sometimes 
draped around it, with a flashy figure, giv- 
ing the most violent contrast of black and 
white in the picture ; a chair with a high 
and elaborately carved back, no one was 
ever expected to sit in it, and a little round 
table, with a covering similar to the cur- 
tain ; the whole forming a small collection 
of absurdities such as could be found no- 
where but in a photograph gallery. 

Then the subject stood with head, body and 
eyes to the front, heels together, and toes 
turned out in regular military precision, 
one hand grasping — not the musket — the 
chair or pedestal as the case might be, and 
every muscle as rigid as a post. 

" O, yes; I rebember, I had a bicture 
daken that way once, and buther said I 
looked a zif I hadn't got by lesson and had 
been gept id after school." 

Don't doubt it, Focus; I've seen pic- 
tures that looked as though they had done 
worse things than that. Well, it is not to bo 
wondered at that such work went out of style ; 
and we may rejoice that it did. Though 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



207 



even now we occasionally find a Rip Van 
Winkle from up country, that wants just 
such a picture. But public taste, as well 
as the taste and good judgment of pho- 
tographers, has made great progress within 
a few years ; and nothing, perhaps, has 
done more to bring this about than the in- 
troduction of the beautiful and popular 
cabinet portrait. And what is applicable 
to them in this direction is applicable to 
larger or smaller pictures. 

Now the idea is to have the operating 
room furnished something as we would fur- 
nish a nice parlor, or similar to this. Have 
tables, chairs, lounges, ottomans, hassocks, 
the same as we see in our homes every day, 
with a good variety of table and mantel 
ornaments, such as vases, flower-pots, with 
flowers, not too large, bronzes, a few small 
pieces, and a small library of books. These 
small articles can all be kept in a case, like 
this, made for the purpose, and are handy 
whenever wanted. Then the background 
is an important consideration, though one 
perfectly plain may be used with good 
efTect. The one we have here works well ; 
you see it is' a sort of fresco, made quite 
dark, and the figure rather subdued. The 
lines dividing it into spaces give it the ap- 
pearance of a richly papered wall in the 
picture. Then we have these light frames 
with rough sketches in them representing 
pictures, which may be hung on the back- 
ground to suit the fancy or style of the pic- 
ture.* "With these we can make up a home 
scene that will make people exclaim: " Why, 
this was taken in your own home; isn't it 
nice ?" And when assured it was made under 
a skylight, they can hardly believe it. 

" Here cubs a sitter." 

Yes, Focus, we must go to work now. 
A cabinet, or imperial card, as some call 
them. This gentleman, it seems, is a Rev., 
so we will try and make up something to 
suit his profession. 

" Well, you wadt a pulbit, do'dt you?" 

O no, Focus, I don't think he has come 
to give us a sermon to-day. We will rep- 
resent him in his study surrounded with 

* This paper was in type for our last issue, 
but was crowded out. It ought to have appeared 
with our last picture, which is an illustration of 
the remarks of Mr. Vanweike. 



his books and papers. Take a seat near this 
table ; nearly a side view of the body, and 
turn the face so as to bring it about three- 
quarters. That will bring in part of the 
table, showing that book-rack, with books 
for his immediate use and some manuscript 
near where his hand rests. An inkstand 
with pens, paper-weights, and this little 
statuette of Faith, may be arranged on the 
table with good effect. It will be in keep- 
ing to have a book in his left hand, or it 
may rest carelessly by his side. For pic- 
tures of this style I have this piece, painted 
to represent a library or bookcase, which I 
place against the background on one side, 
showing more or less of it, as may be de- 
sired to give variety. One of the frames, 
representing a painting, may be hung 
towards the other side. Now, this back- 
ground being quite dark, will bear to be 
brought well forward so as to come as near 
the focus of the instrument as possible. A 
little drapery introduced behind the sitter 
will help to balance the picture. Now, we 
want the subject well lighted, and give a 
good full exposure. 

The next is a lady for a similar style. 
Well, we'll make up a parlor scene ; first, 
however, lay down this piece of parlor 
carpet, and let her stand as if admiring 
this vase of flowers. Let the folds of her 
dress hang so as to give good flowing lines. 
A chair, or the end of the lounge may be in- 
troduced opposite the table, with a book, or 
fan, or any appropriate article lying on it. 
1 will take the library out of the background 
and put another one of the frames in its 
place. 

" Here, put this on the dable. " 

No, no, Focus; this lady don't want any 
prancing steeds in her picture. We'll use 
that when we have some sporting char- 
acter. These things must be used judici- 
ously, and there is more danger of putting 
in too much than not enough. 

Now for the next. 

" I want just a burst taken !" 

Focus, this man says he wants a burst 
taken ; I suppose he means a bust. We'll 
give him a ' burst' and let him go, hoping 
the schoolmaster may come round where he 
lives, some time, and prevent further muti- 
lation of our American-Eno-lish. 



208 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



The rest of these, Focus, seem to be all 
vignettes, and we will have another lesson 
on this at some future time. 

Dear Photographer: Since writing the 
above, I see your correspondent, " West- 
ley," has given some attention to me in 
your May number. May I be allowed to 
say a word therefore ? 

I am sorry that he should have taken 
what I said so much to himself. It is evi- 
dent the fraternity would have suffered, had 
he been driven to such desperate measures as 
to sell his " traps at auction and leave for 
parts unknown. "But I am glad to know Mr. 
Westley is not one to whom my remarks 
applied, as it seems he has his light under 
control, and displayed considerable inge- 
nuity in managing it. I have written 
rather for the benefit of new beginners 
than for " old stagers " of eighteen years' 
experience. 

But few of us are too old to learn, if we 
will, and nothing outside of our own prac- 
tice is more instructive than the experience 
of our neighbors. There are some photog- 
raphers that know all they want to ; they 
never have any trouble ; their chemicals 
always work well ; they do not bother with 
any curtains about their skylight ; they 
make pictures in almost no time ; their 
light works well all day, "rain or shine," 
and they always make good work. To 
such I have nothing to say. We can all, 
doubtless, preach better than we can prac- 
tise, for the best photographers feel every 
day that they seldom do more than to ap- 
proximate their ideal of what they would 
like to do. 

To attain perfection or control a light so 
as to get equally good results every hour in 
the day, is something that few intelligent 
men will claim, but all such appreciate the 
necessity of studying their light and gov- 
erning it to the best possible advantage. 
So much is being said on this subject of 
skylights at the present time, that there 
would seem to be no excuse for any one not 
having some plan of working that will give 
them experience, if not improve their work. 
If every photographer in the country would 
take a ml. read 1 he Philadelphia Photographer, 
and go to the Cleveland Exhibition in June 



with his eyes open and his mind prepared 
to receive instruction, another year will find 
us far in advance of the many grand results 
this year's Exhibition will produce. 

E. V. 



C0LL0DI0-BR0MIDE PROCESS. 

BY M. CAREY LEA. 

Pyroxyline. — I hoped to have been able, 
in this number, to indicate some commer- 
cial pyroxyline that would give entire sat- 
isfaction, but have been disappointed. I 
shall still seek for it, and hope in the fol- 
lowing number to give the information. 

Meantime, I will briefly state the difficul- 
ties presented by pyroxylines. Some speci- 
mens, when coated upon the plate, appear at 
first to be perfectly even, but, if examined 
by holding up to the light, show an uneven- 
ness which, when slight, is a mere cloud- 
ing, pai'ts being a little thicker, others a 
little thinner, and so gradually blended that 
no demarcation of either can be found. 
When this is very slight it does not spoil 
the plate. When the cloudy disposition is 
strongly marked, it produces a mottled 
film all over the plate, worse at the corner 
where poured off. This mottling is apt to 
show in the negative, especially in flat tints 
like the sky. Other specimens show a want 
of intensity, so that the development cannot 
be complete with alkaline pyrogallic acid, 
but a redevelopment with pyrogallic acid 
and silver must be used. Others, again, let 
the developer through in irregular spots like 
tessellated work or coarse mosaic, showing 
in the finished negative in stains all over 
the plate. A good cotton is completely 
free from all tendency to these faults. 

Sensitizing. — I find the best results from 
adding 2 drops of aqua regia to each ounce 
of collodion, and sensitizing with 18 grains 
of nitrate of silver. Where there is a want 
of intensity this may be aided by adding 1 
grain of chloride of copper, In this case 
the nitrate of silver must be raised to 20 
grains, and a little more alcohol vised in 
dissolving it, say 2i to 3 drachms to each 
20 grains. 

Bromide of Cadmium. — It is desirable not 
only to have a pure specimen of bromide of 
cadmium, but also to keep it well corked. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



209 



This substance is only known commercially 
in the crystallized state; that is, the sub- 
stance that we use does not merely consist 
of bromine and cadmium, but contains also 
four equivalents of water to each equiva- 
lent of bromine and of cadmium. The 
crystallized salt has a strong tendency to 
effloresce in dry air ; it turns white and 
loses one-half of its water of crystallization. 
Of course this change alters its relations to 
nitrate of silver, so that, in the effloresced 
state it requires more nitrate of silver to de- 
compose it. But a change of this kind is 
not often so complete as to enable us to cal- 
culate the exact changes in quantity neces- 
sary to compensate for the loss of water. 
Effloresced or whitish bromide of cadmium 
should therefore be avoided, and the clear 
transparent salt only should be used. An 
examination of a bromide of cadmium bot- 
tle that has been left uncorked for a moder- 
ate time in dry weather, will enable the 
operator at once to recognize the difference 
between the two sorts ; such a bottle will 
be apt to show a white opaque layer of ef- 
floresced bromide on top of the same sub- 
stance in its usual condition. 

Penetration of Solutions. — I have lately 
noticed in one or two instances the follow- 
ing occurrence, after having made many 
hundred plates without knowing it to hap- 
pen once : the preservative bath penetrated 
the film and made a sort of blister, some of 
the solution remaining between the film and 
the glass. I have only seen this happen 
with an old collodion made out of an old py- 
roxylinekept over two years before dissolv- 
ing. The remedy lies in not leaving too 
long in the washing-bath or in using fresher 
materials. 

Sensitiveness. — To exhibit the extraordi- 
nary sensitiveness of this process I give the 
following: on the twelfth of this month I 
exposed a plate before eight a.m. for ten 
seconds, which proved to be an ample ex- 
posure. Size of plate, 6J x 8i ; stop, ^jth 
focal length. The development was easy 
and rapid, complete in four or five minutes, 
no redevelopment needed. The subject 
was not a wide or distant view, no object 
appearing on the plate more than one hun- 
dred yards distant. The foliage was full 
of detail. "With an extended view at mid- 



day and a large stop, the exposure might 
have been greatly reduced. I think a wet 
plate would have needed twice the expos- 
ure. This plate was prepared with gum 
and sugar only. 

Preservative. — "When the preservative is 
gum and sugar, either alone or with litmus 
or tannin, the proportion of gum should 
never be less than 15 or 18 grains to the 
ounce. 



THE PHOTO-CRAYON PRIZE. 

No doubt those who have been making 
Photo-crayons are preparing their best pos- 
sible work for the Exhibition, in order to 
compete for the prize medals offered in our 
last issue by the Messrs. Lambert for the 
best examples exhibited. Those who have 
recently begun making them would do well 
to look into this. 

Most beautiful results continue to be 
secured by those working the process in our 
city, and we have some that we highly prize. 

Remember, they must be made well to 
look well, and if you do not succeed at first, 
do not condemn the process or the style. 
If you can make good negatives, you can 
make good Photo-crayons by means of the 
instructions given by the Messrs. Lambert. 
At Cleveland they will be present with the 
simple apparatus necessary to explain the 
whole manipulation, and there will be a 
good chance to see the value of the process. 

"We cannot see how any good, pushing, 
intelligent photographer can fail to make a 
success of this beautiful style of picture. 



OUR NEXT PRIZES. 

Our next prize offers will be the fol- 
lowing : 

1. A gold medal for the best portrait pho- 
tograph, vignette or otherwise, from re- 
touched negatives. 

2. A gold medal for the best portrait pho- 
tograph, vignette or otherwise, from nega- 
tives not retouched. 

3. A gold medal for the best composition 
or genre picture. 

4. A gold medal for the best landscape 
picture. 

To be at least two negatives of each sub- 



210 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



ject, as nearly as possible alike, and of size 
suitable for our illustration. The regula- 
tions will be similar to those heretofore 
made in offering our premiums. Further 
particulars, with the time given, will be 
announced in our next. We make this 
much of an announcement that those who 
anticipate competing may lose no time in 
preparation. 



NOTES IN AND OUT OF THE 
STUDIO. 

BY G. WHARTON SIMPSON, M.A., F.S.A. 

Photo- Mechanical Printing Processes in Eu- 
rope — In a Fog — Mounting without Cock- 
ling — Simple Remedy for Pin-holes. 
Photo- Mechanical Printing Processes in 
Europe. — I have just been favored with a 
copy of the report made to the Indian De- 
partment of our government by my friend, 
Lieutenant Waterhouse, of the Eoyal Ar- 
tillery, of the cartographic applications of 
photography in Europe. Lieutenant Water- 
house is in charge of the photozincographic 
department at the Surveyor-General's office 
in Calcutta, and, having been on sick leave 
in this country, he obtained a commission 
from his department to visit the principal 
cities in Europe to investigate the various 
cartographic applications of photography, 
and the various photo-mechanical printing 
processes employed to multiply the maps 
and other topographical documents pro- 
duced. His report is voluminous and full 
of interest, possessing the special value of 
being the work of an investigator, himself 
practically familiar with the operations in 
many of the photo-mechanical printing 
processes. 

It is a noteworthy fact, that after visiting 
every establishment connected with this 
branch of our art, of any reputation, in 
Europe, Lieutenant Waterhouse does not 
appear to have met with any photo-me- 
chanical process giving really good half- 
tone, except Woodbury's, which he pro- 
nounces as undoubtedly the most perfect of 
all processes of this kind in yielding half- 
tone. At the time of investigation, 1808, 
Herr Albert's process was unknown, but 
he describes the process of Teesie du Mo- 



thay, to which, in many respects, Albert's 
process is manifestly closely analogous. 

The operations described in the report 
are those of M. Mareschal, the co-pat- 
entee of Tessie du Mothay, the printing es- 
tablishment being at Metz. The largest 
number of impressions ever obtained from 
one plate, however, at this establishment, 
has been about a hundred, whilst Herr 
Albert has considerably exceeded a thou- 
sand. 

In speaking of these photo-collographic 
processes, it just occurs to me to correct an 
error of conception which I have noticed 
prevails somewhat commonly. After ex- 
posing the film of chromated gelatine under 
a negative, the soluble gelatine is not washed 
away. The plate is placed in cold water to 
wash out the unchanged bichromate, but no 
portion of the gelatine is removed by wash- 
ing ; the film remains intact, a layer of 
gelatine possessing as many varied degrees 
of insolubility or impermeability as there 
are gradations in the picture. Where the 
light has passed freely through the trans- 
parent parts of the negative, the gelatine 
has become quite hardened, and absorbs no 
moisture when sponged with water. This 
part takes a fatty ink freely, and so prints 
blacks. The portion which has been fully 
protected from light retains the ordinary 
capacity of gelatine for absorbing water, 
and, of course, when saturated with water 
it repels ink, and so prints pure whites. 
The varied degrees of hardening by light 
between these two regulate the absorption 
of water, and the consequent affinity for 
fatty ink, and so the varied gradations are 
printed. I have endeavored to restate this 
principle carefully and clearly, because I 
have seen on more than one occasion in 
print that it was not clearly apprehended, 
and because I think it probable that photo- 
collographic processes will play an import- 
ant part in the photography of the future. 

As I believe the operations at Metz havo 
not before been described by an eye-witness, 
it may not be unintoresting to give a brief 
extract from Lieutenant Waterhouse's de- 
scription of the operations as he saw them 
performed. He says : 

" A plate of copper is grained with sand, 
and then coated ver»y evenly with a mix- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. , 211 



ture containing gelatine and the bichro- 
mate of potash, and possibly some other 
substances, and is dried by exposing it in 
an oven to a heat of 122° F. for some hours. 
These plates may be kept two or three days, 
sometimes more, before use. The plates 
thus prepared are exposed in diffused day- 
light under a reversed negative for about 
half an hour ; they are then taken out of 
the printing-frames and washed under a 
rose-jet of water until all the chrome salt 
is dissolved out and then dried in the open 
air. After they are dry it is better to put 
them away to harden for a day or two 
than to proceed to print them at once. How- 
ever, to show me the process, copies were 
printed off the two plates I saw exposed. 
The dried plate is taken to a lithographic 
press and placed on a stone which serves as 
a support. It is dampened with water in 
the usual way, which causes those parts of 
the gelatine film which have not been acted 
•upon by light to swell freely, and the ex- 
posed parts to swell up according to the de- 
gree of protection they have received, and 
thus the plate presents the appearance of a 
graduated mould ; it is next rolled in with 
a roller and lithographic ink modified to 
suit the process. The rolling-in takes 
longer than with a stone and requires some 
skill and care. The effect of the inking is, 
that the water contained in the pores of the 
higher parts of the gelatine film, which 
have undergone little or no change by the 
action of light, repels the ink, whilst the 
insoluble parts which have been acted on 
by light and remain sunk, take up the ink 
in proportion as the action of light has 
rendered them impenetrable by water. 
The more the gelatine has been altered the 
thicker will be the coating of ink taken up. 
The paper is laid on dry and the proofs are 
pulled in the ordinary way ; they are then 
trimmed and mounted. The effect of 
printing the plates too soon is, that the pa- 
per sticks to the film and is torn in pulling 
off, leaving little white spots over the print. 
I saw a great many perfect specimens of 
the process, the most delicate details being 
rendered with a perfection seldom seen in 
any other process." 

This process has not come into commer- 
cial operation to any extent, whatever 



may be its capabilities. Indeed, photo- 
lithography is practised very little indeed 
in France, which was, so far as the bi- 
chromate processes are concerned, its birth- 
place. So far as I can learn from this re- 
port, there is a general tendency in many im- 
portant photo-lithographic establishments 
to return to the use of bitumen processes for 
line work, and I have seen many fine re- 
sults produced by these methods. 

In a Fog. — I have been much amused 
and interested by Mr. Anderson's diary of 
a sojourn in fog land, which may readily 
be conceived to represent the bewilderment 
of a novice dipping at random into various 
chapters in photographic literature instead 
of steadily mastering principles. Mr. 
Anderson is rather severe, however, in 
representing his typical novice as selecting 
with perverse ingenuity fragmentary pas- 
sages to make different authorities contra- 
dict each other. I am reminded of the 
story of an old Puritan divine who, having 
been requested to preach a sermon against 
a practice then prevalent of wearing tower- 
ing head-dresses, gave out as his text, the 
words of which sounded to his hearers as 
" Top-knot come down ! " On referring to 
chapter and verse they found the passage 
standing thus : " Then shall they who are 
upon the housetop not corne down." By dis- 
locating passages from context and subject 
our typical novice has been made to find out 
that authorities sadly contradict themselves 
or each other as to the use of nitric acid and 
acetic acid in the nitrate bath, and the ad- 
vantages or disadvantages which may be 
gained from either. Whilst, however, it 
must be conceded that in matters of prac- 
tice authorities may reasonably differ with- 
out either being absolutely wrong, the care- 
ful student will quickly discover the source 
of the mental fog which his brother novice's 
diary presents. A reference to the context 
in the authorities quoted will generally 
show that where the advice difl'ers it has 
reference to distinctly different things. For 
instance, the advice used at one time not 
unfrequently to be given to use acetic acid 
in the negative bath and avoid nitric acid. 
But it must be remembered that at the 
same time simply iodized collodion with- 
out any bromide was recommended. Now, 



212 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



as a point of practice, it is tolerably well 
ascertained that nitric acid is a decided re- 
tarder when simply iodized collodion is 
employed, whilst with a bromo-iodized 
collodion nitric acid has no such effect, 
and that with a simply iodized collodion 
acetic acid in moderate proportion, was not 
a retarder, and the acetate of silver fre- 
quently formed was, under some circum- 
stances, absolutely an accelerator. 

It would not be difficult to harmonize the 
greater portion of, if not all, the contra- 
dictory passages quoted. Mr. Anderson 
doubtless intends the reader to make for 
himself the very obvious reflections on the 
importance of studying each process as an 
entirety, remembering that disjointed for- 
mulae, not duly related in all their parts, 
will generally bring failure, and that suc- 
cess can only be found in the harmonious 
relation of collodion, bath, light, and de- 
veloper. The one thing imperatively nec- 
essary in photography, which the operator 
cannot purchase of his stockdealer, is brains. 
The great aim of the Philadelphia Photog- 
rapher is to supply, or, rather, to develop 
and cultivate brains. The more brains an 
American photographer possesses the more 
certain he is to read the Photographer, and 
the more he lacks brains the more import- 
ant it becomes that he should read it. If 
this fact could only be duly impressed 
amongst the photographic community, 
there would not be a photographer in the 
Union whose name was not on your sub- 
scription list. 

Mounting without Cockling. — Referring 
to some hints I recently gave for a new 
mounting material to prevent cockling of 
thin boards, a correspondent sends me the 
following hints for a method of mounting, 
which he has found very efficient to prevent 
cockling : 

"Stroke the proofs by drawing them 
face down on a sheet of glass, and under a 
piece of stout cardboard, held vertically 
(the proof being drawn upwards). Coat 
the backs with starch of good domestic 
make, laid on with a sponge ; its consist- 
ency should be such us to leave a gloss when 
dry. Now trim the proofs, and on a smooth- 
faced lithographic stone lay a mount of the 
required size, mark with space-lead the 



furthest left angle and side thus | — ~, then 
centre the proof and mark its register, and 
adjust the press to a good firm pressure. 
Now lay down the dry proof to aforesaid 
mark, then, with a well-wrung sponge pass 
quickly over the mount in a longitudinal 
and lateral direction, and place it on the 
photograph. Pull once through the press, 
and the operation is complete. In this way 
I have mounted some thousands of proofs 
with great precision. By substituting a 
stone for the steel plate bed an ordinary 
rolling press may be used, but a lithographic 
press is much superior, and the danger of 
buckling is avoided. A German friend, in 
expatiating on the superiority of the scraper 
over rollers for litho work, concisely ex-' 
plained, ' It ish de nip.' " 

A Simple Remedy for Pin-holes. — As the 
summer approaches the photographer needs 
to be prepared for the varying conditions 
which hot weather often introduces into 
photography. The portraitist is very fa- 
miliar with the fact that towards the close 
of a hot day a crop of pin-holes will sud- 
denly appear on his plates. He knows that 
this probably proceeds from an accumula- 
tion of iodide of silver in the bath, and at 
the close of the day he is quite prepared 
with the remedies in such case made and 
provided. But an immediate and temporary 
cure without stopping work would often be 
regarded as a great boon. Such a remedy 
was recently mentioned to me by Mr. 
Blanchard, who had repeatedly found it most 
useful. It simply consists in adding to the 
collodion in use about one-fourth of its bulk 
of plain collodion. The film fully charged 
with iodide, and the bath fully charged 
with iodide, coming into contact, at once 
produce the fine crystals which cause pin- 
holes. The film being less fully charged 
with iodide changes the conditions, and an 
instant relief from this trouble follows the 
application of the remedy. 



NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. 

The May meeting of the Photographical 
Section of the American Institute was held 
at the usual place. Mr. Chas. Wager Hull, 
Vice-President, in the chair. 

After the routine business was disposed 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



213 



of, Mr. Mason spoke as to the merits of Mr. 
Newton's process for preparing silvered 
paper. He thought it was just what we 
wanted. Inasmuch as he had not yet con- 
cluded his tests of the process, it was agreed 
to pass it until the June meeting. 

Mr. H. T. Anthony said that he had re- 
sorted to many expedients to keep silvered 
paper. He had found that, with two float- 
ings upon distilled water, it kept well for 
nine or ten days ; but at the end of thirty 
days it became yellow. He also stated that 
if silvered paper was floated upon three 
changes of ordinary drinking-water, it 
would keep well for a month, which he 
thought was probably due to the trace of 
chloride found in all such waters. Such 
paper must be printed in fumes of ammonia, 
which was easily accomplished by having 
the pad in the printing-frame well charged 
with it ; and also that, in addition to this, 
the paper should be fumed in the usual 
way. 

Mr. Newton stated the results of his com- 
parative experiment with his tea process 
and Lea's collodio-bromide process. He 
exposed plates prepared by each, subject to 
same conditions; fully followed Lea's di- 
rections, but could not obtain a negative of 
sufficient intensity ; with his own he had no 
trouble. He stated that the time and labor 
saved in the collodio-bromide process was 
lost in the tedious development ; while with 
the tea and iron developer all worked quite 
to his satisfaction. 

Mr. Chapman, in answer, said that he 
thought most favorably of the collodio- 
bromide process. He was not at all trou- 
bled for want of intensity, but quite the 
contrary ; he had too much. He considered 
the charm of it was in the latitude allowed 
for exposure. He had exposed at the same 
time upon a view, thirty seconds and four 
minutes, and exhibited prints to prove his 
statements ; one was as good as the other, 
and to distinguish the long from the short 
exposure was simply impossible. 

I have not worked by either process, but 
have seen superb work by both. Three 
8x10 views of collodio-bromide received a 
few days since from M. Carey Lea, Esq., 
most assuredly leave little to ask for. They 
are full of detail in the shadows, soft and 



well-balanced in their contrasts, — indeed, 
are quite perfection. 

Mr. Newton exhibited some very fine glass 
positives made with collodio-chloride, and 
printed from the negative by contact. The 
tone was of a rich warm chocolate, to obtain 
which he flowed the plate after development 
with a solution of pyro, one grain ; silver, 
eight grains ; water, one ounce ; washed 
well, toned with gold, and fixed in hypo. 

He said that in making transparencies by 
this process, it was important to dry the 
substratum of albumen by heat, and as soon 
as cool flow with collodio-chloride. If dried 
spontaneously, pinholes would follow. 

He made many efforts to obtain negatives 
by this process from the positives so ob- 
tained, but could not succeed. The nega- 
tive would be full of pinholes, and the posi- 
tive would fade away and be destroyed. 

Mr. Mason presented for inspection four 
samples of nitrate of silver. Three of them 
he had prepared, and pronounced absolutely 
pure; one was dried in a glass dish in the 
dark, and gave superb crystals ; two were 
dried in the sun, and gave product of mud- 
dy dark crystals. Another sample of com- 
mercial nitrate was also dried in the sun, 
and gave crystals somewhat darkened, but 
far brighter and better than pure silver. 
The difference was thought due to the trace 
of nitrate of potash in the commercial sam- 
ple. It was thought by some that the two 
samples of pure which crystallized so dark, 
was due to the fact of their having been 
treated in porcelain dishes, while the good 
sample was treated in glass. 

Mr. Mason thought that the difference 
was not due to any such cause, but would 
repeat his experiments in glass and report 
at the subsequent meeting. 

Mr. Chapman exhibited twelve 3-inch 
photographs of the sun, made between the 
11th of March and the 14th of April, show- 
ing the so-called spot ; which spot Mr. 
Chapman declares to be a hole of very re- 
spectable dimensions, to wit, 70,000 miles 
across its top, but how deep he did not 
know. One thing is certain, if we poor 
mortals, including all our goods and chat- 
tels, together with all our real estate, should 
happen to fall therein, we would not be 
found in a hurry. In considering the pos- 



214 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



sibility of filling it, but one plan suggests 
itself to my mind as at all possible, and that 
is to have the men who issue the new stock 
for the Erie Eailway Company to take the 
job. I fancy they could make enough to 
fill space ; paper and ink would be the only 
trouble. They would find a way to sign 
them. 

In view of the expected visit of Dr. Her- 
man Vogel, whom all know so well as one 
of your correspondents, the following com- 
mittee was appointed by the Vice-President 
to receive him, and to take such action in 
behalf of the Section as may appear best to 
them : Prof. Chas. A. Joy, Prof. S. D. Till- 
man, Henry T. Anthony, Wm. Kurtz, and 
Peter F. Weil. 

It is to be hoped that our honored fellow- 
laborer and teacher in photography maybe 
as much pleased with his visit to the New 
World, as we shall all be to receive him. 

Adjourned to Wednesday, June 1st. 

C. W. H. 



NEW ENGLAND PHOTOGRAPHIC 
ASSOCIATION. 

The regular monthly meeting of the As- 
sociation was held on Tuesday evening at 
Mr. Black's studio, Boston, May 3d, 1870, 
the President, E. L. Allen, in the chair. 

The minutes of last meeting were read 
and approved. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. G. 
W. Lovejoy, containing a description (and 
photographs) of his arrangements for saving 
silver waste, both before and at the time 
the Shaw & Wilcox Co. commenced suit 
against him. 

In the absence of the chairman of the 
committee appointed to procure an official 
copy of the Shaw & Wilcox patent, Mr. 
Southworth said that while in New York 
he called upon Mr. E. Y. Bell, counsel for 
defendant in the Shaw & Wilcox suit, and 
learned thai the case had been argued be- 
fore Judge Blatchford, pro and con, and 
that we must now wait the decision of the 
judge. Stated tliut he had a copy in pam- 
phlet form of I hi' evidence, which he would 
leave with the Secretary, that all members 
could examine it who wished. 

Mr. Southworth read Shaw's claimSj 



which seemed to cover all means of saving 
silver by precipitation, and the judge 
stated that if it covered what Shaw claimed 
it was a terrible one. He could not say 
too much in favor of Mr. Bell ; thought 
he was the right man in the right place, 
and had done his duty faithfully, and, if the 
suit went against Lovejoy (as he did not 
think it would) they might have the privi- 
lege of trying Mr. Black, or Mr. Wing, or 
some other photographer. He understood 
that the judge had said that it was unlaw- 
ful to combine to put down a patent, but 
that individuals could contribute what they 
saw fit towards paying the cost of the suit. 

The President read a letter from Mr. E. 
L. Wilson, stating that he felt sure of suc- 
cess against Shaw. 

Mr. Allen, in a few remarks, said that he 
thought Mr. Wilson was working for the 
good of photographers, and we should give 
him all the assistance possible. 

Mr. E. S. Dunshee was proposed, name 
referred to Executive Committee, approved, 
and declared elected. 

On motion voted that Sec. 6, Article II 
of our Constitution be abolished. 

The President read a letter from Mr. 
Loomis, stating his desire but inability to 
be present to-night ; regretting, also, that 
he could not go to Cleveland an account of 
his European trip for which he was now 
preparing. 

Voted that when we adjourn it be to the 
last Tuesday in May. Adjourned. 

E. P. Smith, 

Secretary. 

In my last report I neglected to state 
that there were some fine specimens on ex- 
hibition, of photo-crayons made by Messrs. 
Allen and Marshall. Mr. Crompton has 
been selling the process and crayon sheets 
for the a^ent, Mr. Alden. E. F. S. 



FERROTYPERS' ASSOCIATION 
OF PHILADELPHIA. 

A stated meeting of the Ferrotypers' 
Association of Philadelphia was held al 
Mr. E. K. Trask's gallery, Tuesday even- 
ing, May 3d, 1870, the President, Mr. A. K. 
P. Trask, in the chair. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



215 



After roll-call it was resolved to postpone 
all regular business for one week, excepting 
that which pertains to the death of Mr. E. 
P. Warrington, our late Vice-President. 

On motion it was resolved to appoint a 
committee to draw up appropriate resolu- 
tions to be entered on the minutes of the 
meeting, a copy of the same to be neatly 
engrossed and sent to the wife of deceased, 
and to be handed in with the minutes of 
the meeting for publication in the Phila- 
delphia Photographer. 

The committee appointed were Messrs. 
Thomas Brooks, A. K. P. Trask, and D. 
Lothrop. 

The following preamble and resolutions 
were reported by the committee and unani- 
mously adopted by the meeting : 

Whereas, it has pleased Divine Providence 
to take from our midst one of our late members, 
therefore be it 

Resolved, That by the death of our late Vice- 
President, Edward F. Warrington, we have lost 
a true friend and faithful associate. 

Resolved, That in this hour of affliction we 
desire to show our sincere respect to the memory 
of our late brother, by offering to his bereaved 
family our heartfelt sympathies. 

The chairman of the committee, Mr. 
Thomas Brooks, was authorized to attend 
to the engrossing and presentation of a copy 
of the above to the wife of our late Vice- 
President. 

Voted to adjourn, to meet again in this 
same place one week from to-night. 

D. Lothrop, 

Secretary. 

May 10th, 1870. 

Adjourned meeting of the Perrotypers' 
Association, the President, Mr. A. K. P. 
Trask, in the chair. 

The roll was called and minutes of last 
meeting read and adopted. 

Mr. Trask, in behalf of Committee on 
Skylights (alluding to the recent severe 
hail-storm), reported a great many out and 
in bad condition ; also progress. 

Mr. Brooks, on the presentation of reso- 
lutions to Mrs. Warrington, reported prog- 
ress. 

The subject for discussion this evening 



was, "The best manner of cleaning ferro- 
type plates that have been used." 

Mr. Lothrop 's way was to put every re- 
jected plate of pictures, soon as taken, into 
a dish of clean water, and, after the day's 
work was done, to take a chamois and rub 
off the film, keeping the plate under run- 
ning water during the operation. After 
washing the plate perfectly clean it is to be 
placed between blotting-paper and imme- 
diately dried, when it is ready for use 
again. 

Messrs. Trask & Bolles's manner of pro- 
ceeding was, to have a square block of 
wood covered with woollen cloth, and to 
rub the plates upon it under running water, 
and, when clean, hang up to dry, and then 
if water-marks appeared on the plate, to re- 
move them by rubbing with the chamois. 

Mr. Eberly, a visitor to the meeting, be- 
ing invited to give in his views on the sub- 
ject, said that he had seen the ferrotype 
plates nicely cleaned by placing them under 
running water and rubbing them with a 
small block of wood covered with India- 
rubber, and, as soon as the coated film had 
been washed off, and the plate hung up, all 
the water would immediately run off" and 
leave the plate perfectly clear and free from 
all spots of any kind. 

On motion it was resolved that each 
member report at the next meeting his suc- 
cess in trying the different methods sug- 
gested. 

On motion it was resolved that we how 
exhibit our pictures. 

Two of Mr. A. K. P. Trask's pictures 
were decided to be the best. Thus, the 
second exhibition of pictures for the prize 
medal was in his favor. The exhibitions 
are to continue each month for the balance 
of the year. 

Voted to adjourn to Mr. D. Lothrop's 
gallery, 43 North Eighth Street, Tuesday 
evening, June 7th, 1870. 

D. Lothrop, 

Secretary. 



Ventilate your dark-closet and save 
your health. Don't be afraid to have it 
light enough, so no white or actinic light is 
admitted. 



216 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE, 



Ayres's Chart of Photographic 
Drapery. 

Mr. George B. Ayres, whose capital 
work, " How to Paint Photographs in Water 
Colors,'' 1 lias passed through two editions, 
of a thousand each, and is probably in the 
hands of very many of our readers, has 
again supplied a want to the profession 
which is likely to be as substantially appre- 
ciated as his book. 

Every one who has worked at the camera 
knows what perplexities arise from the want 
of something to show the customer how this 
or that color will " take," or, rather, how 
it will "look" in the finished photograph. 
The photographer is continually annoyed 
by parties who Avill sit in a certain dress, 
and then, finding it does not "look" as 
they desire, insist on a second, or even a 
third sitting, averring as a reason that they 
" do not like the expression," when the real 
fact of the matter is, they do not like the 
dress. All this is done at the expense of 
the photographer, and he cannot very well 
avoid it if he would be considered accom- 
modating. 

Mr. Ayres, however, has opened a way 
by which the trouble may be entirely over- 
come. He has collected, with a great deal 
of care and after much trouble, forty-two 
squares of woollen fabrics, of the varied 
colors and shades known in the dry goods 
trade, and arranged them systematically in 
rows, each square having a number. They 
are then carefully photographed, size about 
11 x 14, mounted on a card 17 x 25, with a 
numbered table of the colors, and a full ex- 
planation in Mr. Ayres's graphic style, 
printed thereon. The accompanying draw- 
ing of the chart will make its arrangement 
more plain and intelligible. (Please see 
advertisement for further particulars.) 

A specimen copy is before us, and we 
pronounce it a most perfect and useful af- 
fair, such as every photographer has long 
wanted, and such as every photographer 
should have to exhibit to every lady cus- 
tomer. Then , if Maria comes to bo " taken ' ' 
in her new, pet blue dress, and, finds it 
will "look" absolutely white in the pic- 
ture, she can save both her own and the 
photographer's time by postponing the sit- 



ting until she can appear either in her old 
wine-color, or until her snuff-brown is done. 




She sees for herself, and thus avoids the 
dreary explanations, argument, and trou- 
ble to which the profession has always been 
subjected. 

We think photographers will readily per- 
ceive the value of Mr. Ayres's chart, and 
place a copy in their galleries forthwith. 
Our publishers have undertaken to issue it 
for him, and copies may now be had. For 
list of colors included, please read the ad- 
vertisement. 



OUR PICTURE. 

The picture presented to our readers this 
month is from the gallery of Mr. W. Kurtz, 
New York, and is a veritable " Rembrandt 
Effect. " In most of the pictures we see 
called " Kembrandts," the " Rembrandt 
Effect" is given in profile, where undoubt- 
edly some of the best results prevail ; but 
in the example we give herewith, it will be 
perceived that a three-quarter face has been 
chosen, and the peculiarity of the "Rem- 
brandt Effect" is shown in its very hap- 
piest style. There were four negatives 
used in printing our edition, each a little 
different from its neighbor ; all remarkable 
for their softness, exquisite light and shade, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



217 



and perfect transparency in the shadows, 
yet all full of delicate detail. As a general 
thing, nine-tenths of the photographers put 
their pictures a little out of focus in order 
to get softness, whereas Mr. Kurtz's pic- 
tures are remarkable, and specially noted 
for their sharpness and excessive softness at 
the same time. The detail here, even in 
the darkest parts, is wonderful. 

The negatives are entirely unretouched ; 
were made with a "3B " Dallmeyer lens, 
2f inches diaphragm ; one turn diffusion of 
focus. Bath, 40 grains. Collodion, equal 
parts of ether and alcohol, 3 grains of bro- 
mide, to 5 grains of iodide; Liesegang's 
Papyroxyline, 5 grains. Time, 20 seconds. 
Printed in the shade. Mr. Anderson will 
give further particulars on the pictures 
soon, in his " Fog " papers. 

The mounts were gotten up by Mr. Kurtz 
to suit his own fancy. Altogether, it makes 
a very grand illustration for our holiday 
(Exhibition) issue. 

In our next will be a full record of the 
proceedings at Cleveland, accompanied by 
another elegant " Rembrandt Effect " from 
the studio of Mr. W. J. Baker, Buffalo, N. 
Y. Other fine things are also in preparation. 



WINTER ON A MOUNTAIN. 

BY A. F. CLOUGH. 

In November, 1869, Professor Hunting- 
ton of the State Geological Survey, and 
myself, proposed spending the winter on 
Moose Hillock (or Moosilauke is the Indian 
name), a mountain of about five thousand 
feet elevation, about thirty miles southwest 
of Mount Washington. It is an isolated 
peak, no near mountains to cut off the pros- 
pect, and nowhere are the White Moun- 
tains seen in all their grandeur as from 
here. The tourist who does not visit it 
loses the beauty and sublimity of White 
Mountain scenery. 

We made the first ascent about Novem- 
ber 20th, to get up wood and prepare for 
our stay. The snow had fallen and drifted, 
so that we were two days in getting up with 
our horses, having to retreat the first night 
when we had got within a mile of the 
house, the weather being blustering and 



cold, some of the party freezing their feet. 
The next day was pleasant, and we again 
went up and reached the house, finding the 
weather warm and pleasant, stopped three 
days and got up our wood, being assisted 
by some six young men of Warren village. 
Got our wood into the house, a substantial 
stone building 36 x 60 feet, similar to those 
on Mount Washington. In this we pre- 
pared a small inner room which we made 
tight and comfortable. In December wo 
made several ascents to get up provisions, 
books, instruments, etc. The permanent stay 
was delayed by an accident to myself in get- 
ting lamed in my foot until December 31st, 
when we left the valley with cheerful hearts 
and heavy loads of " traps " on hand-sleds, to 
ascend the mountain. The day was warm, 
and, as we got higher up, were obliged to 
leave some of our loads to be returned for 
next day. 

As we gained the open space above the 
trees, the view was one of wild grandeur. 
Dense masses of clouds, broken up in wild 
confusion, rolled away to the south, some 
dark and heavy, others light and fleecy ; 
some black, with golden borders ; others 
white, with rose-tinted edges ; some of 
light gray, just grazing the tops of the 
lower and tree-covered summits ; others of 
a dull lead color, floating at the base of the 
highest and snow-covered summits of the 
White Mountains. Some of the mountains 
were in the full blaze of sunlight, giving a 
dazzling whiteness ; others were in the shad- 
ow of clouds and had a soft, rosy hue ;. 
others were of deepest blackness, thus giv- 
ing a panorama of the wildest beauty. 

The magnificence of the scene made us 
forget the hardship of the ascent, and, as- 
we drank in the scene, we were convinced 
that those who desire to behold the beauti- 
ful must toil for it. 

As we gained the summit we were en- 
veloped in a dense cloud. We had a fine 
view of frost mist at short range and we 
were glad to get inside of the house and 
close to a fire. 

IN THE CLOUDS. 

We were enveloped in clouds about three- 
fourths of the time, of such density that we 
could see but a short distance. There were 



15 



218 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHEE. 



but few days when it was clear on the 
mountain and in the valley. Sometimes 
by going down a short distance we would 
get below the clouds, when just overhead 
they would drive along in wild confusion, 
occasionally shutting out the view, then 
bursting suddenly away they would leave 
us in dazzling sunlight. 

FROST FORMATIONS IN THE CLOUDS. 

It seldom ever snows as we see it in the 
valley. The frost mist is always moist 
enough to attach itself to any solid sub- 
stance that it comes in contact with, always 
forming on the side to the wind and build- 
ing up parallel to the course. The forma- 
tions resemble feathers of purest white ; 
sometimes they are formed into plumes of 
the most beautiful forms ; they are hard and 
not easily broken, and adhere firmly to the 
object, frequently making a small twig, no 
higher than your finger, a foot in diameter. 

ABOVE THE CLOUDS. 

This is a scene that is grand beyond de- 
scription, up in an atmosphere of unclouded 
purity of azure blue, the clouds far beneath 
us like a vast ocean studded with islands 
where the dark tops of the mountains rise 
through it, whilst the tops of the White 
Mountains resemble huge icebergs glisten- 
ing in the sun with dazzling brilliancy. 
Here and there would be a ragged rift 
where you could see through and get a 
glimpse of the world below, resembling, 
where it opened into the dark mountain 
gorges, a huge cavern, and at other places 
it was looking through into another world. 

As you stand gazing out upon the vast 
ocean of clouds, you are carried back over 
vast ages of the geological eras of the world, 
and you see the land as it was when it first 
began to rise from the ocean, only here and 
there an island, while huge icebergs were 
driving and drifting over the tops of the 
lower mountains and hills; when no ani- 
mal life animated the scene, but one vast 
solitude, broken only by the wild howl of 
the wind, dashing of the waves, and the 
rumbling and clash of the icebergs as they 
were dashed to pieces on the rocky shores ; a 
feeling of lonely solitude creeps over you, 
and, for the time, you live in the remote 



ages of the past, and are lost in the vain 
attempt to comprehend the beginning of 
the world's history. 

(To be continued.) 



WRINKLES AND DODGES. 

"Water! water! — In May or the be- 
ginning of June last, I caught a bottle of 
water after a storm of some fifteen hours 
hard rain. Found it very clean by use. 
The part not used, I set. on a shelf in my 
dark-room, within four feet of the tin-roof, 
in a glass stoppered bottle. 

It must have been as late as September or 
October I had use for clean water, but re- 
jected that without an examination, sup- 
posing it to be rotten. In a few days there 
came a hard storm, and I took down this 
bottle to throw out the water and catch 
more. To my surprise it was sweet, both 
to the smell and taste. I then threw into 
it a crystal of silver, and set it in the sun, 
and the only precipitation produced was a 
very, very slight color. I used it, and it 
made a valuable and lasting negative bath. 

I mentioned this matter to a German 
druggist the other day, and learned from 
him this fact: that in one of his old medi- 
cal books brought from Germany was this 
statement: "That water caught in a clean 
vessel, in a storm between the 15th of April 
and the 15th of May, was almost absolutely 
free from organic matter." 

Is this fact of sufficient importance to the 
fraternity to be tested? If so, let us bottle 
up water from all the storms in May and 
early June, and label them with the date and 
number of hours it had rained when the 
water was caught ! I, for one, intend to 
save enough for the year's consumption. 
W. P. Bennet. 

[The following method of getting in- 
tensity we believe to be entirely new, and 
to cover all equivalents. We extract it 
from a communication from one of our Ger- 
man subscribers, and give it verbatim et 
literatim. — Ed. P. P.] 

" A fellow vat coultn't git to plack tra- 
perics come to me a few days ago to see vat 
coult help him. lie sait he hat drite efery- 
tings ; and set he, ' I put a little pluck ink 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEB, 



219 



in te lath, too, and it tidn't to ein pit of goot.' 
I vash so mat at him— vel I coult kickt 
him." 

I have a little simple thing here of my 
own. It is a piece of oiled tissue-paper 
pasted on a collar-box cover. I use it to 
look at my prints in my solar camera. By 
holding it between the negative and small 
tube, it answers the same as, or better than 
letting in the light to see whether the print 
is dark enough or not. A fine ground-glass 
answers the same. Try it, and notice the 
effect. F. L. Mitchell. 

I have retouched my negatives to some 
extent for about two years, and I find the 
best way to prepare the surface for the pen- 
cil is to use a very thin varnish, and let it 
dry slowly. This gives a dead surface easily 
worked upon, and marks can be erased if 
desired. Most varnishes, when first opened, 
are thin enough ; if not, dilute with alcohol. 
H. Besancon. 

I want to suggest an improvement for 
dark-tents. Cut a round hole in the bottom 
large enough to admit a half-gallon funnel 
of colored glass, yellow or green. Place a 
small rubber pipe over the end of the fun- 
nel, and pass it through a staple in the back 
of the box, reaching nearly to the ground. 
Then have a dry place to stand, without 
being splashed with muddy or dirty water. 
This will also serve as a light to develop 
over, and as a fine tank for washing over. 
C. W. Brown. 

Being troubled with a very foggy bath 
not long since, I tried several remedies 
without anything like a cure. I then took 
a few grains of •permanganate of potassa, dis- 
solved in a little water, added little at a 
time, shaking well ; allowed it to stand 
several hours and filtered. It came out per- 
fectly clear, and every trace of fog removed. 
It will also clear a discolored printing solu- 
tion in a few hours. Give it a trial. 

F. Theo. Miller. 

To our Gem Brethren : You have all 
found it difficult, in using more than one 
tube and lens, to get every image in focus 
by sliding the ground-glass. I am working 
a plan, cheap, easily made, and, if giving 



good results, is certainly desirable. It never 
fails with me. I use four ^ tubes, placed in 
a block, the hole bushed or lined with soft 
leather, so that with each tube, by a slight 
turn with the thumb and fingers, a focus 
can be had. The plan works admirably, 
and saves the expense of rack and pinion. 
In making the block I glue and screw to- 
gether two dry boards, laying them cross- 
wise with the grain, so that the tendency 
of one to warp is counteracted by the other. 
The block should be about If inches thick 
when finished, to hold the tubes steady, 
which a thin board will not do. The same 
principle works equally well with ith size 
tubes. — A Gemist. 

The only mechanical way of retouching 
I have found is by smoking the negative on 
the back. It is most excellent for copies, 
where you have not sufficient strength. It 
is done instantly. 

"Warm the negative, then bring it down 
on the flame of gas where you want it more 
dense ; then touch it out where you want it 
to print denser, — for instance, the hair, eyes, 
nostrils, drapery, etc.,— with a dry pencil 
brush. Or, if you want to soften any sha- 
dow, no matter how small, turn the gas 
down low, and just touch the flame where 
you like it softened, and your work is com- 
plete. Always smoke the back side of the 
negative. If you do not get it right, rub 
it off and try again. E. J. Foss. 

Some little time ago I wrote to you in re- 
lation to the " lack of intensity in my nega- 
tives." You were very kind to answer and 
suggest remedies, but all to no purpose. It 
was a source of much perplexity to me for 
a long time. At last I discovered the dif- 
ficulty, which was very simple (as are all our 
troubles) when known or discovered. The 
window in my dark-room opens to the south, 
and over the window (which is of clear 
glass) I had several sheets of yellow tissue- 
paper pasted at the top and hanging down 
loose. "When the sun was on the window 
I would work with them all down, but when 
the light became weaker I would "pin" 
some of them up. "Well, by constant pin- 
ning, the paper became (very naturally) 
perforated with "^jmiAo^s." That was the 
principal cause of the want of intensity. 



220 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



But I found still another cause. My sky 
and side-light face the south, and in clear 
days (which hy-the-by have been very rare 
in this latitude this fall and winter) the light 
penetrates the camera more or less, and of 
course lessens the intensity. H. Mead. 

What our correspondent supposes is "lack 
of intensity," is a bad case of fogging. — Ed. 

A great deal has been written and said 
about pinholes. Maintaining that a bath 
exposed to light during use will give pin- 
holes, I have about come to the conclusion 
it is oftener the fault of tbe collodion than 
the bath, and light has nothing to do with 
it. A few days ago I made some new col- 
lodion. I coated a plate dipped in my bath, 
which is a glass covered one, and lo, the 
plate was full of pinholes. I tried another 
bath with the same result. I tried my old 
collodion, and all was right. I was in a 
dilemna. It was surely not the bath that 
caused it. I dipped another plate with the 
new collodion ; I found the film very creamy. 
I reduced it with plain collodion ; result, 
less pinholes. I reduced it more, which 
gave me a thin blue film, but no pinholes. 
It worked very quick and developed a soft 
negative. In this case I am certain it was 
not the light acting on the bath nor the bath 
itself, but the collodion. I think all have 
philosophized on the production of pinholes, 
but no one has ever taught us how to pre- 
vent them. I have had them often, but 
always got rid of them without throwing 
away my bath. I used to bother with the 
bath, but I came to the 'conclusion pinholes 
may be got rid of by doctoring the collo- 
dion and harmonize it with the bath, in place 
of the bath with the collodion. 

E. A. Ktjsel. 

I have tried every way of mounting 
prints, but like my own way the best, which 
is this: Take them from the water and lay 
them between'two clean white cloths, which 
will absorb the water; then, while moist 
put them on a neat pile, care being taken 
to have them even. Then paste, and there 
will be no danger of paste getting on the 
edges, and you will not have to put in your 
tongue to lick it off, as I have seen many do. 

R. F. ClIANNELL. 



I use a common wood faucet, which pro- 
jects below the spiggot about an inch. To 
this I had a tinner fit a cap, with four small 
nozzles, each of which let out a stream of 
water about as large as a knitting-needle. 
The advantage is, the water does not come 
in contact with the film with so much force, 
and it takes less water to wash the negative. 
The advantage of the nozzles is, that it 
keeps the water in four small streams, 
whereas, if you only punch four holes in 
the cap, the water will join below and form 
one stream. C. N. Stevens. 

Tin is bad to use. "We think a better 
way to break the force of the water is to tie 
a thick rag loosely over the mouth of the 
faucet.— -Ed. P. P. 

In looking over Mosaics for 1870, I 
notice formulas and hints for pyrogallic in- 
tensifier. I have used the following for 
two years with good success. The principal 
point of difference from other formulas I 
have seen, is in placing the citric acid in 
solution with the pyrogallic, as follows : 

No. 1. 



Pyrogallic Acic 




12 grains 


Citric Acid, 




. 20 grains 


Water, 


No. 2. 


1 ounce. 


No. 1, 




1 part. 


Water, 


No. 3. 


2 parts. 


Nitrate of Silver, 


15 grains 


Water, 




1 ounce 



I use it before fixing, when there is want 
of detail in the deep shadows, otherwise after 
fixing if necessary, and I can then localize 
its action to a considerable extent if de- 
sirable. I pour a little of No. 2 into a small 
wide-mouthed bottle, and drop in a few 
drops of No. 3, and pour it on and off the 
negative, letting it fall near such portions 
as I desire to strengthen most. A little 
practice will render the operation safe and 
pleasing. Should violent discoloration of 
tlie negative occur, flush with a weak solu- 
tion of bichloride of mercury. The pyro- 
gallic solution will keep any length of time. 
F. M. Spencer. 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGKAPHEE. 



221 



I write to give the craft my plan of 
keeping the bath in order. I keep two 
working baths, also a stock bath, 60 grains 
to the ounce, iodized 3 grains to the ounce 
of silver. My bath is failing. On taking a 
plate from it, the plate has a thick heavy 
dull appearance (too much iodide). I try it 
with litmus paper. If very acid, I add a 
solution of bicarbonate of soda, just enough 
to neutralize, I then add 2 or 3 ounces of 
water, boil it down to its original quantity, 
let it cool, then filter. Then add of the 
stock bath to make it 30 grains for ferro- 
types or 50 grains for negatives, sun one or 
two days, filter, and your bath is ready for 
work. I keep my ferrotype bath slightly 
acid ; negative neutral. I sometimes throw 
my two working baths in one, treat it as 
just described, then make a new working 
bath. By this means I always have two 
working baths on hand. I have set foggy 
baths aside for a month or two, which, 
after being filtered, were clear and sharp. 
A new bath works better if kept in the 
light for a month, then filtered. I never 
let my bath remain in the box over night; 
I wash my bath-box at night, then it is dry 
by morning. I filter my bath every morn- 
ing. Improper management of the bath 
be assured is the cause of more failures than 
any other. J. Davidson. 

I find the following a good receipt for 
negative varnish : 

Alcohol, . . . .28 ounces. 
Gum Sandarac, . .4 " 
Oil of Lavender, . .3 " 
Chloroform, ... 6 drachms. 
Shake until dissolved, then filter and set 
by until it clears up, then pour off all but 
sediment. Warm the negative slightly be- 
fore and after varnishing. 

Most photographers use the lead pencil 
for retouching ; I prefer India-ink and pro- 
ceed as follows : Touch out pinholes (if 
any) on the varnished side of the negative 
and then where the shades are too strong, 
stipple with India-ink the reverse side of 
the negative, which stippling must be close 
(but not so close as to touch each other) ; the 
negative must then be printed in diffused 
light, or if in sunlight, double tissue-paper 
or ground-glass must be used, which process 



modifies the heavy shades and makes a great 
improvement in the picture. 

E. A. Bonine. 

Noticing an article in a late number of 
the Philadelphia Photographer on green glass 
for the dark-room, I thought the following 
might give some green light on the subject. 
Mr. Jas. L. Forbes (at Gurney's) has yellow 
glass in his windows. The room is as light 
as day. Immediately over his developing 
tray is a gaslight, and the flame is sur- 
rounded by a very dark-green glass globe, 
causing the light in the room to look very 
green. He states it is a hard light to de- 
velop by; but the negatives (which average 
110 per day), — so Mr. Ben. Gurney said, — 
are acknowledged by all to be unsurpassed. 
In fact, Forbes is the best negative-maker 
we have in the city, and anything he uses 
to produce such results should be known to 
all who wish to produce the best work. 
J. H. Hallenbecr.. 

The following process is not given as 
anything new to the old-time workers, but 
I thought it might prove beneficial to a 
large number who are not acquainted with 
this mode of printing. It is very superior 
for printing on wood, and for solar work in 
cloudy weather. 

Float the plain paper on the following 
solution for three minutes : Water, 80 
ounces ; 4 ounces of a saturated solution of 
bichloride of mercury. Then hang it up to 
dry. When wanted for use, sensitize in a 
35-grain solution of nitrate of silver for two 
minutes (the paper is now very sensitive, 
and should be kept in the dark). 

The time required for printing will be 
found to vary from two to fifteen seconds. 

DEVELOPER. 
Water, . . . .80 ounces. 
P. S. Iron, . . . 3 " 

Glacial A. Acid, . . 6 " 

Then wash well, and fix in hypo sulph. 
soda. J. H. Hallenbeck. 

To recover a plate from the bath, when 
by accident it gets off the dipper, take a 
clean straight stick of hickory, a few inches 
longer than the depth of the bath, cut a V- 
shaped notch in one end, split it up a few 
inches from the centre of the notch, spring 



222 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



a small rubber band round, the stick an inch 
from the end. The notch being set over 
the upper edge of the plate, a light push 
downward will force it into the split, and 
the elasticity of the rubber will hold it 
there. The bath need not thus be disturbed 
any more than by passing the dipper up 
and down. The film need not be destroyed 
•more than half an inch from the edge, and 
much vexation and valuable time and pa- 
tience be saved. This dodge may possibly 
be old to some of your readers. It is origi- 
nal here within the last few days., and I 
give it as a free offering to such of the craft 
as are not already too smart to learn any- 
thing new. J. Lee Knight. 
Topbka, Kansas. 

[The same suggestion as the above has 
been sent us by Mr. Forester Clark, Belvi- 
dere, 111., and is, we know, very good. 
We won't quarrel over its novelty.] — Ed. 
P. P. 

I find., in my visits to photographers, 
quite a number who are troubled to obtain 
the tone they desire to their photographs ; 
their bath does not work satisfactorily, and 
they are constantly making new toning 
baths. Now I have not failed in two years 
to tone just as I pleased, and I have not 
made a single bath within that time. Two 
years ago I made a very simple bath of soft 
water, with the addition of bicarbonate of 
soda and a little salt ; kept when not in use 
bottled. In toning 1 pour out the quantity 



I desire, add the gold, tone my pictures, 
leaving them warmer in tone than I desire 
to have them, for they dry darker, and fix 
in hyposulphate and bicarbonate of soda. 
After toning I pour my bath back into the 
bottle. In this way no gold is lost what- 
ever, and I believe a bath may be used an 
indefinite length of time, occasionally add- 
ing to it soda and salt. I warmly recom- 
mend the above to those who are troubled 
in toning. E. F. Ltjmmis. 

I get over the disposition of the colors to 
crackle on magic-lantern slides by albu- 
menizing the picture before drying, and 
this improves the film to color on ; it is a 
point gained, as the colors take better and 
the film is secured. In fact, I found this 
easier to color on than any before. In 
using some water colors, such as gamboge, 
they will run off in varnishing; a little 
gum used with the color will prevent it. 
T. P. Varley. 

I have been trying permanganate of 
potash for strengthening negatives, and 
find it does better than anything I have 
used. It is better to use it in two different 
solutions ; make one very strong and the 
other weak. Use the strong solution for 
weak negatives and the weak solution for 
negatives that require only very little 
strengthening. Do not pour the solution 
back into the bottle, but wash it off over 
the sink. T. C. Lawrence. 



Press of matter this month again compels us 
to run eight pages over. The quantity of good 
matter corning to our hands is so great that we 
cannot keep'it from our readers. 



A Call to the West. — We have before 
called upon the photographers of the West to 
assist Mr. Ryder in the labors attending the Ex- 
hibition. We hope that those who can, will go 
a few days before the 7th, as there will be need 
of their good services in hanging the pictures 
and arranging the hall. 



The German Correspondence is omitted this 
month on account of Dr. Vogel's visit to America. 
He is, at this writing, on his way to us, having 
left Hamburg May 11th. 



Severe Hail-Storm in Philadelphia. — 
At about two p.m. Sunday, May 8th, this city 
was visited by a most terrible hail-storm of fif- 
teen minutes' duration, which destroyed every 
photographic glass-house completely. Scarcely 
a glass was left unbroken in any of them, and, 
after the hail a drenching shower occurred, 
which caused a great deal of damage. The 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



223 



sight was perfectly terrific. Some of the stones 
picked up a few moments after the shower meas- 
ured seven inches in diameter, and were very 
clear and hard. Four of them were photographed, 
which weighed in the aggregate 1S70 grains — a 
curious amount, considering the year. 

Mr. William Bell has sent us a stereoscopic 
view of the interior of his skylight, made twenty 
minutes after the storm, which presents his room 
in most deplorable condition. All the available 
vessels are scattered over the floor, into which 
the assistants are shovelling the bushels of great 
hail ; the empty sash above and at the side, the 
drenched and torn curtains, etc., all look very 
much the worse for hail. 

Very few pictures were made in. Philadelphia 
for several days after, but now the damage is 
all repaired, and, better still, several of the old 
lights have been remodelled, so photography will 
gain after all. We hope, however, no more such 
storms will pay special attention to Philadel- 
phia. 

Holyoake Cards, Cabinet-size. — Messrs. 
A. M. Collins, Son & Co., who are always enter- 
prising in such matters, and ever ready to supply 
the demands of the trade in their line, have met 
the request of "Livingstone" in our last issue, 
and have ready the cabinet size Holyoake card- 
mount. A very pretty inner ring surrounds the 
portrait, between the latter and the outside tint, 
which is a great improvement, and makes them 
very effective and pretty. The dealers all have 
them. 



Struck by Lightning. — Mr. C. M. Van Ors- 
dell's gallery, at Wilmington, N. C, was struck 
by lightning May 5th, and afterwards deluged 
with water, doing much damage to his stock and 
negatives. 



Mr. E. V. Seutter, Jackson, Miss., has sent 
us a copy of an article contributed by him to 
their local paper, complaining of the grievous 
taxes made upon photography. In addition to 
the Government tax it seems that the State and 
county also tax the photographers. This is hardly 
fair. 



(P)Shaw ! — A very singular thing has oc- 
curred recently. As soon as we received from 
Mr. Thompson the Shaw & Wilcox premature 
and threatening circulars, we put them in 
type, and, with the announcement of the vic- 
tory, sent out about five hundred of them to 
those where we supposed Shaw would be most 
likely to operate, asking for help to pay the ex- 
penses of the suit for Mr. Lovejoy. We thought 
if one-half of those who were appealed to would 



respond, there would be an abundance. And 
now comes the singular part : as if by some 
agreement, nearly the whole of those appealed to, 
have concluded to belong to the half who would 
not respond, hence, very little has been received. 
This seems really unfair, after the- work has been 
done, and we really hope that our readers will 
be more thoughtful in the matter. The work is 
done; you are greatly benefited, and a trifle from 
each one would be enough. If all our readers 
would respond, fifty cents each would cover all 
expenses. 

It is stated that neither Mr. Shaw's applica- 
tion for his original patent or for his several re- 
issues, ever came up before the photographic 
examiner at the Patent Office, but, by aid of in- 
genious counsel, were examined in the chemical 
department. 

Shaw was beaten in another patent case re- 
cently also. This time he was the defendant in 
the matter, and was declared an infringer on 
some other patent he had been using without a 
right. Mr. Bell was the counsel against him in 
this case also, and also triumphant against him. 



Mr. A. Semmindinger, New York, has sent 
us a communication wherein he says he was the 
first to patent a multiplying box, and that, up 
to January, I860, there was no such box in ex- 
istence, therefore all who manufacture them in- 
fringe his patent. Moreover, he states that he 
challenged Mr. Ormsbee in March, 1869, to dis- 
prove the above fact if he could, and that Mr. 
Ormsbee never answered him. If all that was 
known about the rnultiplying-box was published, 
it would make a very curious volume. Suppose 
you had a patent for a lock. Your neighbor 
sees defects in it, and, by the introduction of a 
new tumbler or spring or two, makes it less lia- 
ble to be picked. He obtains a patent for his 
new combination, but that does not entitle either 
he or you to claim that all locks are "equiva- 
lents" and, therefore, "infringements." Yet 
such an erroneous opinion or claim is held by 
very many inventors. Mr. Semmindinger and 
Messrs. Wing &, Co. may both patent a multi- 
plying-box, and yet neither of them be entitled 
to the claim that every such box infringes them 
that was used before their patent. The Patent 
Office will not allow a man any such claims, 
though it is a common error to suppose that it 
does. 

We know Mr. Semmindinger to be a hard- 
working man, and he says he has made camera 
boxes for twenty-one years. He states a curious 
fact too, that, of the several who have been in 
the business in New York, all have failed to suc- 
ceed but him, up to within a few years. 



224 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



Q^* The "Committee on the Relief Fund," 
National Photographic Association, U. S. A., are 
requested to meet at the Kennard House, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on Monday, June 6th, at 12 m. 

W. Irving Adams. 

A subscriber in Iowa desires us again to cau- 
tion our readers against an individual calling 
himself "Dr. Phillips,'' who is selling preten- 
tious processes for large sums which are nothing 
new. If he victimizes any of our subscribers, 
all we have to say is, they deserve it, for they 
have been taught better. 

Meeting of Philadelphia Photographers. 
An enthusiastic meeting of photographers of 
this city was held at Messrs. Wilson, Hood & 
Co's store, on Thursday evening, May 19th, to 
consider, first, the best route to go to Cleveland ; 
second, to arrange to send all parcels for the 
Exhibition together ; third, to arrange for the 
reception of Dr. Vogel. 

It was thought that, going by the way of the 
Erie Road and returning by way of the Pennsyl- 
vania Central, would be the most pleasant, and 
allow parties to see both routes. It was also 
agreed to have all the parcels shipped together. 
A committee was appointed to receive and enter- 
tain Dr. Vogel during his visit here. About 
twenty-five or thirty will go from this city to 
Cleveland. The subject of a State photographic 
society was also discussed, and a committee ap- 
pointed to arrange for such an organization. It 
promises good success. 

Received. — From Messrs. E. Long* Co., our 
agents in Quincy, 111., a very beautiful cabinet 
of a lady from the gallery of Mrs. W. A. Reed. 

From Mr. A. F. Clough, Warren, N. H., some 
very fine stereo views, made during his sojourn 
on the top of Moose Hillock, an account of which 
he begins in our current number. Some of the 
frost views are truly exquisite, and very curious 
as specimens of photography under cold circum- 
stances. They are also excellent. 

From Mr. C. R. Savage, Great Salt Lake City, 
we have a number of fine views in Southern Utah. 
The rock scenery there is most charming, and 
photography is just beginning to reveal it. 

From Messrs. Bushby & Hart, Lynn, Mass., a 
number of Rembrandt oartes, very fine in their 
effect and extremely clean and rich in manipu- 
lation. They say they are continually busy, and 
their work eminently deserves it. 

From Mr. J. Lee Knight, Topeka, Kansas, a 
11x14 view of the new Topeka bridge. 



Mr. J. Inglis, Montreal, has favored us with 
several copies of his great picture of the Skating 



Rink. Hundreds of figures, in every imaginable 
dress and position, are grouped most wonderfully 
and artistically. It is a fine success as a compo- 
sition picture. 



The Sphynx — This is the title we shall give 
to a new column beginning with our next issue. 
In Professor Pepper's excellent work, page 30, 
are given directions for producing the delusion 
familiar to all our readers in the cities visited 
by the magicians, called the " iSp/jjwar, " or the 
"Floating Head." A large mirror is placed on 
the stage at an angle of twenty degrees. The 
ceiling above is reflected in it. In the centre 
of the glass is a hole through which a human 
head is passed, the glass hiding the body. The 
appearance then seems to be that of a head 
floating in the air. Questions are then- asked, 
and the head answers them. Now here is the 
point : our readers shall be the magician and ask 
the questions ; our drawer shall be the hole, our 
Journal the mirror, and our new column the head 
or Sphynx to answer the questions, which an- 
swers must also come from, our readers. We will 
start the questions with the following, put your 
heads through, and let the answers be prompt 
and full : 

I. In diluting the disordered bath, pour the 
bath into the water, and not the reverse. Why ? 

II. Ammonia, dropped drop by drop in a 
solution of nitrate of silver, forms a precipitate 
which dissolves after the addition of more am- 
monia. Why ? 

III. Why does boiling the bath cause it to 
throw down its impurities ? 

Answers to Correspondents. 
D. Cozier. — The white spots on your ferro- 
types are caused by an excess of acid in your 
bath, creating lack of harmony with your collo- 
dion. The "appearance of sand" on the plates 
is iodide of silver. Coat your plates with the 
film down, inclined on the dipper. The following 
is good for ferrotypes : 

collodion. 
Iodide of Ammonium, . 4J grains. 
Bromide of Potassium, .2 " 
Ether and Alcohol, . . equal parts. 
Cotton, . . . . 4 to 5 grains. 

developer. 
Water, . . . .32 ounces. 
Protosulphate of Iron, . 2 '• 
Alcohol, . . . . 2 " 
J. A. W. Pitman. — Dissolve lampblack in 
good cider vinegar, adding a little glue-water. 
Reduce to proper consistency with soft water. 
This will be found good, either for blacking the 
inside of the lens-tube or the apparatus. 



THE 



MkMpWa Iffcfltflijrajrta* 



Vol. VII. 



JULY, 1870. 



No. 79. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, 

By BENERMAN & WILSON, 

In theClerk'sofliceof the District Courtof the United States for the Eastern Districtof.Pennsylvania. 



THE EXHIBITION 

AND 

Meetings of the National Photographic 
Association. 

"We have devoted the major portion of 
our space this month to the proceedings of 
the National Photographic Association at 
Cleveland, because we look upon it as a sub- 
ject of vast importance and value to every 
photographer in the Union. Whether 
every one will see the advantages of a con- 
nection with such a body, or not, the ad- 
vantages are still the same. 

The Cleveland affair was enough to con- 
vince any one that the little handful of 
men who met in Philadelphia in December, 
1868, and organized the Association, started 
there a train which is catching like wild- 
fire, gathering hundreds to its strong em- 
brace, forming a union which is going to be 
a great power and work wondrous good in 
the art. A brighter, better day for its-vota- 
ries, when they shall consider it an honor 
to be a photographer, is near at hand. 

Instead of the handful of faithful ones 
alluded to, over Jive hundred photographers 
visited Cleveland during the week of " jubilee," 
and nearly two hundred new members were 
admitted to the Association, which is to 
make them proud of their connection with 
it. About two hundred and fifty persons were 
exhibitors, and thousands of citizens visited 
the Exhibition, as many as two thousand 



being present at one time. The receipts 
at the door were more than enough to pay 
all the expenses of the Exhibition, which 
was not the case last year. The debts in- 
curred in litigation with the Shaw & Wil- 
cox Co. by one of the members, and in op- 
posing the plea of the Bromide Patent as- 
signees before Congress for a rehearing of 
their case, were wiped away by the Associa- 
tion. Elegant medals, it will also not be 
forgotten, were offered for improvements in 
the art during the year. 

A Eelief Fund was established and placed 
in the hands of a board of trustees, who are 
energetic and earnest in the matter and 
mean work, and to it the handsome dona- 
tions mentioned in the record of the pro- 
ceedings have been made, so, with all this 
and its new strength, the Association is in 
a flourishing and prosperouscondition. This 
is not the result of excitement either. The 
meaiwho.Sire.aiive in the matter are actu- 
ated by broad principles, intended to bene- 
fit the profession at large, and they will 
carry them out. Every live photographer 
must sooner or later join them for his own 
protection and benefit, and then you may 
look for the time when you shall dictate your 
terms to your customers, and not they their 
terms to you. Kead carefully the proceed- 
ings and think over them, and hereafter 
we will talk further on this matter of mem- 
bership together. 



16 



226 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



Harmony prevailed throughout the meet- 
ings, and they were pleasant in every way 
and doubtless profitable, judging from the 
crowded rooms and the number who had to 
stand. 

The Exhibition. 

The Exhibition was, in every sense, a 
triumphant success. Mr. J. F. Ryder, the 
most efficient Local Secretary, will never 
be forgotten by those who were there. He 
drove the best of bargains for everything for 
the benefit of the Association ; he was care- 
ful alike over the interests of all concerned, 
and to him the success of the affair was due. 
Too much cannot be said in his praise, as 
many will testify. 

Through the kindness of Mr. T. T. 
Sweeney, we have three negatives of the 
interior, which are being printed for our 
next number by Mr. Ehoads, therefore we 
will defer a detailed description of the Ex- 
hibition until it appears, and with it will 
also be published a full list of the exhibit- 
ors. That great skating rink was overflow- 
ing with chemicals, apparatus, accessories, 
photographs, etc., by almost every known 
process, and in endless variety. The num- 
ber of exhibitors was about two hundred 
and fifty. The Committee of Arrangements 
was Messrs. Albert Moore, chairman; W. 
Irving Adams, V. M. Wilcox, John R. 
Clemons, and Edward L. "Wilson. 

The greater bulk of the pictures were 
portraits, the "Rembrandt," "Shadow," 
Cabinet, Salomon, and " retouched nega- 
tive " styles, all being in vogue. Wonderful 
specimens were exhibited, showing great 
growth and improvement in American 
photography during the past year. The 
limited amount of colored work we could 
hardly understand, and landscape photog- 
raphy was also but poorly represented. In 
these directions and with composition or 
genre pictures we must work during the 
coming year, so as to show all the variety 
that photography is capable of attaining. 

Two great features of the Exhibition 
were, in the evening the exhibition of Mr. 
Black's dissolving views with the electric 
light, and of the Woodbury photo-relief 
printing process by Mr. Carbutt each day. 
Mr. Black exhibited a slide of the group 



of the members present, in his lantern, a few 
hours after the negative was made. 

All this grand Exhibition, with a fine 
band of music playing and crowds of people 
examining the pictures, made up a scene 
which is indescribable, and which swelled 
the hearts of the earnest photographers with 
pride and gratitude. Cleveland shall never 
be forgotten. May the coming annual jubi- 
lee at Philadelphia be as enchanting and as 
successful. No pains shall be spared by her 
photographers to make it so, be assured. 

We almost forgot to say that the nega- 
tives of the interior and of members, made 
by Messrs. Sweeney and Johnson, were 
given to the Board of Trustees of the Relief 
Fund, and prints are now for sale, the profit 
to go to the Relief Fund. See advertised 
list and purchase them liberally. A group 
of the members each year will be very in- 
teresting to have and watch the growth in 
numbers. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

National Photographic Association 
of the United States. 

The Second Annual Meeting and Exhi- 
bition of the National Photographic Asso- 
ciation of the United States was held in the 
Central Rink at Cleveland, Ohio, June 7th 
to 11th inclusive, 1870. 

The President, Mr. Abram Bogardus, of 
New York, in calling the Convention to 
order at 3 p.m. made the following remarks: 

" One year ago the National Photographic 
Association of the United States adjourned 
from the city of Boston to meet in the city 
of Cleveland on the 7th of June, and I may 
say that I can call this a jubilee. (Ap- 
plause.) I now congratulate those who are 
here with us upon the success of our organi- 
zation. If we have done well in the past, 
it argues that we are going to do better in 
the future, and I will only say now that I 
take great pleasure in calling the Association 
to order." (Applause.) 

Mr. J. F. Ryder, of Cleveland, the Local 
Secretary, then spoke as follows: 

" Mh. President and Gentlkmen: I 
take my share of pride as a Clevelander, 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGE APHEE. 



227 



that our city is honored by this meeting. 
I am proud to see so many in attendance 
here, most of whom have come hundreds 
and some thousands of miles. I am proud, 
too, of our magnificent show of photo- 
graphs. So large and fine a collection has 
never before been brought together in this 
or any other country. 

"The Bromide Patent extension man, 
with visions of a yearly revenue of a mil- 
lion or more, did not start out with a view 
of calling into existence a powerful associa- 
tion with powerful prejudices against un- 
just patents. But now we are the offspring 
of his greed. He administered well for us, 
and we owe him much. For the good of 
our young but rapidly-growing art, noth- 
ing can be of more value to us than unity, 
that we may all pull together in the direc- 
tion of improvement. 

"That you come to Cleveland to compare 
your strength with that of a year ago, that 
you give us the second annual meeting and 
exhibition, is a compliment to our city that 
will undoubtedly be appreciated. As a citi- 
zen, and in behalf of the photographers of 
Cleveland, I bid you welcome." 

President Bogardus then replied : 

" My Brother : I am happy to be the 
mouth of the Association in replying to 
your cordial welcome. Among my earliest 
recollections of Ohio was the log-cabin with 
its latch-string hanging out as a welcome, 
but now I find the busy streets and palatial 
residences have taken the place of the log- 
cabin, yet the welcome is just as hearty. 
Personally, I can say I have not shaken 
hands with a man since I came here, who 
has not given me a hearty shake as if it 
came from his heart. You know what Mr. 
Gough says, to wit, that 'some men shake 
hands so softly and coldly that you look 
down to see whether you are shaking a 
man's hand or a dead fish.' We come here 
from the North, South, East, and West, all 
as a common brotherhood, and by our pres- 
ence and our efforts hope to lift our art higher 
and higher till it attains the proud eminence 
it deserves. This gathering is going to give 
a stimulus to every man here. I defy any 
one to look on the work exhibited and not 
wish to equal or excel it. Will a' man ride 
in the old stage-coach when the locomotive 



of progress is passing along? Excuse me if 
I make a remark personal to Mr. Ryder. 
When we first met in Philadelphia, with 
a view to forming this Association, there 
were but few of us, and differences of opin- 
ion existed as to whether the photographers 
would sustain the Association. 

" Mr. Ryder arose and said that he ' could 
not say much but he meant a good deal.' 
He advocated its formation and predicted 
its success, and let this gathering and ex- 
hibition say whether his predictions have 
been fulfilled. We called the Boston gather- 
ing a success. What shall we call this but 
& jubilee ? 

" You speak (turning to Mr. Ryder) of 
the Bromide Patent man as being the cause 
of our Association. He at least deserves 
credit for his bulldog pertinacity, for it 
will surprise many of you to hear that the 
Bromide Patent is only just dead. Any 
party being refused an extension of his 
patent can go before the Senate and ask for 
another hearing before the Commissioner 
of Patents. The bromide man has done so, 
and accused Mr. Wilson and myself of using 
money and political influence to prevent his 
getting an extension. He has had a hear- 
ing before the commissioners of the Senate 
and they have refused him another hearing. 
As I once said in Philadelphia, when I was 
a boy we used to kill a snake, and his tail 
would live and squirm until sundown. So 
did the Bromide Patent. I think the re- 
port of the Senate committee put an effec- 
tual stop to his wriggling. The cat is said 
to have nine lives, but I believe Mr. Wilson 
will think bromide patents have ninety- 
times nine. 

"Wherever this Association shall hold 
its next annual meeting, I can only ask 
that the photographers of Cleveland and 
the West shall have a welcome as hearty 
and a greeting as cordial as the one we 
have received in this city." (Applause.) 

The minutes of the last meeting were read 
by the Secretary, Mr. E. L. Wilson, ac- 
cepted and approved. 

The roll was then called by the Secretary, 
and, upon the suggestion of Mr. Bogardus, 
each member arose in his seat as his name 
was called. One hundred and fourteen old 
members responded to the call. 



228 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



Mr. Bogardus stated that many of the 
members who had not answered to their 
names upon the calling of the roll were on 
their way here, telegrams having been re- 
ceived from several that they were coming, 
so that there would be a great many more 
in attendance before the convention closed. 
(Over five hundred attended during the ses- 
sions of the Association.) 

A telegram having been received from 
the Treasurer, Mr. Anthony, of New York, 
that he would be here this evening, upon 
motion the reading of the Treasurer's re- 
port was deferred until to-morrow. 

Mr. "William H. Rhoads, of Philadelphia, 
upon motion of Mr. E. L. Wilson, was 
chosen as Assistant Secretary. 

The reports of the Executive Committee, 
the Committee on Congress, and the Com- 
mittee on Relief Fund, were laid over until 
Wednesday, a.m. 

The Committee on the Progress of Pho- 
tography presented a very brief report, 
which was read by the Secretary and ac- 
cepted. 

Mr. Carbutt, of Chicago: "I ask to be 
excused as one of that committee, upon the 
ground that the letter in which I was noti- 
fied of my appointment as a member of the 
committee was laid by in my absence, and 
did not come into my hands until several 
weeks afterwards, and too late for me to 
take any action in the matter. I was a few 
weeks abroad last fall in Europe, and, of 
course, during that time I made note of the 
various things I saw. The most essential 
thing that took my notice, was the progress 
made in the historic character of the art, and 
the progress in pictures of an indelible char- 
acter. The one that took the lead in Paris 
at that time was the enamelled photograph, 
and I think it is likely to become one of the 
most popular styles. Mr. Scholten has some 
highly creditable specimens here, and I 
think finer 'than anything I saw abroad. 
That and the retouching of negatives seems 
to have arrived at a very fine point in Eu- 
rope, especially in Paris. In London noth- 
ing much had been done with it. Still, 
vast strides have been made by the photog- 
raphers on the Continent. They, too, are 
adopting the retouching of negatives. That 
is being rapidly adopted by most of the lead- 



ing galleries throughout this country. (Ap- 
plause.) I regret that no fuller report has 
been made by the committee, but such are 
the few observations I made during my ab- 
sence." 

Mr. W. Irving Adams, of New Tork, 
offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the Annual election of officers 
of the National Photographic Association for 
the ensuing year, be made the special order of 
business for Thursday next, at 10 a.m. 

Mr. E. L. Wilson moved that a commit- 
tee of five, to prepare and receive nomina- 
tions for officers, be selected and appointed 
by the Chairman ; the committee to report 
Thursday, at 10 a.m. The motion was car- 
ried, and the Chair appointed as such com- 
mittee, Messrs. Carbutt, Bowman, Baker, 
Rhoads, and Wilson. 

Mr. Tresize moved that a committee of 
three be appointed to prepare business for 
the Convention, through whom all resolu- 
tions shall be brought and properly pre- 
sented. 

Mr. Bogardus said that the Executive 
Committee would have that matter in 
charge, and would this evening arrange for 
the future sessions. 

Mr. Tresize withdrew his motion. 

The President announced that at 3 p.m. 
to-morrow he would deliver his annual ad- 
dress, and would be followed in an address 
by Dr. Hermon Vogel, of Berlin, Prussia. 

Mr. E. L. Wilson moved, that during 
the absence of the Treasurer two assistant 
treasurers be appointed, and the motion 
being carried, Messrs. Michael F. Magee 
and V. M. Wilcox were appointed. 

Mr. Bogardus stated that the books of the 
National Photographic Association would 
now be thrown open, and a recess taken so 
that the names of new members might be 
received, and those who had not paid their 
annual dues might now do so. 

A gentleman asked if it was sufficient, 
where there was a firm, for one partner to 
sign the firm name and pay the fees of an 
individual ? 

Mr. E. L. Wilson said that the Execu- 
tive Committee had always ruled that only 
one member of a firm could be a member of 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGR APHEK. 



229 



the Association by paying single dues and a 
single fee ; two persons could not come into 
the Association as one member any more 
than they could stop at a hotelfor a single 
fare. 

Adjourned to 10 p.m. Wednesday. 

Second Session. 

Wednesday, June 8th, 10 a.m. 

The Association was called to order by 
the President, Mr. Bogardus. 

On motion, the reading of tbe minutes of 
yesterday was dispensed witb. 

Mr. Henry Anthony, of New York, tben 
made bis report as Treasurer of tbe Associa- 
tion. Balance in the treasury, $572.38. 

It was moved and seconded that the re- 
port be accepted and referred to the Audit- 
ing Committee. Carried. 

Mr. Bogardus then read the following 
telegram from Mr. P. B. Jones, of Daven- 
port, Iowa: 

" To the National Photographic Con- 
vention: 

" I send you greeting from the Mississippi 
Valley, and regret that I cannot be with 
you, on account of sickness in my family. 
"P. B. Jones." 

The following letter to the Secretary, from 
Mr. Thos. H. Johnson, was then read : 

" Cleveland, June 8th, 1870. 

" Will you oblige me by extending an in- 
vitation to the Association to assemble at 
some suitable place for the purpose of hav- 
ing a group picture taken. 

" 1 would suggest forming in front of the 
monument in our public square, between 
the hours of 2 and 4 p.m , to-day or to-mor- 
row (weather permitting), if convenient to 
the Association." 

Mr. Bogardus stated that Mr. Thos. T. 
Sweeny, of Cleveland, had also extended an 
invitation to the Association to meet for the 
purpose of having a group taken. 

Mr. Wilson moved that both of the invi- 
tations be accepted, and that the time be 
fixed upon before the adjournment this 
morning. 

Mr. Webster moved, as an amendment, 
that a committee be appointed by the Chair 
to fix upon a convenient time. Carried. 



The Chair appointed as such committee, 
Messrs. Webster and Fitzgibbon. 

Mr. Wilson offered the following resolu- 
tion : 

" Resolved, That members, upon rising to 
address the Association, shall state their 
name and address before speaking." 

Mr. Wilson said that he offered this reso- 
lution for the purpose of enabling the sten- 
ographers to make an accurate report of the 
proceedings. Passed. 

The Keport of the Committee on the Be- 
lief Fund was then read. 

The chairman of the committee, Mr. W. 
Irving Adams, of New York, previous to 
reading it, said : 

I feel somewhat enthusiastic in this 
matter. I have based this plan upoia the 
relief systems of some of the most promi- 
nent New York organizations. I feel that 
if this is adopted, as it should be, that by the 
time the committee or the Trustees are 
called upon to pay any money, the fund 
will be so large that the interest will be al- 
most sufficient to cover all demands upon 
the fund. I would suggest that in the first 
blank be inserted, say five per cent., of the 
entire receipts to go to the Board of Trus- 
tees; the next blank, I would suggest, be 
filled by inserting that the widow, so long 
as she remains a widow, shall receive, say 
fifty dollars per annum ; and for children 
under ten years of age, about ten dollars a 
year. In regard to any superannuated 
member, of course that cannot take effect 
for several years, and by that time I am 
satisfied that a fund will be created suf- 
ficient to allow them from three to five 
hundred dollars per year. I would suggest 
that those blanks be filled in by the Asso- 
ciation, and the report adopted, as follows : 

New York, June 7th, 1870. 
To the Officers and Members of the Na- 
tional Photographic Association. 
Gentlemen: The undersigned, in behalf of 
the committee appointed at the last annual meet- 
ing, to consider the propriety of establishing a 
''Relief Fund," would respectfully report that 
after a considerable correspondence with mem- 
bers of the committee, they have adopted the 



230 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



accompanying plan, and respectfully submit the 
same for your consideration. 

W. Irving Adams, Chairman, ■ 
4 Beekman St., N. Y. 

J. C. Potter, Elyria, Ohio. 

G. S. Bryant, Boston. 

The President of the National Photographic 
Association, elected atthe Annual Meeting, June, 
1870, shall, within twenty-four (24) hours after 
his election, appoint or nominate, and report to 
this Association for their approval, the names of 
six (6) gentlemen (who shall be members in good 
standing) who shall be styled The Board of Trus- 
ters of the Photographic Benevolent Fund of the 
U. S. A. 

The said Board of Trustees shall be divided 
into three classes, said classes to be determined 
by lot under the supervision of the President, 
Secretary, and Treasurer of this Association. 

The first class shall hold their office one year ; 
the second class, two years ; the third class, three 
years from the date of their appointment. 

The annual election of two Trustees shall be 
held at the same time and place as the annual 
election of the officers of this Association. 

The President, Secretary, and Treasurer of the 
National Photographic Association shall be ex 
officio members of the Board of Trustees named 
above. 

The said Trustees shall have power to make 
By-Laws for their own government, and shall 
annually appoint a President, Secretary, and 
Treasurer. They shall have the entire control of 
all moneys belonging to the Benevolent Fund, 
and disburse in a manner hereinafter named. 

The Treasurer of the National Photographic 
Association shall pay annually to the Treasurer 
of the Board of Trustees, five per cent, of the 
entire receipts of the preceding year, and all 
moneys now in the hands of this Association, 
standing to the credit of the Benevolent Fund, 
shall be paid over to the Treasurer of the Board 
of Trustees, and he to invest all such moneys 
under the direction of the Board of Trustees, so 
as to be drawing interest. 

The Treasurer of the Board of Trustees shall 
give bonds for the faithful performance of his 
duties in such an amount and at such times as the 
officers of the Association shall determine. 

If a vacancy shall occur, by death, resignation, 
or otherwise, in the Board of Trustees, it shall 
be filled by that body. If more than one vacancy 
shall occur at the same time, such vacancies shall 
be filled in the same manner as provided in the 
first section of these articles. 

When the National Photographic Association 
phall have existed five years, the Trustees shall 



have power to commence making appropriations 
to beneficiaries in the following manner: 

The nearest of kin having had the care of any 
deceased associate who shall not, at the time of 
his death, be in arrears for more than one year, 
and who shall have been a member at least five 
years, shall be entitled to the sum of $50, as 
funeral expenses, and if the circumstances of the 
case require it, in the estimation of the Trustees, 
his widow (so long as she remains his widow) 
shall be entitled to receive $50 per annum, and 
for every child under ten years of age, the sum 
of $10 per annum. Any superannuated member 
of this Association who shall have been a mem- 
ber twenty-five years, and who shall have served 
in any capacity, or connected in any way with 
photography for twenty-five years, shall (if in 
the judgment of the Trustees he require it) be 
entitled to the sum of $100 per annum. 

Should any member of this Association, in 
good standing, become disabled by accident or 
otherwise, so as to prevent his attending at his 
business, he shall be entitled to receive such an 
amount as the Trustees may deem proper in the 
case, and the funds will admit of. 

The Trustees are authorized to solicit from 
photographers and stockdealers, donations to 
this fund. 

Mr. "Wilson moved that the report be ac- 
cepted, and the consideration of it laid over 
until to-morrow. Carried. 

The following letter from Samuel Holmes, 
Esq., was then read by Mr. Wilson : 

New York, June 3d, 1870. 
Mr. E. L. Wilson, 

Secrr tary Nat. Phot. Assoc. TJ. S. A. 

Dear Sir : I very much regret that circum- 
stances beyond my control will prevent my being 
at the approaching meeting at Cleveland, as I 
had hoped until within a few days. This meet- 
ing, in my judgment, should have quite a prac- 
tical character, both in its efforts for future as- 
sociation and continuance of the Society, and 
for the improvement of the art in nil its various 
branches. As I shall not be able to speak per- 
sonally to the Convention, I beg the privilege of 
saying to you by letter some things that have 
come before my mind, as measures desirable to 
be attained by it. 

First of all, it seems to me that as the Asso- 
ciation has now, as we trust, a reoognized and 
firm basis, its privileges and associative advan- 
tages should be so extended as to bring in all 
those practising and associated with Photogra- 
phy in its various relations throughout our coun- 
try generally; and in using the word " coun- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



231 



try," I would do it as meaning in the larger and 
broader sense of our "Continent," rather than 
of the present " United States." 

To this end, every possible thing should be 
done to elevate the art, to increase the power 
and usefulness of the Association, and to make 
it not only a thing worthy the attention and as- 
sistance of every one of the fraternity, but asso- 
ciation with it a felt necessity to them. This 
cannot be accomplished by mere resolutions, but 
can be by continued and active co-operation. 
The encouragement we have already seen, re- 
sulting from the labors of a few earnest men, is 
sufficient guarantee for even the most timid and 
credulous to unite their influence, their time, 
and their money with those who have so nobly 
borne the burden and heat of the day, in still 
further and increasing fields of effort. Truly, 
those who have held back during the sowing of 
the seed cannot withhold their hands in the 
reaping season, with the promise of such an 
abundant harvest. 

Second, in matters which crowd upon my 
mind as desirable to take up are, measures 
which shall more fully strengthen the art as at 
present understood, and whatever may tend to 
develop it, whether in its modes of working, 
formulas, apparatus, or materials used. In this 
direction there is great room, doubtless, for in- 
creased effort and inventive genius ; and there is 
also a continued call for the Association's so ex- 
amining into all claims that the mere charla- 
tans with their pretended improvements, who 
make their living by imposing upon the more 
credulous, shall be thoroughly discountenanced. 
Thousands and tens of thousands of dollars may 
be annually saved for the profession, by vigorous 
action on the part of the Society in this respect. 

With the view of stimulating improvement 
and invention in whatever relates to the art, I 
propose to offer, in behalf of the Scovill Manu- 
facturing Company, a gold medal, of the value 
of one hundred dollars, of appropriate design 
and workmanship, to that person, resident of 
the American Continent, who shall have been 
adjudged by a committee of competent and sci- 
entific photographers, to be appointed by the 
Society, to have made the greatest improvement 
of whatever nature applicable to the production 
of sun pictures. Said improvement or invention 
to be of acknowledged practical utility, and to 
be made during the year preceding the Conven- 
tion of 1871, to follow in subsequent years. For 
that improvement which shall have been ad- 
judged second in importance, I personally offer 
a silver medal of the value of twenty-five dollars, 
upon the same conditions as the first premium. 



Mr. Adams showed me, before leaving, the 
draft of a plan for a Benevolent or Insurance 
Fund. I am not in favor of the pensioning sys- 
tem, or of any system of benefits generally which 
shall give to all a certain sum, whether rich or 
poor, needy or otherwise, under any and all cir- 
cumstances. I think the principle is opposed to 
the free institutions of our country, and tends to 
destroy independence of thought and action and 
the responsibility of those who may thereby be- 
come recipients. But I think a well-organized 
and discriminating system of relief for special 
and worthy cases would be very useful and op- 
portune, and there are occasional instances 
where very worthy people may be greatly as- 
sisted among the photographic community. 

The matter, however, will doubtless be very 
fully discussed in Convention, and should any 
judicious plan be adopted, looking to the perma- 
nent benefit of the Society in that direction, I 
authorize you to pledge the Company which I 
represent for five hundred dollars towards its en- 
dowment, it being understood that, should the 
Society or the plan be abandoned, the donors 
may give direction to any unexpended balance 
in the interest of photography at their discretion. 

Having thus given you, perhaps, too fully of 
my own views as they have come before me, I 
leave them with you to make use of as you may 
see fit. 

More important plans may come before the 
Society, which should take precedence. If so, 
lay this communication under the table. 

I trust your meeting will be of great pleasure, 
and tend much towards creating good-fellowship, 
and great advantages to the profession generally. 

With my apology for thus intruding upon 
your time, and best wishes for the success of the 
Society, I am, 

Yours, very truly, 

Samuel Holmes. 
No. 4 Beekman Street. 

The reading of Mr. Holmes's letter was 
received with immense applause, and on 
motion of Mr. Bard well, of Detroit, the let- 
ter was accepted by the Association. 

Mr. "Wilson said : " It seems to me that a 
letter of that kind should have something 
more than a mere acceptance. I think the 
matter in relation to the medals should he 
referred to the Executive Committee, with 
power to appoint, with the assistance of the 
President, a Committee on Photographic 
Improvement and Progress, and on the 
Scovill and Holmes medals. Then I would 
suggest, in relation to the benevolent fund, 



232 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



that that also he referred to the Executive 
Committee, and afterwards by them to a 
committee that may be appointed as Mr. 
Holmes proposes." 

Mr. Bardwell moved that the letter be 
referred to a special committee, to take ac- 
tion on the different matters referred to in 
the letter of Mr. Holmes. 

Mr. Bendann, of Baltimore, offered as an 
amendment, that the letter be referred to 
the Executive Committee to take action 
upon it, and report at as early a day as 
possible. 

Mr. Bardwell accepted Mr. Bendann 's 
amendment, and the motion was carried. 

Mr. Rulofson, of San Francisco, offered a 
communication in reference to the place 
where the next Annual Convention should 
be held. 

Mr. Wilson moved that the communica- 
tion be accepted, and the reading laid over 
until such time as the discussion should 
come up upon the subject of where the next 
Annual Meeting and Exhibition should be 
held. Carried. 

Mr. Bogardus said : " During the prose- 
cution of the Shaw & Wilcox patent, the 
counsel employed by Mr. Wilson — E. Y. 
Bell, Esq., of New York — worked for us 
very hard, accomplished what he worked 
for, and what we all desired him to accom- 
plish. I am very happy to inform you that 
Mr. Bell is with us this morning, and will 
now address you." 

Mr. Bell was then introduced to the As- 
sociation by Mr. Bogardus, received with 
great applause, and spoke as follows : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen op the Na- 
tional Photographic Association: I am glad 
to see you. Aside from the personal relations 
that already exist between myself and so many 
of your body, I am happy to meet with you this 
morning on the common platform of professional 
brotherhood ; and I can say, from the depths of 
my heart, Qod apt-eil you in your noble efforts to 
enlarge the domain of your splendid art ; to make 
it the more rich, the more imposing to the tastes 
and appreciation of those who are in future 
years to see your work and to speak of the mar- 
vellous beauty of that which you have so deli- 
cately and so handsomely wrought. (Applause.) 

In coming here to Cleveland I had but two 
objects in view, the first, to see this body of 
gentlemen ; the second, to have this body of 



gentlemen see me. (Laughter and applause.) 
Before entering into the details of the case in 
which I have had the privilege of taking part, 
permit me, in your presence, to acknowledge 
the valuable services of your distinguished Sec- 
retary, Mr. E. L. Wilson, of Philadelphia. (Ap- 
plause.) Let me here say, gentlemen, that dur- 
ing the trial which has lately so successfully 
ended, had it not been for the zeal and personal 
exertions of your honored Secretary, I seriously 
believe that the result would have been other- 
wise, and that to-day your Association would 
have been under an embargo which would have 
been hard even to attempt to raise much less 
to overcome. Therefore, in dividing the honors, 
I do so cheerfully. Mr. Wilson has been really 
the power behind the scenes at the latter end of 
this trial. In one of the back numbers of his 
Journal he told you that he had been arrested 
by the complainants in this case, the Shaw & 
Wilcox Co. He was arrested, gentlemen, upon 
a charge that grew out of an unselfish and de- 
voted zeal to you as a body. He was arrested 
for publishing in his Journal, the Philadelphia 
Photographer, an article that told the world 
clearly and plainly that Shaw, the complainant 
in this suit, had no right to that to which he 
laid claim. It was for this cause that Mr. Wil- 
son was incarcerated in New York, but I am 
glad to be able to say that I came to his relief, 
and that some two hours afterwards, through 
the intervention of Messrs. Holmes, Scovill and 
Adams of the Scovill Manufacturing Company, 
he was returned to his home in Philadelphia. 
This much for Mr. Wilson in the case. 

Now as to the case itself. The Journal has 
given you some idea of the suit. It was an ac- 
tion commenced by the Shaw & Wilcox Co. 
against a photographer by the name of George 
W. Lovejoy. Mr. Lovejoy has only one arm 
and one eye, and I believe that so far as his 
worldly possessions go, he is a poor man. He 
was the victim of this Company, and doubtless 
they intended, either under a decree by default 
or by reason of the man's pecuniary weakness, 
to overcome him, and thus succeed in their extor- 
tions. The defendant, Mr. Lovejoy, fortunately 
for him, for you, and for myself, gentlemen, as 
it turns out, were brought into contact. He in- 
formed me what his situation and means were, 
and I told him that if I could only secure enough 
to cover the actual labor in preparing a bill in 
answer to his case, that I would enter upon the 
defence. Little did I think at that time how 
large an interest would bo felt in the result ; 
little did I think that I should bo the mouth- 
piece of thousands instead of the mere ropresen- 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



233 



tative of one man. But I entered upon the 
labor. That was in the month of July, 1869. 

The way in which these cases are contested is 
this : the venire in this suit was laid in the United 
States Court; after the issue is joined, the case 
comes before an examiner, who takes the testi- 
mony of the various witnesses; everything is 
taken down in writing, and is then printed in 
book form ; at the next regular term of the Court 
it is called, and from the printed book the case is 
argued. It was not until the month of March, 
1870, that the testimony was fully closed in the 
case, and it was just at this time that I came into 
contact with your Secretary. We had almost 
closed our case and needed more evidence. I 
needed more witnesses and desired to understand 
more fully the chemical details of the case. You 
could not expect a lawyer, in the space of two or 
three months, to master the scientific details of a 
profession that takes a long life of study and ob- 
servation to become perfect in. Therefore I 
needed instruction from some good expert in 
photography as well as in chemistry. That in- 
struction came from Philadelphia, and I pub- 
licly acknowledge the fact before you to-day. 
To Mr. James F. Magee, the eminent manufac- 
turer of photographic chemicals, who patiently 
instructed me in the practical details of chemical 
science applicable to the subject-matter of the 
Lovejoy suit, to Mr. George H. Fennemore, who 
gave us the freedom of his establishment in order 
to learn the practical workings of photography, 
I with pleasure openly and here give thanks, 
and acknowledge their services for you. Mr. 
Wilson asked me what was the condition of the 
case. I told him I had already incurred a debt 
of one hundred dollars, and I didn't feel like 
going on any farther with the case unless I saw 
the way clear. He then told me to " go on,'' and 
if the result was a good one, all things would be 
right. 

Taking his word for it, I went on, and, gentle- 
men, you have the history of that result before 
you to-day. As the case stood at this time, it 
reminded me of a scene in another place, and 
perhaps you will see the application. Standing 
in front of the great Church of St. Peter's, at 
Rome, and looking up to its dome, you will see 
an obelisk thirty -two feet in height, occupying its 
position high over all. Three hundred years ago 
that obelisk was placed there. A sum equal to 
$30,000 was offered to be paid to the man who 
should erect the statue in position upon that 
high place. A man stepped forward and said, 
"I will undertake the work," and from the 
Vatican had gone forth an edict, that whoever 
should speak until the work was achieved would 



do it at the peril of his life. One hundred and 
fifty thousand Romans gathered to see the great 
statue raised to its place. The crowd stood 
breathless, and, as the machinery moved down 
below, and the statue slowly moved upward, 
all at once there was a halt. The machinery 
had given out — there was something wrong ; 
the contractor was almost dumbfounded. He 
had attempted his work, and yet within fifteen 
degrees of perpendicular, he had met with an 
obstacle, and who was to remove it? That vast 
audience remembered what had been said in the 
Vatican, and not one dared speak. But, way 
back of that crowd stood an old sailor who had 
stormed the seas amid the tempests of many 
years, and he, in looking at the progress of the 
work, saw in an instant what would remove the 
difficulty. Said he to himself, "1 know it may 
be death to speak, but if I die for it, I must say 
it," and he shouted, "Wet the ropes! Wet the 
ropes!" and one hundred and fifty thousand 
voices took up theory, "Wet the ropes!" and 
the engineer applied the water to the ropes that 
had been stretched in consequence of the great 
weight, and at once they began to shrink, and 
the statue moved slowly but surely on its course, 
and soon, amid the plaudits of that vast assem- 
bly, it stood solid and secure upon its foundation. 
So it seems to me on a smaller, but just as true 
a scale, the Shaw & Wilcox case hung. 

Mr. Lovejoy had attempted to lift the shaft 
of legal success and place it high above the 
threats of the Shaw & Wilcox Co., and just as 
he had got this shaft erected within fifteen de- 
grees of perpendicular, there was something the 
matter with his machinery. He wanted help ; 
he wanted pecuniary aid, and although it had 
been said by them, that if any man dared to say 
a word they would shut him up, your young 
sailor, Mr. Wilson, stood by and shouted, "Wet 
the ropes! Wet the ropes.'" 1 (Applause.) The 
ropes were wet, and what is the result ? Why, 
that shaft to-day stands there a monument of 
success that should be engraven upon the tablet 
of every photographer's heart. 

Gentlemen, you know what this case has done 
for you ; you know what it has saved for you . 
you kuow the trouble and pecuniary burden 
which you have escaped, and upon this point I 
leave it with you. But one word regarding your 
organization. It is said that the good of all 
government lies in the purity of its organic life, 
and just in proportion as you have this purity 
of thought and action amongst you, and this 
strength of the right hand of fellowship running 
through your organization, so in proportion will 
be the success that will attend your present and 



234 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHER. 



future labors. I tell you if this is the second 
year of your life, you are a terrible infant. 
(Great applause and laughter.) And it might 
well be asked, as I was the other day, " I wonder 
who the mother of this organization is?" The 
boy shadows forth what the man is to be; hence 
to-day you are a child of promise. Truly, you are 
an organization that has done much in two years 
of life, and if you havedone so much in two years, 
what will you become during the next five or ten 
years? If your art has been brought up to such 
a high standard now, what will be its develop- 
ment in 1875? You need to be united. I saw, 
in the address of one of your officers here yester- 
day, that he counselled unity of action and unity 
of thought. All must heartily echo the senti- 
ment. Unity in your efforts to help one another ; 
unity in order to raise up and make larger and 
broader and more glorious your triumphs. The 
names of Wedgwood, Sir Humphry Davy, Tal- 
bot, Hunt, William Herschel, all add to the 
bright triumphs of the greatness and worth of 
your art. But who are to fill their places in the 
future? There are men among you whose names 
may yet stand as high as theirs ! 

One thing more before I close, and that is the 
press. You have the press on your side, and, I 
submit, when a body of gentlemen such as you 
are, has the influence of the press, your power is 
irresistible; and when that press is sound, when 
it is built upon a right principle, and has before 
it the right kind of action, you can sweep every 
obstacle in your path to success. (Applause.) 

To this end you have occasion to be grateful 
and happy for the already united feeling that 
here exists, as well as for the influence of the 
press, that engine of good, that engine of power, 
which seems to be running your Association along 
on the high road to fame. 

Mr. Bell concluded amid enthusiastic 
applause, and on motion of Mr. Knecht 
the thanks of the Association were unani- 
mously given Mr. Bell, the members rising 
to a man as they voted. 

Mr. South worth, of Boston, moved that 
Mr. E. Y. Bell be made an honorary mem- 
ber of the Association. Carried unani- 
mously. 

The Report of the Executive Committee 
was then reud by Mr. Wilson, as follows : 

To the Officers and Members of the National Pho- 
tographic Association, in session held in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, June 1th, 1870. 

GeRTLBHEH: Your Executive Committee beg 
to congratulate you on the occasion of another 



Annual Meeting, and to make the following 
report : 

While but few matters have come before them 
during the past year, those that have been pre- 
sented have been of the utmost importance to the 
profession, and have been acted upon by your 
committee with the utmost harmony and unan- 
imity. 

The renowned Bromide Patent (whose hissings 
and threatenings frightened a few of our profes- 
sion into the conception of an organization, 
which is now, as you see, grown to be "a very 
bulky baby"), and which was fought and given 
its death-blow in 1868, has twice been resusci- 
tated since then, and two appeals made to our 
National Congress for the reissue of the patent. 
In 1869, a formal petition was made to a Con- 
gressional Committee on Patents for the absolute 
extension of the patent for seven years. As con- 
stant watch was being kept over the enemy, this 
movement was discovered and opposed until the 
parties withdrew their suit, and again disgraced 
and defeated deserted the field, and your com- 
mittee again breathed free. 

On May 19th, 1870, in the Senate of the Uni-, 
ted States, a bill was presented for the rehearing 
of the petition for an extension of the patent. 
So great was the activity of the counsel in press- 
ing their suit, that your committee were forced 
to employ counsel, and Henry Howson, Esq., one 
of our efficient counsel in the first war against 
the Bromide Patent, was engaged to enter our 
plea and to prosecute our rights with the com- 
mittee aforesaid. With what success, you will 
learn by his report, which will be read at one of 
the sessions of this Association. On the result 
we heartily congratulate you, and think that the 
frightful creature is now really and truly scotched 
and killed. 

The rights of the profession have also been 
prosecuted and established in another court At 
our last Annual Meeting, the claims made by the 
Shaw & Wilcox Co. for their patent for saving 
wastes were denounced "as fraudulent, unjust, 
and unworthy of credit by the Association." 
Since then, an opportunity has been presented 
to prove the soundness of that resolution, in the 
matter of the suit of the Shaw & AVilcox Co. 
against G. W. Lovejoy ; and by aid of our effi- 
cient counsel, E. Y. Boll, Esq., of New York, 
the aforesaid resolution has been established by 
the court, and we are freed from the presump- 
tive claims of another bogus patent, and the 
claims of the Shaw A Wilcox Co. have been com- 
pletely defeated aiuLoverthrown. 

There is but one other patent now which prom- 
ises to impose upon the profession by its unjust 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



235 



and illegal claims. It has been once defeated, 
and now rests in the United States Supreme 
Court for a final decision. In our next report, 
we hope to report its final defeat, if justice 
should so determine it. 

Your committee now broach a subject which 
lias caused them considerable annoyance. Our 
Association being yet young and our funds low, 
the action of your committee has been somewhat 
retarded by want of funds. Knowing that all 
depends upon prompt action in such cases as 
those just named, they have been on the alert for 
your interests ; but when funds are called for the 
responses have been but few, and several bills 
for counsel's fees remain unpaid. We are striv- 
ing to rid you of every unjust annoyance, and 
you shall soon be free, if you will but help us 
■now. Further statements in this matter are 
given further on. We hope that the Association 
will at once relieve us from this embarrassment. 
Few, if any more such calls will ever be made, 
and this fact should encourage a prompt re- 
sponse towards cancelling our debt now. 

Our Association may now be deemed as an 
established success. The interests of the profes- 
sion at large have been advanced. Over 150 new 
members have joined our ranks during the past 
year, and everything looks promising and well. 
A better feeling prevails ; the tendency is not 
only decidedly towards better work, but the 
average work of the country is, each year, better 
and better, as our annual exhibitions witness. 

Statement. 

We present herewith bill of H. Howson, Esq., 
for services in the matter of the applications to 
Congress for a rehearing in the Bromide case, 
which we hope the Association will consider. 

We also present a statement of the way mat- 
ters stand in the Shaw & Wilcox suit, and hope 
that these debts, $1244.53 in all, will be re- 
moved. A little enthusiasm on this subject now, 
while you are together, a few dollars from each 
of you, will remove a heavy burden from your 
Association, and we feel assured that you will 
not be called upon again soon to defend your 
rights against the broad claims of any invalid 
patent. 

Once rid of such drawbacks, we believe our 
Association will grow rapidly in numbers, and be 
strong, prosperous, and do good work, towards 
the elevation of our beloved profession. 

(Walter C. North, 
J. W. Black, 
Ed. L. Wilson, Sec'y. 

Mr. Wm. B. Holmes, of New York, 
offered to be one of twenty-five to pay the 



entire amount of the debt, growing out of 
the litigations named by the Executive 
Committee, at once, so that the Association 
might start off in the New Year free from 
debt. 

Mr. Bogardus said that, while he was 
very glad to hear the offer of Mr. Holmes, 
he knew that there were many members 
who would be glad to subscribe something 
towards wiping out this debt, but who 
could not afford to pay one twenty-fifth of 
the amount. 

Mr. Holmes said that his offer would not, 
of course, preclude any one from giving 
such amount as they pleased, or as they 
could afford. 

Mr. Fitzgibbon, in behalf of the St. Louis 
Photographic Society, subscribed $25.00. 
Mr. Jex Bardwell, in behalf of the Detroit 
photographers, $25.00. Mr. H. Eocher, of 
Chicago, $25.00. Mr. L. Dubernet, of New 
York, $25.00. Mr. Albert Moore, of Phila- 
delphia, $25.00. Mr. D. Bendann, of Bal- 
timore, $25.00. 

Mr. Tresize then moved that a committee 
of six be appointed, to pass papers through 
the room for the signatures and contribu- 
tions of the gentlemen present towards 
making up the amount necessary to pay this 
debt. (Carried.) 

Papers were then circulated, and in a 
half hour $533.50 was collected. 

Mr. Bardwell moved that the Keport of 
the Executive Committee be accepted and 
adopted as read. (Carried.) 

Mr. Bogardus said : " A gentleman from 
Bangor, Maine, has just arrived; yesterday 
I had the pleasure of presenting to you 
a gentleman from California. Extremes 
meet." (Applause.) 

It was moved and seconded that Dr. 
Vogel be requested to sit at Mr. Eyder's 
gallery for an 8 by 10 picture, so that the 
members could procure copies. (Carried 
unanimously.) 

Dr. Vogel stated that he would comply 
with this request of the Association. 

The Association then adjourned to 3 p.m. 

Third Session. 
Wednesday afternoon, June 8th, 3 o'clock. 
The meeting was called to order by the 
President, Mr. Bogardus. 



236 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



The President stated that he had appointed 
as the Auditing Committee, Messrs. Cady, 
Riddle, and Sawyer. 

The Secretary made a statement in regard 
to the money expended in patent suits. 

The President then delivered his annual 
address, as follows: 

''Again the season has come for our annual 
meeting. The sun has rolled his yearly round, 
cheering us and the whole earth with his life-giv- 
ing beams, and we as photographers are doubly 
indebted for the work he has done for us with his 
light rays, making our negatives and printing 
our pictures. Again we meet to extend the hand 
of friendship and brotherhood, to note each other's 
attainments, and compare our work and see how 
much our art has advanced during the year. I 
think we may congratulate ourselves and the 
world on the rapid strides we have made since 
we met one year ago. 

" The ' shadow picture,' then a new effort, is 
now becoming almost universal, and well it may, 
for the best judges have no hesitation in pro- 
nouncing it the finest effect yet produced with 
the camera. The Albert process is yet in em- 
bryo, but great promises are made and strong 
hopes are entertained that it will yet work a com- 
plete revolution in photography. The Woodbury 
process is before you, and you can in this build- 
ing see the results* and its working. I tell you, 
gentlemen, photography has a great future. It 
is not necessary for me to speak of the fine re- 
sults of retouching the negatives ; you know how 
wonderfully the prints are improved, how much 
beautified. Science is ready to call in the aid of 
photography, as during the recent eclipse. By 
no other process known to men could the event 
have been so accurately noted, for the sun 
marked its own obscuration with accuracy most 
wonderful. 

"And now, gentlemen, from what this Conven- 
tion shows, is our Association worth keeping up? 
If it is, then let us do what we can to enlarge its 
sphere of usefulness, and let every member exert 
himself to make its influence good. If of no use, 
then let us disband, separate; what say you? 
[Cries of " No !" "No !' : J for I am in earnest in 
this matter. 'If I understand the motives of the 
officers, they are not influenced by selfish motives, 
but willingly work for the good of the fraternity. 

"Gentlemen, you come not hero to hear my 
powers of oratory ; no, rather let our eloquence 
come from the dark-room, and be written in real 
letters of light by the delicate and truthful lens 
of the camera. I see before me men of progress. 
I do not mean by this, men ready to adopt every 



visionary scheme that is offered, but men who 
have by skill, judgment, and hard work brought 
photography up to its present standard, and are 
willing to work still for its advancement. 

"We mean to make this Association so useful 
to every photographer in the land that he will, 
for hi? own good, become a member of it. We 
now have members from almost every State from 
Maine to Texas, and there are gentlemen now 
present from nearly all the States — yes, and some 
from Canada, that fair land which the Fenians 
covet. 

" Let us banish still further from us all selfish- 
ness. Let us feel that we are advancing the art 
when we assist each other. As I have said be- 
fore, there are none of us perfect — all need school- 
ing, and where can we get it better or cheaper 
than by such a general showing of our work as 
we have in the great room below. Let us try to 
excel, not undersell. [Laughter.] Let us try to 
keep clear of cliques, let there b« a change of 
officers yearly, so that this charge cannot be 
brought against us. Let us pull together, and 
remember the old adage, so often quoted, ' In 
union there is strength.' 

" One man in New York said he did not see the 
use of joining the Association and paying two 
dollars per year for nothing. Now, if he had 
been sued on the bromide or other patent, how 
soon he would have rushed to the arms of this 
Association to defend him. We have defended 
him, and every other man following the profes- 
sion. But if he or any other man thinks it is his 
two dollars we are after, we had rather he should 
stay out. We want your influence more than 
your money. This sum of yearly dues is a mere 
nothing, but will in the future prove enough to 
pay the working of our organization, and give 
us a fund to defend ourselves against wrong and 
evil. 

"There is one thing I wish to speak about. I 
hear that some gentlemen coming here have been 
delicate about hanging their work in the exhi- 
bition. This is wrong, gentlemen ; let us see 
your work, perhaps some brother will give you a 
piece of advice that may enable you to greatly 
improve your pictures. We are not going to 
laugh at your work, but help you where you fail. 

"Now, wishing you all success in the delicate 
and mystic art of photography, I close by intro- 
ducing to you Dr. Vogel, of Berlin, who has come 
across the ocean to meet us, and who I now take 
pleasure in presenting to you." 

Dr. Vogel, of Berlin, was then presented 
and received with loud applause. He spoke 
as follows : 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



237 



Mr. President and Gentlemen : Allow me, 
in due appreciation of the many kindnesses and 
cordial welcome tendered to me since setting my 
foot on American soil, to offer you my most sin- 
cere and heartfelt thanks. You have given me 
occasion, through your kindly invitation, to be- 
come acquainted with a land and a people that 
had offered millions of my countrymen a friendly 
asylum, where they can exercise their diligence 
and industrial habits without the prejudices and 
restrictions of European peoples. 

Our relations in Europe are of a peculiar and 
circumscribed nature. A certain adherence to 
the old gives to our German people a somewhat 
conservative character, which often stands in 
the way of progression. Thousands of intelli- 
gent men, who have persistently fought in vain 
against their prejudices, were compelled to turn 
their backs upon their fatherland to seek a home 
under your American flag — a land which, through 
the unlimited extension of its boundaries, through 
its great and colossal undertakings and the ac- 
tivity of its inhabitants, and through the inde- 
pendence of its institutions, calls forth the ad- 
miration of the Old World. Free from our Euro- 
pean prejudices, men and things develop them- 
selves with wonderful rapidity. 

Whilst we in Europe have for the last seventy 
years sought some means to construct a railway 
through the Alps a short distance of only one 
hundred miles, the American people have built 
a railroad linking the Atlantic with the Pacific 
Ocean. 

Again, whilst it takes some hundreds of years 
for European cities to obtain growth and com- 
mercial magnitude, large and powerful commer- 
cial centres like Cleveland, Chicago, San Fran- 
cisco, and many other fine cities are growing up 
where only seventy years ago the red man hunted 
with his bow and arrow. But the activity and 
energy of the American people is also visible in 
scientific undertakings, as has been demonstrated 
by the astronomical observations made by the 
old and new world during the late eclipses of 
1868 and 1869. 

While combined Germany and England fur- 
nished only two photographic telescopes for the 
observation of the eclipse of 1868 in India and 
Arabia, America directed some thirty photo- 
graphical instruments toward the sun, to note 
from time to time its different phases and changes, 
while the services of hundreds of your best pho- 
tographers were brought into requisition, result- 
ing in the production of many hundreds of the 
best photographs of the sun — a triumph for 
American photography and the American people. 

Yes, gentlemen, to learn this land and this 



people has been one of the most fervent and 
cherished dreams of my heart. My longing has 
been increased since my modest labors for the 
advancement of photography have brought me 
into intimate connection with my fellow-col- 
leagues of America. At last I find myself in full 
realization of this dream, through your kind in- 
vitation. I would not flatter myself into the 
belief that the hearty welcome with which I 
have met is due to my own personal merits, but 
rather that you would thereby acknowledge the 
merits of German photography in general. 

Within the last few years there has sprung up 
between us a large photographic intercourse. 
You learned to value and appreciate German 
photographs, and recommended the same as 
worthy of your imitation ; and now American 
photographs are sent to Germany, and exer- 
cise already an influence over our native art. In 
this manner photography is advanced by alter- 
nate action. 

Only thirty years have passed away since the 
light of this glorious art first began to dawn 
upon us. Nevertheless, no other invention in 
this or the last century has progressed in such a 
rapid manner, and exercised such a powerful in- 
fluence over modern art, science, and culture, as 
photography. 

A new era commenced with the invention of 
the printing press, through which the treasures 
of knowledge were multiplied and thrown open 
to the whole world. Yet the press could only 
multiply ideas, while there was wanting that 
which would fix and multiply the beautiful 
scenerys and phenomena of nature, the work of 
art and industry. This was at last accomplished 
by the invention of photography. That which 
heretofore was only reproduced by the slow and 
uncertain pencil of the artist, is now achieved 
and multiplied by photography with lightning 
rapidity and truthfulness. As the printing press 
has become a medium for the general diffusion 
of ideas, so has photography become a medium 
for the multiplication of all that the eye can 
grasp. Photography has introduced a new era 
in the world of art, as the printing press has in- 
troduced a new era in the world of science. 

In general, photography is looked upon as 
something easy to be acquired ; but, indeed, 
there is no modern art wanting more multifold 
knowledge than photography. 

First, as a result of the chemical action of 
light, there is required a thorough, practical 
knowledge of chemistry. 

Second, as a handicraft, photography requires 
skilfulness and experience. 

Third, as the product of photography is but a 



238 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



picture to please the eye as a work of art, there 
is required artistic feeling and study. 

For these reasons the progress of photography 
is due to the knowledge of chemical and optical 
principles, and a knowledge of the laws of art. 

It gives me much pleasure to see that these 
principles, also here in America, find a recog- 
nition. 

In Europe we sometimes labor under the hal- 
lucination that American photography has not 
yet arrived at a high point of perfection, because 
but few good American pictures find their way 
to our country. The actual observations, how- 
ever, which I have made during my brief sojourn 
among you, have filled me with wonder and ad- 
miration. 

He who would judge of the merits of American 
photography must in person tread upon Ameri- 
can soil. 

The photographer in your country works under 
greater and more manifold difficulties than the 
photographer in our country. Time and labor 
being of but little value in Germany, the Ger- 
man artist can finish his work at leisure, while 
you in America must make the best possible use 
of every moment, giving you less time to devote 
to your study and experimenting. Yet the art 
in America has been much advanced by your 
readiness and willingness to grasp and bring into 
practice all that is new and good, while on the 
contrary, in Germany, as the celebrated German 
Professor Liebig says, each new discovery must 
pass through three different periods before meet- 
ing with a general acknowledgment. At first it 
is proven that the new discovery is worthless 
and impracticable ; second, later it is asserted 
that it is nothing new, that a similar discovery 
was made perhaps a hundred or more years ago ; 
and it is not until the third period that the dis- 
covery is acknowledged and put into practical 
employment. Quite different is it with you. 
Whenever any new and useful discovery is made, 
the American people are the first to recognize 
the same according to its real merits or demerits, 
and for this reason I wish success and prosperity 
to American art, American science, and, above 
all, to American photography. 

Dr. Vogel's remarks were followed by 
prolonged applause, and on motion he was 
given a vote of thanks for his excellent ad- 
dress and for his letters in the Philadelphia 
Photographer. 

Professor Towler, of the Geneva College, 
New York, was then called for, and made 
the following remarks : 

Gentlemen : You have called upon me to do 



something I never did. I write a great deal, 
but never make speeches ; that is entirely out of 
my business. Sometimes I have thought I 
would make a speech, and when I went to bed 
it seemed as though an evil spirit said : " You 
must not make a speech, because you will fail. 
Everybody will laugh at you." That has been 
the case here. I was afraid everybody would 
laugh at me. (Laughter.) I dreamed you would 
laugh at me. 

[President : Dreams run contrary.] 
Gentlemen, I am happy to meet you. Pho- 
tography is not my business ; it is my hobby. I 
have had in my life a good many hobbies. Quite 
early in life I had a hobby to make steam en- 
gines. I made a steam engine in Manchester, 
N. H., at the time when the railroad was put 
through. But that wasn't permanent ; it didn't 
last long ; the engine blew up. Then I went to 
Germany. I still had steam engine on the brain, 
and I made a steam engine to make coffee. That 
didn't last very long; for one morning, when I 
was about to go out fishing, I went to make 
some coffee with steam, and the police came in. 
Remember, the police in Germany are not like 
the police in America ; they are autocrats. 
They took me before the court, and the court 
told me I must not make coffee with steam ; it 
would disturb the neighbors ; it made too much 
noise. Well, that hobby passed off. Then I 
got a hobby for printing. I got a printing press, 
and it was necessary to get something to print ■ 
consequently I took Schiller up, and translated 
some of his work and other things. Then I went 
to work and got two lithograph stones, something 
like that on which we print carbons according 
to the Woodbury process, — a plate above and a 
plate below, with the type between, — and I went 
on printing with that. Well, that hobby passed 
off. Then I invented a full system of stenog- 
raphy, which my wife said I could not read, and 
I gave that up. 

I have had a great many hobbies, as I said be- 
fore, but the final hobby, the one that now is, is 
the photographic hobby. You all know about 
that. You may- depend upon it, gentlemen, 
when I get to the other country, you will find a 
photographic impression that you will make an 
autopsis. You will find it on the print and in 
the eye. It will be the last final hobby. I shall 
go on with it to the end. I hope I shall be able, 
gentlemen, to meet you annually as long as this 
Association exists, which, I trust, will be to the 
end of my days. I thank you, gentlemen, for 
your kindness in having listened so attentively 
to my desultory remarks. (Loud and prolonged 
applause.) 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER. 



239 



A vote of thanks was given Prof. Towler 
for his speech, and for the good work he 
has done in developing the photographic 
art. 

The Secretary read a proposition from 
Mr. Youngman that the Association have 
an insignia or trade-mark, by which the 
work of members of the Association should 
be known. 

Mr. Webster proposed that a badge be 
adopted, to be worn by each person. 

Mr. Youngman stated that he had no 
idea the proposition would go so far. 

Mr. Eulofson, of San Francisco, thought 
it proper that an insignia should be adopted 
by which the work of the Association might 
be known. The proposition met with gen- 
eral approbation. 

On motion of Mr. Decker, Mr. E. L 
Wilson was appointed a committee of one 
to prepare an insignia to submit to the 
Executive Committee, and if it be approved 
to print it in the Photographer. 

Mr. Bogardus suggested as an insignia, 
a monogram of the letters " N. P. A.," 
National Photographic Association. Re- 
ceived with applause. 

On motion, Mr. Wilson was recommended 
to employ the letters " N. P. A." for the 
insignia of the Association. 

Mr. Bogardus stated that to-morrow 
morning's session would be devoted to the 
discussion of the profession, and then put 
the motion to adopt an emblem for the As- 
sociation, which was carried. 

Mr. Wilson stated that he had been re- 
quested to present the members with a copy 
of a pamphlet, entitled the " Photographic 
Menagerie," to be used in the discussion 
to-day, and the copies could be had after 
adjournment. He also read a communica- 
tion from Mr. A. E. Alden for the Messrs. 
Lambert, requesting that a committee be 
appointed to examine the photo-craj'ons in 
the Exhibition and award the medals offered 
by those gentlemen for the best ones. The 
communication was laid on the table, as 
the Association thought it did not come 
within their province to act in the matter. 

The Next Meeting. 

The question as to where the next meet- 
ing of the Association should be held came 



up, and the words Chicago, Philadelphia, 
and St. Louis, were heard from different 
parts of the room. It was moved by Mr. 
Rulofson that it be held in San Francisco. 
Secretary Wilson read a letter from a num- 
ber of photographers of that place inviting 
the members to meet there, as follows: 

To the Members of the National Photogra- 
phic Convention, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Whereas, our fellow-citizen and brother art- 
ist, W. H. Rulofson, being about to proceed to 
Cleveland, Ohio, as delegate from this State to 
the National Photographic Convention to be 
held in that city on 7th June, 1870, we, the un- 
dersigned photographers of the city of San Fran- 
cisco, embrace this opportunity to express our 
confidence in the ability of our brother artist, 
W. H. Rulofson, to faithfully and ably represent 
the interests of the photographers of California 
in said National Convention. 

Resolved, That W. H. Rulofson, the delegate 
from this State to the National Photographers' 
Convention, be and is hereby authorized to cor- 
dially invite the members of said Convention to 
hold the next National Convention in the city of 
San Francisco, and that we pledge ourselves to 
use our best ability to render the visit of such 
members as shall attend the Convention in this 
city pleasant and instructive to them, and bene- 
ficial to our great and progressive art. 

Silas Selleck, B. F. Howland & Co., 

G. D. Morse, Wm. Shew, 

Jacob Shew, Bayley & Winter, 

C. L. Cramer, Edouart & Cobb, 

H. W. Vaughan. 
San Francisco, Cau, May 27, 1870. 

Mr. Rulofson made some remarks on the 
question, speaking of the desire of his 
friends in San Francisco to have the Asso- 
ciation meet in his city, and spoke of the 
facilities there offered. He referred to other 
conventions which had been held in Cali- 
fornia, where he thought there were attrac- 
tions for all the lovers of art. Half-price 
fare, he said, had been offered by all the 
railroads, and some had agreed to bring 
back exhibitors free. 

Mr. Elliot, of Indianapolis, proposed his 
city, and invited members to meet him 
there. 

Mr. Wilson had thought " we were too 
young a baby to stand such a long voyage," 
but the inducements of Mr. Rulofson were 



240 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



such that he felt an inclination towards 
San Francisco. 

Mr. Hesler, of Chicago, proposed his city, 
"as it was the huh of the country." He 
spoke at length in behalf of his home. 

Mr. Fitzgibbon, one of the oldest photog- 
raphers of the country, proposed St. Louis, 
not thinking it a hub, but still believing it 
a solid city. 

Mr. Adams moved that after a full ex- 
pression of sentiment had been heard on the 
subject, it be referred to a special committee 
of three, to report to the Association to-day. 

Mr. Bendann, of Baltimore, moved the 
committee consist of nine from different sec- 
tions of the country. (Carried.) 

The following gentlemen were appointed 
the committee: Bendann, of Baltimore ; El- 
liot, of Indianopolis; Fitzgibbon, of St. 
Louis ; Bogardus, of New York ; Webster, 
of Louisville, Kulofson, of San Fran- 
cisco; Hesler, of Chicago; Cady, of Cin- 
cinnati ; Wilson, of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Bendann was declared chairman of 
the committee. 

The Committee on Group reported it had 
been decided to have the photograph of the 
Association taken before the Perry Monu- 
ment in the public square, at 2£ p.m. to- 
morrow. 

Adjourned to 10 p.m., to-morrow. 

Fourth Session. 

Thursday, June 9th, 10 a.m. 
The Association was called to order by 
Mr. W. £ Bowman, Vice-President, and 
the Secretary called the roll. 

Mr. John K. demons, offered the follow- 
ing resolution : 

Resolved, That the Secretary and Executive 
Committee are hereby authorized to have printed 
in cheap pamphlet form the Constitution and 
By-Laws and the names of all the members of 
the Association, and send a copy of the same to 
each meniber. 

After considerable discussion the resolu- 
tion was passed. 

Mr. Bogardus stated that the contribu- 
tions made yesterday towards the payment 
of the debt amounted to $533.50, and upon 
motion the list was again circulated among 
the members. 

While this was being done the Secretary 



read two letters — one from Wilson, Hood 
& Co. of Philadelphia, and another from 
A. S. Bobbins, as below. 

Philadelphia, June 4th, 1870. 
A. Bogardus, Esq., 

President National Photographic Association. 

Dear Sir : As members of the Association we 
propose the following: Should the proposed Be- 
lief Fund be established in connection with the 
Association, we beg you to accept from us for the 
same the sum of $250, subject to the draft of the 
treasurer of the Trustees you may appoint. 

Should the matter fail, this sum or any part 
thereof not used, to revert to us, or rather to our 
direction, for the benefit of the Association, as 
we may dispose. 

With best wishes for your success and har- 
mony, we are 

Truly yours, 

For Wilson, Hood & Co., 
John G. Hood, 
Edward L. Wilson, 
W. D. H. Wilson. 
822 Arch Street, Philadelphia. 

Cleveland, June 8th, 1870. 
To the President and Members 

National Photographic Association. 
Gentlemen : I am conscious of the honor you 
have done us in our city, and I am sure it has 
been a great pleasure to us to have you here. 
Your principles and objects are most commenda- 
ble, and your Belief Fund is specially a fine idea, 
I think, promising to do much good. I there- 
fore ask your acceptance for that fund, of $100. 
subject to the order of the treasurer of that 
Fund. Truly yours, 

A. S. Bobbins. 

On motion the letters were accepted and 
the thanks of the Association tendered to 
the writers. 

The Secretary then read the resignation 
of Mr. H. T. Anthony of the office of 
Treasurer. 

On motion Mr. Anthony's resignation 
was accepted. 

Mr. Cady, of Cincinnati, reported, on 
behalf of the Auditing Committee, that the 
accounts and papers of the Treasurer had 
been examined and found correct. 

On motion the report was received and 
adopted and the committee discharged. 

Mr. Carbutt, of Chicago, as Chairman of 



THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGEAPHEE. 



241 



the Co